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Artikel

Access_open Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part II: The Purposes of Including Legal Philosophy

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2022
Trefwoorden legal philosophy, research methods, interdisciplinary research, conceptual analysis
Auteurs Sanne Taekema en Wibren van der Burg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many doctrinal legal research questions require making use of other academic disciplines or perspectives. This article explains the relevance of legal philosophy for doctrinal research projects. Often legal research questions have conceptual or evaluative dimensions that presuppose philosophical understanding. For research on the concept of democracy, the function of constitutional rights, or the possible introduction of a referendum in the Netherlands, questions of a philosophical nature need to be answered. Legal philosophy can supplement and enrich doctrinal research in various ways. In this article, we present seven purposes that legal philosophy may serve in the context of a doctrinal research project: conceptual clarification, exposition and reconstruction of fundamental normative principles and values, theory building, providing creative perspectives, structural critiques, evaluation, and recommendations. For each objective, we illustrate how to use relevant philosophical methods. Thus, this article complements our earlier publication ‘Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part I: Introducing Three Philosophical Methods’.1x http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.

Noten

  • * This text has been presented to classes at the University of Zagreb, Queen Mary University of London and Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam; we profited from the feedback of our students. We also want to thank Irma Bluijs, Machteld Geuskens, Tamar de Waal and the reviewers for their helpful comments on previous versions of this article, and Jacqueline Brand and Robert Poll for providing research assistance.
  • 1 http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.


Sanne Taekema
Prof. mr. dr. Sanne Taekema is Professor of Jurisprudence, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.

Wibren van der Burg
Prof. dr. mr. Wibren van der Burg, is Professor of Legal Philosophy, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.

    In recent years, big data technology has revolutionised many domains, including policing. There is a lack of research, however, exploring which applications are used by the police, and the potential benefits of big data analytics for policing. Instead, literature about big data and policing predominantly focuses on predictive policing and its associated risks. The present paper provides new insights into the police’s current use of big data and algorithmic applications. We provide an up-to-date overview of the various applications of big data by the National Police in the Netherlands. We distinguish three areas: uniformed police work, criminal investigation, and intelligence. We then discuss two positive effects of big data and algorithmic applications for the police organization: accelerated learning and the formation of a single police organization.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg is bijzonder hoogleraar Digital Surveillance aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en universitair docent aan Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Melvin Soudijn
Melvin Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid Nationale Politie en research fellow bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Access_open Experimental Regulations and Regulatory ­Sandboxes – Law Without Order?

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordás & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, december 2021
Trefwoorden experimental regulations, regulatory sandboxes, methodology, regulatory quality
Auteurs Sofia Ranchordás
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the key methodological shortcomings of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes. I argue that the poor design and implementation of these experimental legal regimes have both methodological and legal implications. The deficient design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes can have three adverse effects: First, the internal validity of experimental legal regimes is limited because it is unclear whether the verified results are the direct result of the experimental intervention or other circumstances. The limited external validity of experimental legal regimes impedes the generalizability of the experiment. Second, experimental legal regimes that are not scientifically sound make a limited contribution to the advancement of evidence-based lawmaking and the rationalization of regulation. Third, methodological deficiencies may result in the violation of legal principles which require that experimental regulations follow objective, transparent, and predictable standards. I contribute to existing comparative public law and law and methods literature with an interdisciplinary framework which can help improve the design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes. I draw on social science literature on the methods of field experiments to offer novel methodological insights for a more transparent and objective design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes.


Sofia Ranchordás
Sofia Ranchordás is Full Professor of EU and Comparative Public Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands & Associate Professor of Public Law, Innovation, and Sustainability at the Faculty of Law, LUISS Guido Carli, Italy.
Redactioneel

Access_open Solidarity and COVID-19: An Introduction

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Auteurs Wouter Veraart, Lukas van den Berge en Antony Duff
Auteursinformatie

Wouter Veraart
Wouter Veraart is Professor of Legal Philosophy at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Lukas van den Berge
Lukas van den Berge is Assistant Professor of Legal Theory at Utrecht University.

