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Artikel

Kroniek Privacyrecht 2021

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 3 2022
Auteurs Christiaan Alberdingk Thijm, Vita Zwaan, Marieke Berghuis e.a.

Christiaan Alberdingk Thijm

Vita Zwaan

Marieke Berghuis

Silvia van Schaik

Caroline de Vries

Jacob van de Velde

Sarah Stapel
Artikel

Politie en de COVID-19-pandemie in België: impact op het politiewerk, de interne relaties en politie-burgerinteracties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden COVID-19 regulations, crisis, procedural justice, police legitimacy, self-legitimacy
Auteurs Yinthe Feys
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author reflects on the impact of COVID-19 on policing, the relations among police officers and the interactions between police and citizens based on systematic social observations in small to semi-sized local police forces during the pandemic. The article discusses the nature of police work during the crisis and new types of interventions that police officers are confronted with (e.g. curfew controls). Additionally, the impact of the pandemic on the internal and external relations is discussed. Internally, the COVID-19 measures may have an impact on police officers’ possibilities for personal, social interactions among colleagues, which may potentially challenge the solidarity within the police force. Externally, tensions may arise in relations with citizens, partly because of unclear regulations or variable interpretations of those regulations. Those unclear regulations, but also uncertainties concerning one’s own competences and questions regarding the police’s role in enforcing the pandemic regulations, put pressure on the police’s (self-)legitimacy.


Yinthe Feys
Dra. Y. Feys is doctoraatsonderzoeker bij het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

De politie en burger in beeld? Een internationale scoping review naar het beleid inzake bodycamgebruik met aanbevelingen voor politiediensten in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden bodycam regulations, police discretion, procedural justice, trust in the police, activation policy
Auteurs Thibaut Decombel, Yinthe Feys, Anse Stevens e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on a scoping review regarding international policy recommendations, the authors of this article explore the most important aspects concerning bodycam policies for police services. Even though most literature on the shortlist is situated in the United States, important issues are discussed for a Belgian bodycam policy. Examples are a clear activation policy and regulations regarding warnings. These recommendations are compared to the legal regulations on bodycams in Belgium, such as the individual discretion Belgian police officers have when activating the camera. Throughout the article, the use of bodycams is linked to procedural justice. Because of the scarcity of Belgian bodycam research, we also give some recommendations for further research on this topic.


Thibaut Decombel
MSc. T. Decombel is master in de criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent.

Yinthe Feys
Dra. Y. Feys is doctoraatsonderzoeker bij het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, Universiteit Gent.

Anse Stevens
Dra. A. Stevens is assistent en doctoraatsonderzoeker bij het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, Universiteit Gent.

Antoinette Verhage
Prof. dr. A. Verhage is hoofddocent aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht en lid van het IRCP (Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy), Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Het negatief narratief van het Nederlands executierecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden beslagrecht, schuldeiser, schuldproblematiek, tenuitvoerlegging, informatieplicht
Auteurs Gijs Molkenboer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De tenuitvoerlegging van de rechterlijke uitspraak vormt het sluitstuk van de procedure. In dit artikel wordt betoogd dat daarmee onderbelicht blijft dat het executierecht het fundament onder het procesrecht vormt. Het executierecht wordt in Nederland beschouwd als noodzakelijk alternatief voor eigenrichting – niet als een volwaardig recht dat de staat moet verlenen aan procespartijen. Maatschappelijke (schuld)problemen openbaren zich deels in het executierecht. De wetgever vermoedt een disbalans tussen schuldeisers en schuldenaren, neemt zonder meer aan dat deze in het executierecht kan worden rechtgezet en grijpt, zonder kwantitatieve en kwalitatieve onderbouwing, in.


Gijs Molkenboer
Mr. dr. G.J.P. Molkenboer is advocaat bij Lauxtermann Advocaten te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part II: The Purposes of Including Legal Philosophy

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2022
Trefwoorden legal philosophy, research methods, interdisciplinary research, conceptual analysis
Auteurs Sanne Taekema en Wibren van der Burg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many doctrinal legal research questions require making use of other academic disciplines or perspectives. This article explains the relevance of legal philosophy for doctrinal research projects. Often legal research questions have conceptual or evaluative dimensions that presuppose philosophical understanding. For research on the concept of democracy, the function of constitutional rights, or the possible introduction of a referendum in the Netherlands, questions of a philosophical nature need to be answered. Legal philosophy can supplement and enrich doctrinal research in various ways. In this article, we present seven purposes that legal philosophy may serve in the context of a doctrinal research project: conceptual clarification, exposition and reconstruction of fundamental normative principles and values, theory building, providing creative perspectives, structural critiques, evaluation, and recommendations. For each objective, we illustrate how to use relevant philosophical methods. Thus, this article complements our earlier publication ‘Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part I: Introducing Three Philosophical Methods’.1x http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.

