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Het arrest Tjebbes: de evenredigheidstoets als complexe brug tussen nationaliteitswetgeving en Unieburgerschap

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 5-6 2019
Trefwoorden Unieburgerschap, artikel 20 VWEU, intrekking van nationaliteit, bevoegdheidsverdeling, evenredigheidstoets, beroeps- en familieleven in de EU
Auteurs Prof. dr. P. Van Elsuwege en H.H.C. Kroeze LL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De zaak Tjebbes gaat over de verenigbaarheid van een Nederlandse regeling met het Unierecht op grond waarvan tien jaar verblijf in een derde land het van rechtswege verlies van het Nederlanderschap met zich meebrengt voor Nederlanders die nog een tweede nationaliteit hebben. De zaak is daarmee een vervolg op het arrest Rottmann, waarin het Hof van Justitie bepaalde dat intrekking van de nationaliteit van de lidstaten in overeenstemming moet zijn met het Europeesrechtelijke evenredigheidsbeginsel. In Tjebbes vraagt de Raad van State of die Europeesrechtelijke evenredigheidstoets met zich meebrengt dat de gevolgen in het individuele geval moeten worden getoetst, of dat het voldoende is dat er een evenredigheidstoets in abstracto in het beleid verdisconteerd is. Anders dan advocaat-generaal Mengozzi oordeelt het Hof van Justitie dat incidenteel een geconcretiseerde evenredigheidstoets plaats moet kunnen vinden, ‘vanuit het oogpunt van het Unierecht’, wat betekent dat het effect van het verlies van de nationaliteit op het beroeps- en gezinsleven van de betrokkene meegewogen moet worden. Deze bijdrage evalueert deze uitspraak vanuit het perspectief van de bevoegdheidsverdeling tussen de EU en de lidstaten. Daarnaast wordt ingegaan op de beperktheid van de Unierechtelijke evenredigheidstoets zoals die in dit arrest geformuleerd wordt en worden enkele mogelijke implicaties voor de rechtspraktijk besproken.
    HvJ 12 maart 2019, zaak C-221/17, Tjebbes e.a./Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken, ECLI:EU:C:2019:189


Prof. dr. P. Van Elsuwege
Prof. dr. P. (Peter) Van Elsuwege is hoogleraar Europees recht aan de Universiteit van Gent en verbonden aan het Ghent European Law Institute.

H.H.C. Kroeze LL.M.
H.H.C. (Hester) Kroeze LL.M. is promovenda in het Europees recht aan de Universiteit van Gent en verbonden aan het Ghent European Law Institute.
Jurisprudentie

Access_open Kroniek Ondernemingsstrafrecht

Eerste helft 2019

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 3 2019
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), mr. A.A. Feenstra, mr. A.C.M. Klaasse e.a.
Samenvatting


Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

mr. A.A. Feenstra

mr. A.C.M. Klaasse

prof. mr. M. Nelemans

mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

mr. dr. E. Sikkema

mr. dr. drs. B. van der Vorm

mr. dr. J.S. Nan
Jurisprudentie

Civiele jurisprudentie van GEA en GHvJ

Tijdschrift Caribisch Juristenblad, Aflevering 2 2019
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. J. de Boer
Auteursinformatie

Prof. mr. dr. J. de Boer
Prof. mr. dr. J. de Boer is lid van het Gemeenschappelijk Hof.

Prof. dr. W.M.A. Kalkman
Prof. dr. W.M.A. Kalkman is hoofd Legal & Compliance van Nationale-Nederlanden Levensverzekering Maatschappij N.V./NN Advocaten en hoogleraar verzekeringsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    Hoe was het met de Nederlandse rechtsfilosofie gesteld in de eerste jaren na de bevrijding? In die periode lag binnen de Vereniging voor Wijsbegeerte des Rechts (VWR) het accent op de verhouding tussen recht en gerechtigheid in het licht van het recente verleden. Dit artikel bespreekt interventies van drie actieve VWR-leden in de jaren 1946-1949: C.M.O. van Nispen tot Sevenaer, I. Kisch en G.E. Langemeijer. Gelet op het sterke accent op de relatie tussen recht en moraal in deze periode, is het niet verwonderlijk dat de rechtsfilosofie van Gustav Radbruch destijds binnen de VWR veel bijval kreeg. Wat was Radbruchs invloed op deze drie rechtsfilosofen? Het artikel besluit met een bespreking van de herdenkingsrede die VWR-voorzitter M.P. Vrij in 1949 uitsprak bij het dertigjarig bestaan. Deze rede markeert het eindpunt van vier jaar van intensieve aandacht voor de rechtsfilosofische implicaties van de ervaring van juridisch onrecht.