Antony Duff
Antony Duff is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Stirling and Emeritus Professor of Law at the University of Minnesota.
Artikel

Access_open Solidarity, Religious Freedom and COVID-19

The Case of the Ultra-Orthodox Sects in Israel

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Social solidarity, COVID-19, Religious freedom, Cultural defence, Ultra-Orthodox sects in Israel
Auteurs Miriam Gur-Arye en Sharon Shakargy
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses the tension between social solidarity and religious freedom as demonstrated by the refusal of the ultra-Orthodox sects in Israel to comply with COVID-19 regulations. The article provides a detailed description of the refusal to comply with the regulations restricting mass prayer services in synagogues and studying Torah in the yeshivas, thus interfering with the ultra-Orthodox religious life. The article suggests possible explanations for that refusal, based on either religious beliefs or a socio-political claim to autonomy, and discusses whether the polity should be willing to tolerate such a refusal on the basis of the cultural defence. The article concludes that despite the drastic restrictions on religious life caused by the social distancing regulations, and the special importance of freedom of religion, reducing the pandemic’s spread called for awarding priority to solidarity over religious freedom, and the enforcement of social solidarity legal duties – the social distancing regulations – on all.


Miriam Gur-Arye
Miriam Gur-Arye is the Judge Basil Wunsh Professor of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Sharon Shakargy
Sharon Shakargy is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Artikel

Access_open Living with Others in Pandemics

The State’s Duty to Protect, Individual Responsibility and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, The state’s duty to protect, Duty to rescue, Responsibility, Solidarity
Auteurs Konstantinos A Papageorgiou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses a range of important normative questions raised by anti-COVID-19 measures and policies. Do governments have the right to impose such severe restrictions on individual freedom and furthermore do citizens have obligations vis-à-vis the state, others and themselves to accept such restrictions? I will argue that a democratic state may legitimately enforce publicly discussed, properly enacted and constitutionally tested laws and policies in order to protect its citizens from risks to life and limb. Even so, there is a natural limit, factual and normative, to what the state or a government can do in this respect. Citizens will also need to take it upon themselves not to harm and to protect others and in the context of a pandemic this means that endorsement of restrictions or other mandatory measures, notably vaccination, is not to be seen as a matter of personal preference concerning the supposedly inviolable sovereignty of one’s own body.


Konstantinos A Papageorgiou
Konstantinos A Papageorgiou is Professor of the Philosophy of Law at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Law.
Artikel

Access_open What Solidarity?

A Look Behind the Veil of Solidarity in ‘Corona Times’ Contractual Relations

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Mechanical solidarity, Organic solidarity, Contract, Good faith, Punishment
Auteurs Candida Leone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article uses three prominent examples from the Dutch context to problematize the relationship between contractual and social solidarity during the coronavirus crisis. The social science ideal types of ‘mechanical’ and ‘organic’ solidarity, and their typified correspondence with legal modes of punishment and compensation, are used to illuminate the way in which solidarity language in private relationships can convey and normalize assumptions about the public interest and economic order.


Candida Leone
Candida Leone is Assistant Professor at the, Amsterdam Centre for Transformative Private Law.
Artikel

Access_open Suffering from Vulnerability

On the Relation Between Law, Contingency and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Vulnerability, Contingency, Freedom and Anxiety, Solidarity, Legal concept of inclusion
Auteurs Benno Zabel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 crisis has produced or amplified disruptive processes in societies. This article wants to argue for the fact that we understand the meaning of the COVID-19 crisis only if we relate it to the fundamental vulnerability of modern life and the awareness of vulnerability of whole societies. Vulnerability in modernity are expressions of a reality of freedom that is to some extent considered contingent and therefore unsecured. It is true that law is understood today as the protective power of freedom. The thesis of the article, however, boils down to the fact that the COVID-19 crisis has resulted in a new way of thinking about the protection of freedom. This also means that the principle of solidarity must be assigned a new social role. Individual and societal vulnerability refer thereafter to an interconnectedness, dependency, and a future perspective of freedom margins that, in addition to the moral one, can also indicate a need for legal protection. In this respect, law has not only a function of delimitation, but also one of inclusion.