Noten

  • * This text has been presented to classes at the University of Zagreb, Queen Mary University of London and Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam; we profited from the feedback of our students. We also want to thank Irma Bluijs, Machteld Geuskens, Tamar de Waal and the reviewers for their helpful comments on previous versions of this article, and Jacqueline Brand and Robert Poll for providing research assistance.
  • 1 http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.


Sanne Taekema
Prof. mr. dr. Sanne Taekema is Professor of Jurisprudence, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.

Wibren van der Burg
Prof. dr. mr. Wibren van der Burg, is Professor of Legal Philosophy, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Artikel

Sleuteldrager of sleutelfiguur?

De rol van penitentiaire beambten in een digitale gevangeniscontext

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden Street-level bureaucracy, Prison officer, Digitalisation, Discretion, Prisoner’s rights
Auteurs Jana Robberechts en Kristel Beyens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While research has increasingly focused on the role of digitalisation in prisoners’ detention experiences, the impact of the digitalisation of the prison regime on the discretionary power of prison officers has been understudied. By using an ethnographic approach in one digital Belgian prison, qualitative interview data are used to investigate the prison officer’s coping strategies in response to the digitalisation of prison life. It is found that the gatekeeping role of prison officer’s has been partly stripped away but also that the impact of digitalisation on the prison officer’s discretionary power depends on how digital technologies are implemented. Moreover, the study reveals that not all official goals regarding the digitalisation are met and highlights the need of supporting prison officers when implementing new technologies in prison.


Jana Robberechts
Jana Robberechts is doctoraal onderzoeker aan de vakgroep criminologie, onderzoeksgroep Crime & Society (CRiS) van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Haar onderzoek richt zich op digitalisering in de gevangenis, de opleiding en het werk van penitentiair personeel.

Kristel Beyens
Kristel Beyens is hoogleraar aan de vakgroep criminologie, onderzoeksgroep Crime & Society (CRiS) van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel, waar ze onderwijs verzorgt in de penologie en onderzoek doet naar beslissingsprocessen en praktijken in de strafuitvoering. Ze focust hierbij o.a. op digitalisering van de bestraffing in de gevangenis en de gemeenschapsgerichte straffen.
Artikel

Kanttekeningen bij een instrumentele waar­dering van procedurele rechtvaardigheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden Procedural justice, Empirical-legal research, Fact-value distinction, Consequentialism, Deontology
Auteurs Vincent Geeraets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Procedural justice has been at the forefront of empirical legal research in the Netherlands in past years. One of the major goals of this research is to find out what the effects are of the perception of procedural justice. In this article, I argue that the notion of procedural justice is deontological in nature. It has an intrinsic value, which means that it cannot be weighed against other interests. This is recognized in law: people have a right to a fair trial. However, since in social scientific research the focus is on the effects of procedural justice, researchers treat this concept (also) as a consequentialist notion. It is thought of as a means which can serve some useful end. My aim is to assess whether this way of valuing procedural justice can be considered acceptable. An important upshot of my discussion is that conducting research into procedural justice implies a normative stance. Finally, I suggest ways in which an all too instrumental approach to procedural justice can be avoided.


Vincent Geeraets
Vincent Geeraets is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Rechtstheorie en rechtsgeschiedenis van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Hij is gepromoveerd in de rechtsfilosofie en houdt zich onder andere bezig met het thema feiten en normen in empirisch-juridisch onderzoek.
Discussie, Nieuws en Analyse

Procedurele rechtvaardigheid bij de politierechter: empirisch-juridisch inzicht in het belang van een als eerlijk ervaren behandeling