Wouter Veraart
Wouter Veraart is hoogleraar Rechtsfilosofie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

The Imperfect International Sales Law

Time for a New Go or Better Keeping the Status Quo?

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 9 2019
Trefwoorden CISG, imperfections of the current international sales law, reform, supplement, CISG 2.0
Auteurs Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen en N.G. Ahuja
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A series of imperfections in the CISG touching upon various areas are laid out thereby prompting the question of whether the Convention ought to be reformed. Two possibilities, namely supplementing the CISG with additional hard law instruments and drafting a new convention, i.e. CISG 2.0 are discussed and evaluated.


Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen
Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen is a Professor of Civil Law and European Private Law at the Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

N.G. Ahuja
N.G. Ahuja is a Doctorate Candidate in Law at City University of Hong Kong.
Artikel

Transmuraal herstelgericht werken

Nieuwe conceptuele landkaart naar succesvol re-integreren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden gedetineerden, re-integratie, herstelgerichte detentie, strength-based benadering
Auteurs Bart Claes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past twenty-five years, a lot of attention is paid to a more victim-aware and restorative justice focused policy in prisons in Belgium and The Netherlands, striving for a restorative culture and climate in the institutions (among prisoners and staff) and for more restorative practices like victim-awareness programs and mediation. The focus is primarily on the prison structure and culture, striving to create a more restorative prison culture and climate in the institutions. In this article we argue for a shift from this system-focused pursuit of ‘estorative detention’ to the restorative reintegration of prisoners at the individual level, and by this supporting their desistance from crime. We present a conceptual framework for restorative reintegration in and outside prison as a strengths-based approach, with attention to the structural and individual elements that supports their desistance from crime.


Bart Claes
Bart Claes is houder van het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool, bestuurslid van het European Forum for Restorative Justice (www.euforumrj.org) en medeoprichter van het Expertisecentrum K I N D, Ouder en Detentie (www.expertisecentrumkind.nl).
Artikel

Re-integratie van ex-justitiabelen als speerpunt voor een herstelgerichte reclasseringspraktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden re-integratie, herstelgericht werken, reclassering, ex-gedetineerden
Auteurs Peter Nelissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the development of a restorative justice probation practice is discussed from the perspective of the restorative justice principle of the inclusive community and the contribution of probation volunteers to the reintegration of (ex-)offenders through specific restorative justice intervention strategies. It is shown that in penal policy of the past decades the penal welfare-model and the aim of reintegration of ex-offenders has been overshadowed by a more utilitarian, punitive and management logic of criminal justice. As a result, the reintegration and social inclusion of ex-offenders has become a rather neglected area and, in the current liberal-democratic state, offenders face social conditions in which it is very hard to turn their life around. In addition it is suggested that both in mainstream and in restorative justice interventions, achievement of the goal of reintegration is often problematic or absent. Moreover, this lack of opportunities for connection may undermine and reduce the effects of interventions, including those with a restorative justice approach. Probation services that use specific restorative justice intervention strategies guided by both professionals and probation volunteers might contribute to a more active, inclusive role of the community and society in the reintegration of ex-offenders.


Peter Nelissen
Peter Nelissen is criminoloog en werkzaam als onderzoeker/consultant en als docent.
Artikel

Access_open Control of Relative Market Power in Competition Law

An Instrument to Implement the Unfair Trading Practices Directive?