Benno Zabel
Benno Zabel is Professor of Criminal Law and Philosophy of Law at the University of Bonn.
Artikel

Access_open Sick and Blamed

Criminal Law in the Chilean Response to COVID-19

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, Punishment, Legitimacy, Inequality, COVID-19
Auteurs Rocío Lorca
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Chilean government called upon ideas of social solidarity to fight the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 and it relied heavily on the criminal law in order to secure compliance with sanitary restrictions. However, because restrictions and prosecutorial policy did not take into account social background and people’s ability to comply with the law, prosecutions soon created groups of people who were being both over-exposed to disease and death, and over-exposed to control, blame and punishment. The configuration of this overpoliced and underprotected group became so visibly unjust that appealing to social solidarity to justify the criminal enforcement of sanitary restrictions became almost insulting. This forced the Fiscal Nacional to develop a ‘socially sensitive’ prosecutorial strategy, something that we have not often seen despite Chile’s inequalities. The changes in policy by the Fiscal Nacional suggest that perhaps, at times, penal institutions can be made accountable for acting in ways that create estrangement rather than cohesion.


Rocío Lorca
Rocío Lorca is Assistant Professor at Universidad de Chile’s School of Law.
Artikel

Dismissal protection in Denmark

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden protection against dismissal, flexicurity, industrial relations, social security, dynamic and adjustable labour market
Auteurs mr. dr. Natalie Munkholm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article gives an overview of the protection against dismissal according to Danish statutory acts and collective agreements.


mr. dr. Natalie Munkholm
Natalie Munkholm is werkzaam als associate professor Labour Law aan de Aarhus Universiteit, Denemarken.
Artikel

Hoe zet je contractuele verplichtingen door naar subleveranciers bij een uitbesteding?

Een overzicht van de juridische (on)mogelijkheden en enkele praktische aandachtspunten

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 10 2021
Trefwoorden derdenbeding, kettingbeding, outsourcing, EBA Guidelines, onderaannemer
Auteurs Mr. W. van Angeren en Mr. E.C. Hangelbroek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Uitbesteders hebben wettelijke verplichtingen waaraan zij alleen kunnen voldoen als subleveranciers daar ook aan gebonden worden, terwijl de onderhandelingsruimte van uitbesteders in dit opzicht beperkt is. Op basis van praktijkervaringen bespreekt dit artikel de (on)mogelijkheden van het ‘doorzetten’ van verplichtingen naar subleveranciers middels derden- en kettingbedingen, en aandachtspunten daarbij.


Mr. W. van Angeren
Mr. W. van Angeren is advocaat bij Brinkhof Advocaten te Amsterdam.

Mr. E.C. Hangelbroek
Mr. E.C. Hangelbroek is advocaat bij Brinkhof Advocaten te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Maten van openbare orde

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 10 2021
Trefwoorden openbare orde
Auteurs Mr. drs. B.T.M. van der Wiel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het privaatrechtelijke begrip ‘openbare orde’ wordt in de heersende leer geduid als ‘contextgebonden’ en dus meerduidig begrip. Bovendien wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen de nationale en internationale openbare orde. In deze bijdrage wordt een uniforme benadering van het openbareordebegrip verdedigd.


Mr. drs. B.T.M. van der Wiel
Mr. drs. B.T.M. van der Wiel is advocaat bij Houthoff te Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open The Role of the Vienna Rules in the Interpretation of the ECHR

A Normative Basis or a Source of Inspiration?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, techniques of interpretation, the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Auteurs Eszter Polgári
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The interpretive techniques applied by the European Court of Human Rights are instrumental in filling the vaguely formulated rights-provisions with progressive content, and their use provoked widespread criticism. The article argues that despite the scarcity of explicit references to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, all the ECtHR’s methods and doctrines of interpretation have basis in the VCLT, and the ECtHR has not developed a competing framework. The Vienna rules are flexible enough to accommodate the interpretive rules developed in the ECHR jurisprudence, although effectiveness and evolutive interpretation is favoured – due to the unique nature of Convention – over the more traditional means of interpretation, such as textualism. Applying the VCLT as a normative framework offers unique ways of reconceptualising some of the much-contested means of interpretation in order to increase the legitimacy of the ECtHR.


