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Artikel

Access_open On Identifying Assumptions Underlying Legal Arrangements

Some Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

Tijdschrift Law and Method, mei 2022
Trefwoorden (Legislative) assumptions, legal arrangements, inference to the best explanation, theory-driven evaluations
Auteurs Frans L. Leeuw en Antonia M. Waltermann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legal arrangements rest on behavioural, cognitive, social, and other assumptions regarding their role and function in society and the legal system. The identification and subsequent evaluation of these assumptions is an important task for legal scholarship. In this article, we focus on the identification and categorisation of these assumptions, providing conceptual distinctions and methodological guidance. We distinguish between assumptions about the value(s), norm(s), or interest(s) underlying a legal arrangement, which can be legal or non-legal, and assumptions about the relationship between the legal arrangement and its underlying value(s), norm(s), or interest(s), which can be logical, causal, or contributory. Regarding the identification, we consider explicit references and inference to the best explanation and theory-driven evaluations as possible methods. Inference to the best explanation, we posit, functions as a manner of reconstructing the theory that the person(s) creating a legal arrangement had in mind regarding the place and function of that legal arrangement in society. Given this, we offer a step-by-step approach to reconstructing this theory in use, drawing from theory-driven evaluations and its sources in the social sciences. These distinctions and guidelines can contribute to understanding the context and untangling the complexities involved in identifying the assumptions that underlie legal arrangements.


Frans L. Leeuw
Prof. dr. Frans Leeuw, Professor emeritus, Law, Public Policy and Social Science Research, Department of Foundations and Methods of Law, Maastricht University.

Antonia M. Waltermann
Dr. Antonia Waltermann, Assistant Professor of Legal Theory, Department of Foundations and Methods of Law, Maastricht University.
Artikel

Access_open Nederlandse moskeeën en moskeegemeenschappen in verandering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden moskeeën, veranderingsprocessen, moskeebestuur, salafisme
Auteurs Ineke Roex en Najib Tuzani
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reports several findings from a qualitative case study of six mosques in the Netherlands. In recent years, media, government, and society have paid increasing attention to their role, in part in relation to growing concerns of Salafist influences in the Dutch landscape. There are two major changes that can be witnessed. First, the role of the mosque as solely a religious institution is gradually shifting towards a broader interpretation. Second, there is a shift in the role of religious authority. These changes have the potential to create conflict.


Ineke Roex
Dr. K.M.H.D. Roex is cultureel antropoloog en hoofd onderzoek van Nuance door Training & Advies (NTA), een gespecialiseerd onderzoeks- en adviesbureau in het sociale veiligheidsdomein.

Najib Tuzani
N. Tuzani is theologisch deskundige, strategisch adviseur en algemeen directeur van NTA.
Artikel

Homofobe en transfobe haatuitingen onder het IVBPR en EVRM

Ontwikkelingen en reflecties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden homofobe haatuitingen, lhbtiq-rechten, transfobe haatuitingen, vrijheid van meningsuiting, IVBPR en EVRM
Auteurs Jeroen Temperman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates if and in what manner international human rights treaties provide a mandate for state parties to combat hateful homophobic and transphobic speech. It is concluded that under the ICCPR, the path to inclusive readings of its incitement provision is principally paved by state parties. The UN Human Rights Committee welcomes states’ going beyond the codified (Art. 20) prohibition grounds of ‘national, racial or religious hatred’, thus including such grounds as sexual orientation and gender identity. Within the regional context of the ECHR, it is the European Court of Human Rights that functions as a catalyst. In recent jurisprudence, the latter court has developed a positive duty to investigate instances of hateful homophobic speech. Under both regimes a similarly steadfast approach to combating transphobic speech cannot yet be detected.


Jeroen Temperman
Prof. J.D. Temperman is hoogleraar International Recht & Religie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en lid van het OSCE Panel of Experts on Freedom of Religion or Belief.
Artikel

Levensbeschouwelijke vorming in het openbaar voortgezet onderwijs

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden levensbeschouwelijke vorming, burgerschapsvorming, openbaar onderwijs, Schoolidentiteit
Auteurs Angelique Heijstek-Hofman, Marije van Amelsvoort en Monique van Dijk-Groeneboer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both in the new citizenship education law and the law on secondary education, it is stated that all schools must engage in worldview education. Also, the call for the broad development of young people is becoming louder. However, public secondary education does not give structural attention to worldview education. The goal of this article is to give an overview of the situation of worldview education in public secondary education based on content analysis research of school guides. An inventory is made of whether there are elements of worldview education present at public secondary schools.