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Jochen Glöckner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On April 2019 the Directive on Unfair Trading Practices in business-to-business relationships in the agricultural and food supply chain has entered into force. In particular the remedies that the Member States are supposed to offer seem to be designed after the blueprint of competition law enforcement, and the practices deemed “unfair” in this Directive are closely related to abusive practices under Article 102 TFEU. While such practices are typically based on an economic dependence, no dominant position as required by Article 102 TFEU will be found. So, the question is whether an expansion of the scope of control of unilateral conduct under competition law might be the way to implement the Directive.
    Germany has a long-standing tradition with respect to the expansion of the scope of control of abusive conduct to undertakings with less than a dominant position. Following a brief introduction that outlines the contents of the Directive (I.) this contribution is going to give a picture of the provisions on control of so-called “relative market power”, i.e. a position of independence not versus all competitors and the opposite market side as defined by the ECJ, but only in the relation to individual trading partners under German competition law (II.), and finish with an outline of the structural problems that might stand in the way of implementing the new rules with a simple application or amendment of the competition law provisions on relative market power (III.)


Jochen Glöckner
Prof. Dr. iur., J. Glöckner LL.M. (USA), Chair for German and European Private and Economic Law, Universität Konstanz; Judge at the Higher Regional Court Karlsruhe.
Artikel

De inzet van privaat gewapend maritiem beveiligingspersoneel of Privately Contracted Armed Security Personnel (PCASP) aan boord van Belgische en Nederlandse koopvaardijschepen

Een rechtsvergelijkende analyse van de wetgeving van Europese vlaggenstaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Maritime piracy, private maritime security company, PMSC, vessel protection detachment, privately contracted armed security personnel
Auteurs Ilja Van Hespen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Until recently, Dutch merchant ships could not rely on privately contracted maritime security staff to protect themselves against pirates. On the one hand, the argument prevailed that the State had to retain the monopoly on the use of force and, on the other hand, one also feared for the escalation of violence or international incidents. Nowadays, however, more and more European countries allow for the use of privately contracted armed security personnel on board merchant ships. As a result, the Dutch Parliament has adopted a bill containing rules for the use of armed private security guards on board Dutch maritime merchant ships (Law to Protect Merchant Shipping 2019 (published in the Dutch official Gazette on June 7th, 2019)).
    The author addresses the question whether because of the new law a level playing field will emerge with the Merchant Navies from the neighboring Flag States of Belgium, the United Kingdom, Spain and Denmark, presenting a comparative analysis of their domestic legislation.
    The Dutch law clearly regulates the use of force and the master has the final responsibility for everything that happens under his authority. In principle, the security guards may only apply violence as the master has determined that it is necessary. Innovative is that there is a reporting obligation whereby every incident should be reported with images and sound recordings. It seems, however, that the law is especially made to protect and secure and not necessarily to provide a solution for situations in which pirates come on board.
    It is clear that the intention of the legislator is to leave the monopoly on the use of force in the hands of the State. However, the adoption of this law to protect merchant shipping could constitute a first step in enabling the use of force by other actors than the State, which in itself is groundbreaking. Before being able to go on this road, there are still countless political (mainly related to the sovereignty of a State) and legal challenges (mainly concerning the use of force and respect for human rights) to be addressed.


Ilja Van Hespen
Ilja Van Hespen is luitenant-ter-zee eerste klasse bij de Belgische Marinecomponent, hoofd van de Sectie Governance van de Naval Policy Staff van het Operationeel Commando van de Marine, doctorandus in de Sociale en Militaire Wetenschappen aan de Koninklijke Militaire School, doctorandus in de Rechten aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en Universiteit Gent, master Handelsingenieur en doctoral researcher aan het Rolin-Jaequemyns International Law Institute Ghent.
Artikel