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 6 2021
Trefwoorden Procedurele rechtvaardigheid, politierechterzittingen, Empirisch-juridisch onderzoek
Auteurs Mr. dr. L. (Lisa) Ansems, Prof. dr. C. (Kees) van den Bos en Prof. mr. dr. E. (Elaine) Mak
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van enkele recent uitgevoerde kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve empirische studies waarin het belang van ervaren procedurele rechtvaardigheid op een kritische manier wordt getoetst. Dit gebeurt onder meer door na te gaan of ervaren procedurele rechtvaardigheid ertoe doet bij politierechterzittingen, waarin voor verdachten veel op het spel kan staan. Daartoe zijn drie empirisch-juridische deelstudies uitgevoerd: (1) kwalitatieve interviews met 100 verdachten in politierechterzaken, (2) een vragenlijstonderzoek onder 198 verdachten in politierechterzaken en (3) een experiment onder 239 burgers die zich inleefden in de positie van de verdachte tijdens een politierechterzitting.
    In dit artikel gaan we nader in op de achtergronden van deze studies, beschrijven we de manier waarop de studies zijn opgezet en uitgevoerd, en bespreken we de bevindingen op hoofdlijnen. Door de verschillende deelstudies met elk hun eigen methode in onderlinge samenhang te bespreken, en door te reflecteren op de vraag hoe de empirische onderzoeksbevindingen zich verhouden tot het normatieve domein van het recht, beoogt dit artikel een bijdrage te leveren aan de ontwikkeling en maatschappelijke impact van empirisch-juridisch onderzoek in zowel de Nederlandse strafrechtcontext als daarbuiten.


Mr. dr. L. (Lisa) Ansems
Lisa Ansems is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. C. (Kees) van den Bos
Kees van den Bos is hoogleraar Sociale Psychologie en hoogleraar Empirische Rechtswetenschap aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. mr. dr. E. (Elaine) Mak
Elaine Mak is hoogleraar Encyclopedie van de rechtswetenschappen en Rechtstheorie aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Kroniek

Het leefklimaat in penitentiaire inrichtingen: een overzicht van onderzoek uit de Lage Landen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden Prison, Climate, Correlates, Consequences, Overview
Auteurs Elien Goossens en Tom Daems
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years scientific interest in various aspects of prison climate has increased exponentially. At first, such research was being initiated and undertaken predominantly within Anglo-Saxon penology but, more recently, research into prison climate is also increasingly taking place elsewhere, including in the Netherlands and Belgium. In this article the authors offer an overview of Dutch and Belgian research on prison climate. They discuss the literature from two broad angles: first, the characteristics of prisons and incarcerated individuals that determine the quality of prison climate; and, second, research on the impact of prison climate on inmates themselves.


Elien Goossens
MSc E. Goossens is doctoraatsonderzoeker FWO aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), KU Leuven.

Tom Daems
Prof. dr. T. Daems is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), KU Leuven.
Artikel

Slachtofferschap en slachtoffer-daderschap in Nederlandse penitentiaire inrichtingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden victimization, Life in Custody Study, misconduct, routine activities, violence
Auteurs Sophie Martens, Esther van Ginneken en Hanneke Palmen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch prisons are not exempt from incidents. Despite the negative impact of violence on the safety of inmates and the chances of successful reintegration, not much is known about the prevalence of victimization in Dutch prisons and the characteristics of victims. Additionally, previous research has pointed out the overlap between victim status and offender status. In this contribution, the authors will discuss the prevalence of self-reported victimization among Dutch inmates and the characteristics of victims and victim-offenders. Data from 3,485 participants from the Life in Custody Study are used for this purpose.


Sophie Martens
S.G.M.M. Martens BA was tijdens dit onderzoek aangesteld als onderzoeksassistent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Esther van Ginneken
Dr. E.F.J.C. van Ginneken is universitair docent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en projectleider van de Life in Custody Study.

Hanneke Palmen
Dr. J.M.H. Palmen is universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en is projectleider van de Life in Custody Study.
Artikel

Access_open Tussen tegenhouden en reguleren: de bestuurlijke aanpak van outlaw motorcycle gangs in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden mayors, administrative approach, prevention, barriers, organized crime
Auteurs Teun van Ruitenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch mayors play an increasingly prominent role in tackling (organized) crime. However, empirical research into how mayors fulfil this role remains scarce. Based on 23 interviews with nineteen mayors and sixteen municipal officials, this study reveals the different ways in which mayors have given meaning to the administrative approach of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs) in the period 2012-2017. While the national approach to OMCGs fits within the wider focus in society on prevention and the exclusion of ‘risky groups’, this empirical study shows how mayors give their own effect to this focus at the local level.


Teun van Ruitenburg
Dr. T. van Ruitenburg is postdoconderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Article

Access_open A Comparative Perspective on the Protection of Hate Crime Victims in the European Union

New Developments in Criminal Procedures in the EU Member States

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden hate crime, victims, victim rights, procedural justice, EU Member States, criminal procedure
Auteurs Suzan van der Aa, Robin Hofmann en Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hate crime victims involved in a criminal procedure experience difficulties that are different from problems encountered by other victims. In trying to meet the specific procedural needs of hate crime victims many EU Member States have introduced protective measures and services in criminal proceedings, but the adopted approaches are widely disparate. By reporting the results of an EU-wide comparative survey into hate crime victims within national criminal procedures the authors aim to: (1) make an inventory of the national (legal) definitions of hate crime and the protection measures available (on paper) for hate crime victims; and (2) critically discuss certain national choices, inter alia by juxtaposing the procedural measures to the procedural needs of hate crime victims to see if there are any lacunae from a victimological perspective. The authors conclude that the Member States should consider expanding their current corpus of protection measures in order to address some of the victims’ most urgent needs.