Angelique Heijstek-Hofman
A. Heijstek-Hofman doet promotieonderzoek aan de Tilburg School of Catholic Theology van de Tilburg University op het gebied van levensbeschouwelijke vorming in het openbaar voortgezet onderwijs

Marije van Amelsvoort
Dr. M.A.A. van Amelsvoort is universitair docent aan de Tilburg School of Humanities and Digital Sciences en opleidingsdirecteur van de Universitaire Lerarenopleiding Tilburg.

Monique van Dijk-Groeneboer
Prof. dr. M.C.H. van Dijk-Groeneboer is hoogleraar Religieuze Educatie aan de Tilburg School of Catholic Theology.
Artikel

Tussen stroomversnellingen en stagnatie

Politieke onderhandelingen over subsidies voor de bouw van kerken en moskeeën, 1954-1994

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden financiële betrekkingen tussen overheid, kerk en religieuze organisaties, bouw van gebedshuizen, beleidsonderhandelingen, verhouding kerk en staat, kerken
Auteurs Leonard van ’t Hul
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Between 1964 and 1976, roughly the heydays of dechurching in the Netherlands, the Dutch government contributed to the construction of 788 church buildings and one mosque through the Church Building Premium Act. After 1976, however, there was no longer any political basis for similar support of religious newcomers – apart from a few temporary subsidies to specific Muslim communities. In this article I argue that to understand developments in Dutch church-state relations it is not enough to study cultural-ideological shifts as visible in in media-outlets and parliamentary deliberations. The case of direct funding for houses of worship illustrates that dynamics of church and state relations can only fully assessed by delving into the politico-institutional context in which policy deliberations took place. This shows that political decisions about policies on religious accommodation were highly influenced by the way the trajectory of decision making was organized. Both the amount of access of faith-based organisations to the negotiation tables and the extent to which policy-debates were linked to or decoupled from concurrent policy issues mattered greatly for the outcome of policy deliberations.


Leonard van ’t Hul
Dr. W.L. van ’t Hul is socioloog en historicus. Hij werkt als onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau en doet daar onderzoek naar representatie en vertrouwen. Eind 2020 promoveerde hij aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam op het proefschrift Besloten. Politieke onderhandelingen tussen de Nederlandse overheid en religieuze organisaties, 1946-1996.
Artikel

Access_open Cultuurchristendom in de strijd tegen modern gnosticisme (deel 2)

Een alternatieve visie op het huidige populisme

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden cultuurchristendom, gnosticisme, populisme, voegelin
Auteurs Hans van de Breevaart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article tries to show how populism is taking issue with the Gnostic tendency in present-day politics Eric Voegelin had been identifying as ‘the immanentization of the eschaton’. According to populists modern Gnosticism is trying to realize the eschaton at the expense of one or more elements of reality that, according to Voegelin, had been identified in Christian culture during the course of its history, namely God and cosmos, society and men. This article elaborates on this argument by indicating how populists are used to positioning themselves over against Gnostics in the political debates on gender, immigration, climate change and the European Union.


Hans van de Breevaart
Dr. J.O. van de Breevaart is historicus en godsdienstwetenschapper. Momenteel is hij verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Instituut voor de SGP. Van zijn hand verscheen zeer onlangs Threat or Opportunity? A Christian View on Populism in Europe, geschreven in opdracht van Sallux, denktank van de European Christian Political Movement.
Artikel

Access_open Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part II: The Purposes of Including Legal Philosophy

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2022
Trefwoorden legal philosophy, research methods, interdisciplinary research, conceptual analysis
Auteurs Sanne Taekema en Wibren van der Burg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many doctrinal legal research questions require making use of other academic disciplines or perspectives. This article explains the relevance of legal philosophy for doctrinal research projects. Often legal research questions have conceptual or evaluative dimensions that presuppose philosophical understanding. For research on the concept of democracy, the function of constitutional rights, or the possible introduction of a referendum in the Netherlands, questions of a philosophical nature need to be answered. Legal philosophy can supplement and enrich doctrinal research in various ways. In this article, we present seven purposes that legal philosophy may serve in the context of a doctrinal research project: conceptual clarification, exposition and reconstruction of fundamental normative principles and values, theory building, providing creative perspectives, structural critiques, evaluation, and recommendations. For each objective, we illustrate how to use relevant philosophical methods. Thus, this article complements our earlier publication ‘Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part I: Introducing Three Philosophical Methods’.1x http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.