Access_open Verborgen strijd in het veiligheidsdomein: over samenwerking tussen politie en gemeente bij de bestuurlijke aanpak van overlast en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Interorganisationele samenwerking, Politie, Gemeenten, bestuurlijke aanpak, overlast en criminaliteit
Auteurs Renze Salet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, over the past 25 years mayors have had an increasing number of formal powers, based on administrative law, to fight against crime and disorder. Now, the Dutch mayors have the power to impose a restraining order, to close houses in case of drugs and/or drugs trade, or to decline a request for a permit when it might be used for illegal activities.
    To implement these measures, the local government is highly dependent on (information provided by) the police. At this moment we do not have much information about this cooperation between local government and the police in the management of crime and disorder. This paper is based on an empirical study concerning this issue. It shows that the inter-organizational cooperation between local government and the police may differ strongly, however this cooperation still often depends on central factors and circumstances. An important factor is the (growing) distance between the police and local government in regard to the local approach of problems of crime and disorder. A significant number of local police officers concentrates mainly on the maintenance of law and order by criminal law enforcement instead of the implementation of administrative measures. As a result, local government is often unsatisfied about the contribution of the police. For example, the quality of the information provided by the police is often perceived as insufficient. In some cases local governments try to diminish the degree of interdependency with the police and to strengthen their own position in the local safety domain.


Renze Salet
Renze Salet is Universitair Docent Criminologie bij de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Radboud Universiteit (Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid).
Pending Cases

Case C-537/18, Age Discrimination, General Discrimination

YV – v – Krajowa Rada Sądownictwa, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 17 August 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Case Reports

2019/20 How to interpret the Posting of Workers Directive in the cross-border road transport sector? Dutch Supreme Court asks the ECJ for guidance (NL)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Private International Law, Posting of Workers and Expatriates, Applicable Law
Auteurs Zef Even en Amber Zwanenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this transnational road transport case, the Dutch Supreme Court had to elaborate on the ECJ Koelzsch and Schlecker cases and asks for guidance from the ECJ on the applicability and interpretation of the Posting of Workers Directive.


Zef Even
Zef Even is a lawyer with SteensmaEven, www.steensmaeven.com, and professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Amber Zwanenburg
Amber Zwanenburg is a lecturer and PhD Candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Pending Cases

Case C-17/19, Social Insurance

Bouygues travaux publics, Elco construct Bucarest, Welbond armatures, reference lodged by the Cour de cassation (France) on 10 January 2019

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019

    The German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, the ‘BAG’) has held that pre-employment as a freelancer must be taken into account in relation to the number of years having been with a firm as a freelancer when assessing the legality of a fixed-term contract due to the character of the specific deployment.


Sean Illing
Sean Illing is an Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    The German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, the ‘BAG’) has held that pre-employment as a freelancer must be taken into account in relation to the number of years having been with a firm as a freelancer when assessing the legality of a fixed-term contract due to the character of the specific deployment.


Othmar Traber
Othmar K. Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.

Daniel Hilmer
Daniel Hilmer is an intern at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.

    The Higher Administrative Court of Münster (Oberverwaltungsgericht, the ‘OVG’) has held that a minimum body height of 163 cm for applicants to the police service, irrespective of gender, is lawful. At least, this shall apply if the determination of a minimum body height standard is a suitability criterion for access to the police service. Minimum standards solely serve the purpose of ensuring fitness for service and result from a comprehensive investigation. The investigation in this case established that suitability for the police service can only be guaranteed from a height of 163 cm upwards.


Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner is a partner at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.
Rulings

ECJ 11 April 2019, joined cases C-29/18, C-30/18 and C-44/18 (Cobra Servicios Auxiliares), fixed-term work

Cobra Servicios Auxiliares, S.A. – v – José David Sánchez Iglesias, José Ramón Fiuza Asorey, Jesús Valiño López, Fogasa, Incatema, S.L., Spanish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden fixed-term work
Samenvatting

    It is objectively justified to grant fixed-term workers a lower severance payment than indefinite term workers, if the payment has other aims and is paid in a different context.

Pending Cases

Case C-366/18, Maternity and Parental Leave

José Manuel Ortiz Mesonero – v – Unión Temporal de Empresas Luz Madrid Centro, reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Social de Madrid (Spain) on 5 June 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Rulings

ECJ 13 June 2019, case C-664/17 (Ellinika Nafpigeia), Transfer of Undertakings, Transfer

Ellinika Nafpigeia AE – v – Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos and Others, Greek case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Transfer of Undertakings, Transfer
Samenvatting

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