Eszter Polgári
Eszter Polgári, PhD, is assistant professor at the Department of Legal Studies of the Central European University in Austria.

    Ryanair and Crewlink have finally been found in violation of Belgian mandatory provisions following the ruling of the ECJ in cases C-168/16 and C-169/16 (Nogueira and Others) and ordered to pay certain amounts to the employees involved by virtue of Belgian mandatory provisions. Yet, this trade union victory has a bitter taste for those employees, who were refused their main claim, i.e. to be paid normal remuneration for on-call time at the airport.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an Attorney at Van Olmen & Wynant.
Artikel

De opsporing en vervolging van seksueel geweld door de jaren heen vanuit een genderperspectief

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 5 2021
Trefwoorden Gender en strafrecht, Seksueel geweld tegen vrouw, Genderdiscriminatie, Gelijke behandeling, Feminisme
Auteurs Dr. K.M. (Kelly) Pitcher en mr. dr. M. (Mojan) Samadi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De vanzelfsprekendheid waarmee in huidige internationale instrumenten en zelfs nationale parlementaire stukken geweld tegen vrouwen wordt gekoppeld aan emancipatiebeleid en patriarchale machtsverhoudingen, verhult dat achter dit besef een jarenlange maatschappelijke, politieke en juridische strijd schuilgaat. Deze bijdrage brengt de ontwikkeling van de opsporing en vervolging van seksueel geweld tegen vrouwen in kaart en reflecteert op de onderliggende redenen die ten grondslag liggen aan de knelpunten die hierbij spelen.


Dr. K.M. (Kelly) Pitcher
Kelly Pitcher is universitair docent straf- en strafprocesrecht bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

mr. dr. M. (Mojan) Samadi
Mojan Samadi is universitair docent straf(proces)recht bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en tevens redactiesecretaris bij Boom Strafblad.
Artikel

Misleiding tijdens de coronapandemie

Over nepnieuws, complotdenken en maatschappelijke ontvankelijkheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden disinformation, conspiracy activism, social receptivity, law enforcement, security
Auteurs Peter Klerks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the corona period, phenomena such as disinformation and conspiracy activism have taken on a greater and more disturbing significance. This article provides a first problem picture of current manifestations in the broader social context and offers tentative explanations. It looks in turn at who makes and distributes the fake news, what role conspiracy activism plays in this, what is known about social receptivity, and what the implications are for law enforcement and security. Finally, an action perspective is presented.


Peter Klerks
Dr. P.P.H.M. Klerks is raadadviseur bij het Parket-Generaal van het Openbaar Ministerie en docent aan de Politieacademie. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Peer-reviewed artikel

Privaat toezicht als onderdeel van publiek toezicht

Een vergelijking tussen de voedselsector en de bouw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden bouwtoezicht, privaat toezicht, voedselveiligheid, publiek-private samenwerking, Toezicht
Auteurs Annalies Outhuijse en Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Combinaties van publiek en privaat toezicht zijn niet weg te denken uit onze huidige maatschappij. In deze bijdrage vergelijken we de manier waarop privaat en publiek toezicht worden gecombineerd in twee sectoren, namelijk toezicht op voedselveiligheid en toezicht op veilige nieuwbouw. Na een uiteenzetting van de samenwerkingsarrangementen wordt ingegaan op de sterke en zwakke kanten van de gemaakte keuzes. Daarbij staat in het bijzonder één criterium centraal: betrouwbaarheid. Kan de overheid vertrouwen op toezicht en controle door private partijen? Zijn de private partijen in staat en bereid om effectief toezicht op voedselveiligheid en bouwkwaliteit uit te oefenen en welke factoren uit het samenwerkingsarrangement hebben hier invloed op? Naast de constatering dat private toezichthouders een toegevoegde waarde kunnen bieden aan de stelsels van toezicht, wijzen we op enkele potentiële risico’s die we in praktijk van bouw- en voedseltoezicht hebben geïdentificeerd: onvoldoende onafhankelijkheid en belangenverstrengeling, beperkte intrinsieke motivatie, kans op papieren werkelijkheid en onvoldoende corrigerende werking van het publieke toezicht.


