Zoekresultaat: 98 artikelen

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Article

Access_open The Potential of Public Policy on Open Access Repositories

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden public policy, dissemination, governance, open access, repositories
Auteurs Nikos Koutras
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To address the potential of public policy on the governance of OARs it is necessary to define what is meant by public policy and the importance of public policy in designing an efficient governance framework. Critical components are the subject matter of public policy and its objectives. Hence, it is useful to consider declarations, policies and statements in relation to open access practice and examine the efficiency of these arrangements towards the improvement of stakeholders’ engagement in governance of OARs. Secondly, policies relating to dissemination of scientific information via OARs should be examined. In this regard, it is relevant to consider the public policy basis for Intellectual Property (IP) laws that concerning the utility of OARs. Therefore, economic theories relevant with the role of IP laws should be examined. Such examination depicts to what extend these laws facilitate the utility of OARs. In order to specify justifications for the desirability of OARs the objectives of social theories should be also considered. Thus, there is consternation that without legal protection against copying the incentive to create intellectual property will be undermined. As scholarly communication infrastructure evolves, it is necessary to recognize the efforts of the relationship between Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and communication technologies in the context of public policy and after engagement with it. After employing such multilevel approach, the paper argues about a socio-economic framework to enhance the governance of OARs through public policy.


Nikos Koutras
Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp.
Artikel

Researching elites at the margins of research ethics frameworks

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden code of ethics, corporate crime, research ethics, gaining access, interviewing elites
Auteurs Daniel Beizsley PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For social scientists undertaking critical research on elites in organisational contexts securing access is a challenging exercise that may rely on the use of several access strategies over extended periods. This process is further complicated by the existence of research ethics frameworks that establish boundaries to access strategies, posing dilemmas on how to best balance access needs with a commitment to ethical practices. This article focuses on such dilemmas – or the ‘ethics of access’ – through a reflection on PhD fieldwork during 2016-2017 in Luxembourg spent researching the European Investment Bank. The paper will conclude by calling for an overhaul of existing frameworks in order to foster more research on elites.


Daniel Beizsley PhD
Daniel Beizsley is a PhD candidate on the European Commission funded Doctorate in Cultural and Global Criminology (DCGC) programme supervised by Utrecht University and ELTE University.

    The Federal Labour Court had to decide on a case in which an employee asserted claims for damages against his public employer on account of an overtime regulation which infringed European law. However, because he had failed to comply with the time limits, his lawsuit was unsuccessful in the final instance.


Othmar K. Traber
Othmar K. Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.
Rulings

ECJ 5 November 2019, case C-192/18 (Commission – v – Poland), Gender Discrimination, Fair Trial

European Commission – v – Republic of Poland, EU Case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Gender discrimination, Fair trial
Samenvatting

Rulings

ECJ 26 March 2019, case C-377/16 (EP Drivers), discrimination, other forms of discrimination

Kingdom of Spain – v – European Parliament, EU Case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Discrimination, Other forms of discrimination
Samenvatting

    Restriction of second language in a job application procedure to English, French and German in selection procedure is invalid.

    A decision taken by an employer based on gender which respects the national legislation was considered discriminatory based on EU legislation.


Andreea Suciu
Andreea Suciu is the Managing Partner Suciu I The Employment Law Firm (https://suciu-employmentlaw.ro/).

Gabriela Ion
Gabriela Ion is an associate at Suciu I The Employment Law Firm (https://suciu-employmentlaw.ro/).
Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-24/17, (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund), Age Discrimination

Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, Gewerkschaft Öffentlicher Dienst – v – Republik Österreich, Austrian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Age Discrimination
Samenvatting

    A new system of remuneration and advancement according to which the initial grading of the contractual public servants is calculated according to their last remuneration paid under the previous system of remuneration and advancement, which was based on discrimination on grounds of the age of the contractual public servants, is inconsistent with Articles 1, 2 and 6 of Directive 2000/78, read in combination with Article 21 of the Charter and inconsistent with Article 45(2) TFEU.

Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-396/17, (Leitner), Age Discrimination

Martin Leitner – v – Landespolizeidirektion Tirol, Austrian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Age Discrimination
Samenvatting

    A new system of remuneration and advancement according to which the initial grading of the contractual public servants is calculated according to their last remuneration paid under the previous system of remuneration and advancement, that was based on discrimination on grounds of the age of the contractual public servants, is inconsistent with Articles 1, 2 and 6 of Directive 2000/78, read in combination with Article 21 of the Charter.
    National legislation which obstructs the effective judicial protection by reducing the scope of the review which national courts are entitled to conduct, by excluding questions concerning the basis of the transition amount, calculated according to the rules of the previous discriminatory remuneration and advancement system, is inconsistent with Article 47 of the Charter and Article 9 of Directive 2000/78.