Suzan van der Aa
Suzan van der Aa, PhD, is Professor of Criminal Law at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Robin Hofmann
Robin Hofmann is Assistant Professor at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is Professor at Maastricht University, the Netherands.
Article

Access_open Ruled by Fear or Safety-Related Empowerment

The Experience and Meaning of Penal Protection Orders in Intimate Partner Violence in the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden intimate partner violence, stalking, protection orders, empowerment, safety, well-being
Auteurs Irma W.M. Cleven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study uses a novel approach to understand the experience and meaning of unsafety and the contribution of penal protection orders to victim empowerment in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV). In ten in-depth interviews, IPV survivors reflect on their relationship with their ex-partner and the previous years in which the order against their ex-partner was issued, including its role within the wider process of coming to terms with IPV victimisation and moving on. Depending on expectations of protection orders (POs) enforcement and deterrence, POs enhance one’s safety-related self-efficacy and result in a sense of empowerment. Its meaning can be understood in terms of one’s power from the ex-partner, power to act, status vis-à-vis the offender and the wider community, care/help of the CJS, and unity/togetherness with the wider community. Several implications for theoretical and empirical research and practice are discussed.


Irma W.M. Cleven
Irma W.M. Cleven, MSc, is PhD Candidate at the Department of Criminology of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Article

Access_open Dutch Penal Protection Orders in Practice

A Study of Aims and Outcomes

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden enforcement practice, victim safety, street level bureaucracy, criminal justice chain, penal protection orders
Auteurs Tamar Fischer en Sanne Struijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Penal protection orders (PPOs) aim to protect initial victims from repeat victimisation and in a broader sense from any danger for his or her dignity or psychological and sexual integrity and may therefore be important instruments for victim safety. However, knowledge on the actual practice of the PPOs and the successes, dilemmas and challenges involved is scarce. In this article, we describe the legal framework and actual enforcement practice of Dutch PPOs. The theoretical framework leading our explorative analyses regards Lipsky’s notion of ‘street-level bureaucracy’ and the succeeding work of Maynard & Musheno and Tummers on coping strategies and agency narratives of frontline workers. Using interview data from criminal justice professionals, victims and offenders, we describe the conditions of the enforcement practice and answer the question which coping mechanisms and types of agencies the professionals tend to apply in order to meet the legislative aims and to protect victims as effectively as possible. Results show that the five conditions described by Lipsky are clearly present. So far, in almost all situations the process of monitoring violations is reactive and because knowledge on risk indicators for violent escalation is still limited, it is difficult for frontline workers to decide how many and what type of resources should be invested in which cases. This results in a ‘moving away from clients’ strategy. However, within this context in which reactive enforcement is the default, we also found several examples of coping that represent ‘moving towards clients’ strategies.


Tamar Fischer
Tamar Fischer is Associate Professor of Criminology at the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Sanne Struijk
Sanne Struijk is Professor of Penal Sanctions Law and associate professor of Criminal Law at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Sanne Struijk
Sanne Struijk is Professor of Penal Sanctions Law, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and also Endowed Professor Penology and Penitentiary Law, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
Article

Access_open How Do Victims With the Need for Protection Judge Their Experiences With the Police in the Netherlands?

An Exploration

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden victim needs, protection, reasons to report, contribution to safety, police information, victim-offender relationship
Auteurs Annemarie ten Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a preliminary analysis of how victims who report to the police for protection in the Netherlands judge their experiences with the police, in comparison with victims reporting crimes for other reasons. An existing dataset was used: the data was originally collected for a comprehensive survey among crime victims of 12 years and older in 2016. Female victims of violent (sexual and non-sexual) crimes constitute the major part of the victims for whom protection is the most important reporting reason. Victim perceptions of police contribution to safety as well as police information were investigated. The analyses show that overall, victim perceptions of the police’s contribution to safety are rather negative. Contribution to safety is judged somewhat better by victims for whom protection is their most important reporting reason; however, the respondents who are positive still form a minority. Police information is judged positively by more victims than contribution to safety. Of the respondents for whom protection is a reporting reason, victims of sexual crimes appear to judge police information positively more often than victims of other crime types.