Annalies Outhuijse
Mr. dr. A. Outhuijse is advocaat bij Stibbe binnen de praktijkgroep bestuursrecht. Eerder heeft zij een proefschrift geschreven op het gebied van het mededingingstoezicht bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Tetty Havinga
Dr. ir. T. Havinga is rechtssocioloog en als fellow verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Digital investigation powers and privacy

Recent ECtHR case law and implications for the modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden Right to respect for private life, European Court of Human Rights, Digital investigation powers, Modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure, Regulation
Auteurs Prof. mr. M.F.H. (Marianne) Hirsch Ballin en Dr. mr. M. (Maša) Galič
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the Modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure, certain digital investigation powers will for the first time be given a specific statutory basis, such as the search of data carriers, open-source investigation and network searches. Nevertheless, considering the high degree of intrusiveness of such techniques, particularly with the right to privacy, it remains important to take note of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, which continues to set minimum safeguards for the interference with private life. In this paper, we therefore conduct a brief overview of recent ECtHR case law concerning five types of digital investigation powers. We then consider the implications of this case law for the regulation of such powers in the draft Code of Criminal Procedure and for the Modernisation process more broadly.


Prof. mr. M.F.H. (Marianne) Hirsch Ballin
Marianne Hirsch Ballin is professor of Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Vrije Univeristeit Amsterdam and member of the editorial board of this journal.

Dr. mr. M. (Maša) Galič
Maša Galič is assistant professor Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Trending Topics

Cybersecurity en ‘datagedreven’ opsporing: stand van zaken met betrekking tot de interceptie van versleutelde cryptocommunicatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 5 2021
Trefwoorden cybercrime, encryptie, internationale samenwerking, datagedreven opsporingsonderzoek, interceptie
Auteurs Mr. J.S. Boeser
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Er is op dit moment veel te doen op het gebied van cybercrime en cybersecurity. Cyberaanvallen vormen een toenemende dreiging voor onze samenleving. Ook encryptie (de versleuteling van communicatie) levert de nodige uitdagingen op voor opsporingsdiensten. In een digitaliserende samenleving worden ‘datagedreven opsporing’ en digitaal bewijs steeds belangrijker. Tegelijkertijd roept dergelijk opsporingsonderzoek eveneens principiële vragen op, met name in het licht van de positie van de verdediging. In deze Trending Topics staat een typerend voorbeeld van ‘datagedreven’ onderzoek centraal, waar de afgelopen tijd veel om te doen is (geweest): de interceptie van versleutelde ‘cryptocommunicatie’. Reden voor een overzicht van de stand van zaken.


Mr. J.S. Boeser
Mr. J.S. Boeser is advocaat bij Van Doorne N.V. in Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Text-mining for Lawyers: How Machine Learning Techniques Can Advance our Understanding of Legal Discourse

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden text mining, machine learning, law, natural language processing
Auteurs Arthur Dyevre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many questions facing legal scholars and practitioners can be answered only by analysing and interrogating large collections of legal documents: statutes, treaties, judicial decisions and law review articles. I survey a range of novel techniques in machine learning and natural language processing – including topic modelling, word embeddings and transfer learning – that can be applied to the large-scale investigation of legal texts


Arthur Dyevre
Arthur Dyevre is Professor at the KU Leuven Centre for Empirical Jurisprudence, Leuven, Belgium. arthur.dyevre@kuleuven.be.
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