Artikel

Access_open Detentie van asielzoekers: een kwestie van gevoel?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden street-level bureaucrats, aliens detention, asylum seekers, emotions, intuition
Auteurs Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek en Dr. Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper analyses how street-level bureaucrats in the Netherlands decide on detaining asylum seekers. The paper is based on interviews with officers of the national police and the military police who take these decisions as part of their job. The relevant Dutch and European legal rules are not clear and unambiguous and the officers are given wide margins of discretion in making these decisions. Many interviewees said that they ultimately rely on their ‘feelings’. The paper therefore pays special attention to whether and how gut feelings and emotions of the officers influence their decision-making. In addition, the paper examines whether and how the increased use of ICTs and the Europeanisation of migration and asylum law have reduced the officers’ discretion and autonomy.


Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek
Wouter van der Spek is junior docent bestuursrecht en promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is universitair hoofddocent rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Rulings

ECJ 15 January 2019, case C-258/17 (EB), Discrimination, Sexual orientation

E.B. – v – Versicherungsanstalt öffentlich Bediensteter BVA, Austrian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Discrimination, Sexual orientation
Samenvatting

Rulings

ECJ 13 February 2019, case C-179/18 (Rohart), Pension, Social insurance

Ronny Rohart – v – Federale Pensioendienst, Belgian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Pension, Social insurance
Samenvatting

Rulings

ECJ 14 February 2019, case C-154/18 (Horgan), Age discrimination

Tomás Horgan, Claire Keegan – v – Minister for Education & Skills, Minister for Finance, Minister for Public Expenditure & Reform, Ireland, Attorney General, Irish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Age discrimination
Samenvatting

Law Review

2019/1 EELC’s review of the year 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Catherine Barnard, Filip Dorssemont e.a.
Samenvatting

    For the second time, various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Catherine Barnard

Filip Dorssemont

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Francesca Maffei

Niklas Bruun

Anthony Kerr

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Daiva Petrylaite

Andrej Poruban

Stein Evju
Rulings

ECJ 21 November 2018, case C-245/17 (Viejobueno Ibáñez and De la Vara González), Fixed-term work, Paid leave

Pedro Viejobueno Ibáñez, Emilia de la Vara González – v – Consejería de Educación de Castilla-La Mancha, Spanish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Fixed-term work, Paid leave
Samenvatting

    The sole fact that fixed-term employment relationships terminate, whereas permanent relationships do not, does not constitute discrimination. Nevertheless, fixed-term teachers should receive an allowance in lieu of untaken leave.

Artikel

Het grondrecht op collectief onderhandelen van zelfstandigen versus het Europese mededingingsrecht

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Mededingingsrecht, Zelfstandige, Cao-exceptie, Vrijheid van vakvereniging, Recht op collectief onderhandelen
Auteurs Mr. R.F. Hoekstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel staat centraal dat de beperking van de door het Hof van Justitie geformuleerde ‘cao-exceptie’ op het Europese mededingingsrecht tot ‘werknemers’ en ‘schijnzelfstandigen’ zich moeilijk tot een grondrechtenbenadering lijkt te verhouden. Zelfstandigen met een zwakke arbeidsmarktpositie hebben namelijk evenzeer behoefte aan collectieve middelen om hun arbeidsvoorwaarden te verbeteren en vallen ook onder grondrechtenverdragen. Door een uitgebreide beschouwing van de relevante rechtsinstrumenten van de VN, de IAO en de Raad van Europa en de uitleg die de toezichtorganen hieraan geven blijkt dat het grondrecht op vrijheid van (vak)vereniging, collectief onderhandelen en collectieve actie evenzeer aan deze groep lijkt toe te komen, en een te rigoureuze inperking vanwege het mededingingsrecht niet gerechtvaardigd wordt geacht. De conclusie bevat enkele gedachten over hoe het Europese mededingingsrecht met een grondrechtenbenadering overeenstemming te brengen. Daarbij passeren zowel de recente ontwikkelingen rondom het zelfstandigenvraagstuk in Nederland als initiatieven op Europees niveau de revue.