Annemarie ten Boom
Annemarie ten Boom, PhD, was a researcher at the WODC, Ministry of Justice and Security in the Netherlands until February 2022.
Article

Access_open Victim-Offender Contact in Forensic Mental Health

Resocialisation and Victim Acknowledgement During the Execution of the Dutch TBS Order

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden victim-offender contact, resocialisation, victim acknowledgement, forensic psychiatry, mentally disordered offenders
Auteurs Lydia Dalhuisen en Alice Kirsten Bosma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crime victims have gained a stronger position in all phases of the criminal procedure, including the post-sentencing phase. It is in this phase specifically that victims’ needs and interests relating to acknowledgement interplay with the offenders’ needs and interests relating to resocialisation. In the Netherlands, offenders who suffer from a mental disorder at the time of the offence limiting their criminal accountability and pose a significant safety threat, can be given a TBS order. This means that they are placed in a forensic psychiatric hospital to prevent further crimes and receive treatment aimed at resocialisation. As resocialisation requires the offender to return to society, contact with the victim might be a necessary step. This article focuses on victim-offender contact during the execution of this TBS order, and looks at risks and opportunities of victim-offender contact in this context, given the particular offender population. Offenders are divided into three groups: those with primarily psychotic disorders, those suffering from personality disorders and those with comorbidity, especially substance abuse disorders. The TBS population is atypical compared to offenders without a mental disorder. Their disorders can heighten the risks of unsuccessful or even counterproductive victim-offender contact. Yet, carefully executed victim-offender contact which includes thorough preparation, managing expectations and choosing the right type of contact can contribute to both successful resocialisation as well as victim acknowledgement.


Lydia Dalhuisen
Lydia Dalhuisen, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Alice Kirsten Bosma
Alice Kirsten Bosma is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law of Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Dismissal protection in Denmark

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden protection against dismissal, flexicurity, industrial relations, social security, dynamic and adjustable labour market
Auteurs mr. dr. Natalie Munkholm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article gives an overview of the protection against dismissal according to Danish statutory acts and collective agreements.


mr. dr. Natalie Munkholm
Natalie Munkholm is werkzaam als associate professor Labour Law aan de Aarhus Universiteit, Denemarken.
Article

Access_open The Common Law Remedy of Habeas Corpus Through the Prism of a Twelve-Point Construct

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Habeas corpus, common law, detainee, consitution, liberty
Auteurs Chuks Okpaluba en Anthony Nwafor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Long before the coming of the Bill of Rights in written Constitutions, the common law has had the greatest regard for the personal liberty of the individual. In order to safeguard that liberty, the remedy of habeas corpus was always available to persons deprived of their liberty unlawfully. This ancient writ has been incorporated into the modern Constitution as a fundamental right and enforceable as other rights protected by virtue of their entrenchment in those Constitutions. This article aims to bring together the various understanding of habeas corpus at common law and the principles governing the writ in common law jurisdictions. The discussion is approached through a twelve-point construct thus providing a brief conspectus of the subject matter, such that one could have a better understanding of the subject as applied in most common law jurisdictions.


Chuks Okpaluba
Chuks Okpaluba, LLB LLM (London), PhD (West Indies), is a Research Fellow at the Free State Centre for Human Rights, University of the Free State, South Africa. Email: okpaluba@mweb.co.za.

Anthony Nwafor
Anthony O. Nwafor, LLB, LLM, (Nigeria), PhD (UniJos), BL, is Professor at the School of Law, University of Venda, South Africa. Email: Anthony.Nwafor@univen.ac.za.
Article

Access_open The Influence of Strategic Culture on Legal Justifications

Comparing British and German Parliamentary Debates Regarding the War against ISIS

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden strategic culture, international law, ISIS, parliamentary debates, interdisciplinarity
Auteurs Martin Hock
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an interdisciplinary comparison of British and German legal arguments concerning the justification of the use of force against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). It is situated in the broader framework of research on strategic culture and the use of international law as a tool for justifying state behaviour. Thus, a gap in political science research is analysed: addressing legal arguments as essentially political in their usage. The present work questions whether differing strategic cultures will lead to a different use of legal arguments. International legal theory and content analysis are combined to sort arguments into the categories of instrumentalism, formalism and natural law. To do so, a data set consisting of all speeches with regard to the fight against ISIS made in both parliaments until the end of 2018 is analysed. It is shown that Germany and the UK, despite their varying strategic cultures, rely on similar legal justifications to a surprisingly large extent.


Martin Hock
Martin Hock is Research Associate at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
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