Mr. R.F. Hoekstra
Mr. R.F. (Robert) Hoekstra is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij de Wiardi Beckman Stichting Den Haag. Daarnaast is hij als promovendus verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn promotieonderzoek ziet op het snijvlak van cao’s en grondrechten.
Artikel

Access_open Enemy of All Humanity

The Dehumanizing Effects of a Dangerous Concept

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden enemy of all humanity, hostis humani generis, piracy, international criminal law, Luban
Auteurs Marc de Wilde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In his contribution to this special issue, David Luban proposes to revive the age-old concept of ‘the enemy of all humanity.’ On his view, this concept supports the aims of international criminal justice by emphasizing that atrocity and persecution crimes are ‘radically evil’ and therefore ‘everyone’s business.’ Criticizing Luban’s proposal, this paper shows that in the past, the ‘enemy of all humanity’ concept has often served to establish parallel systems of justice, depriving these ‘enemies’ of their rights as suspects under criminal law and as lawful combatants under the laws of war. Thus, even if the ‘enemy of all humanity’ concept is used with the intention to bring today’s perpetrators of ‘radical evil’ to justice, it risks undermining, rather than protecting, the rule of law.


Marc de Wilde
Marc de Wilde is Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open The Enemy of All Humanity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden hostis generis humani, piracy, crimes against humanity, universal jurisdiction, radical evil
Auteurs David Luban
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Trationally, the term “enemy of all humanity” (hostis generis humani) referred to pirates. In contemporary international criminal law, it refers to perpetrators of crimes against humanity and other core. This essay traces the evolution of the concept, and then offers an analysis that ties it more closely to ancient tyrants than to pirates. Some object that the label is dehumanizing, and justifies arbitrary killing of the “enemy of humanity.” The essay admits the danger, but defends the concept if it is restricted to fair trials. Rather than dehumanizing its target, calling the hostis generis humani to account in a court of law is a way of recognizing that radical evil can be committed by humans no different from any of us.


David Luban
David Luban is University Professor in Law and Philosophy at Georgetown University.
Artikel

The effective public enforcement of cartels: perceptions on the functioning of the objection procedure and the reality

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Dispute resolution, Objection procedure, Cartel enforcement, Administrative law, Stakeholder interviews
Auteurs Mr. Annalies Outhuijse LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Companies fined for infringing the cartel prohibition are denied access to the courts until the competition authority has reviewed its fining decision in the objection procedure. Several stakeholders have been negative about the functioning of this objection procedure in case of cartel fines, including because of its limited ability to resolve disputes and the cost and length of the procedure. In light of the discussions on the effectiveness of this objection procedure, this article analyses the ability of the cartel objection procedure to resolve disputes on basis of an analysis of the decisions on objection, as well as interviews with the parties involved in the objection procedure and a study of relevant literature. Previous studies have shown that the success of the objection procedure, regarding dispute resolution, depends on the nature of the dispute, the reason that the objection is made and the organisation of the procedure. Reviewing the data which was gathered through the interviews and case analysis with the knowledge of these factors influencing the success of the objection procedure, the article concludes that these previously carried out studies can explain the limited ability of the cartel objection procedure to resolve disputes.


Mr. Annalies Outhuijse LLM
Annalies Outhuijse is PhD fellow at the Department of Administrative Law at the University of Groningen.
Article

Access_open Armed On-board Protection of Dutch Vessels: Not Allowed Yet But Probably Forthcoming

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden vessel protection, private armed guards, state monopoly on force, masters position, state control
Auteurs Paul Mevis en Sari Eckhardt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides an overview of the developments about the armed on-board protection of Dutch vessels under Dutch law. The Dutch position has changed over the years. In 2011, the starting point was that private security companies (PSCs) are not to be allowed. It was expected that adequate protection of Dutch vessels could be provided by vessel protection detachments (VPDs). Although not considered as an absolute statutory bar, the state monopoly on force was considered the main argument against PSCs. After optimising the use of VPDs and given the development in other countries, the approach changed into a ‘VPS, unless …’-approach. Under the new Protection of Merchant Shipping Act that is expected to come into force in the second half of 2019, PSCs can be employed only if no VPS is available. This article gives an overview of the argumentation in this change of view over the years. It also explores the headlines, criteria and procedures of the new law and some other topics, including the position of the master under the upcoming law. In line with the other country reports, it enables the comparative study in the last article of this special issue.


Paul Mevis
Paul Mevis is professor of criminal law and criminal procedure at Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Sari Eckhardt
Sari Eckhardt holds a master’s degree in criminal law and has worked as a student assistant at the Rotterdam Erasmus University’s Department of Criminal Law and is currently working at De Bont Advocaten.
Rulings

ECJ 20 September 2018, case C-466/17 (Motter), Fixed-term work, other forms of discrimination

Chiara Motter – v – Provincia autonoma di Trento, Italian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Fixed-term work, Other forms of discrimination
Samenvatting

    A system, as exists in Italy, that only-partially counts service under fixed-term contracts for the purpose of classifying staff in grades, is compatible with the Framework Agreement on fixed-term work, as there was an objective justification.

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