Noten

  • * This text has been presented to classes at the University of Zagreb, Queen Mary University of London and Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam; we profited from the feedback of our students. We also want to thank Irma Bluijs, Machteld Geuskens, Tamar de Waal and the reviewers for their helpful comments on previous versions of this article, and Jacqueline Brand and Robert Poll for providing research assistance.
  • 1 http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.


Sanne Taekema
Prof. mr. dr. Sanne Taekema is Professor of Jurisprudence, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.

Wibren van der Burg
Prof. dr. mr. Wibren van der Burg, is Professor of Legal Philosophy, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Jurisprudentie en wetgeving

Godsdienst en gelijke behandeling

De uitspraak van het Hof van Justitie van de EU in de zaken WABE en Müller

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden gelijke behandeling, godsdienstvrijheid, Hof van Justitie, EU, Islam
Auteurs Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In its ruling in these prejudicial procedures, the EU Court of Justice clarifies the extent to which private employers are allowed to prohibit visual expressions of inter alia religious beliefs in the workplace. This contribution critically discusses the Court’s interpretation of the concepts of direct and indirect discrimination as well as its definition of the criteria that the employer must meet to objectively justify a difference of treatment of employees indirectly based on inter alia religion. Furthermore, it discusses the room that the Court allows in this respect for national provisions that protect freedom of religion.


Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoogleraar Religie, recht en samenleving aan de Radboud Universiteit en redacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Openbare orde voorbij letter en geest

Sociale normen en religieuze intolerantie in het staatsrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden openbare orde, veiligheid, religieuze vrijheid, ad libitum, tolerantie
Auteurs Mariëtta van der Tol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The relative openness of the concept of public order is increasingly instrumentalised in legislation which affects religious minorities. This article argues that a permanent distinction must be made between social norms and public order, and that an appeal to social norms in the context of public order indicates a free, or ‘ad libitum’, use of constitutional law.


Mariëtta van der Tol
Dr. Mariëtta D.C. van der Tol is Alfred Landecker Postdoctoral Research Fellow aan de Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford.
Artikel

Access_open De erkenning van het boeddhisme en andere levensbeschouwingen in België

Op naar het Nederlandse model?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden boeddhisme, financiering religies/levensbeschouwingen, geestelijke verzorgers, godsdienstig en humanistisch vormingsonderwijs, België – Nederland
Auteurs Leni Franken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2020, the Belgian federal Government announced that it will recognize Buddhism as a non-confessional worldview. This recognition will give the Buddhists several privileges: the salaries and pensions of lama’s as well as of Buddhist consultants in prisons, hospitals and the army will be paid for by the state. In addition, state schools will be required to organize Buddhist education at parental request. From the perspective of equal treatment and within the current constitutional framework, the recognition of Buddhism can only be welcomed. But is this constitutional framework, which is amongst others indebted to the concordat between Napoleon and the Holy See (1801), still up to date? In 1983, the Dutch Government abolished this Napoleonic model of state financing and opted for a profound reform of the system. In this article, I will show why such a reform could also be useful and inspiring in the Belgian context.


Leni Franken
Leni Franken studeerde filosofie en godsdienstwetenschappen en promoveerde aan de UAntwerpen op een proefschrift rond overheidsneutraliteit en financiering van levensbeschouwingen. Momenteel is ze als onderwijsbegeleider verbonden aan het Centrum Pieter Gillis (UAntwerpen).
Artikel

Access_open Dividing the Beds: A Risk Community under ‘Code Black’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Cosmopolitan solidarity, COVID-19, Health care regulation, Risk society, Argumentative discourse analysis
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the COVID-19 crisis a risk of ‘code black’ emerged in the Netherlands. Doctors mentioned that in case of code black, very senior citizens might not receive intensive care treatment for COVID-19 due to shortages. Sociologist Ulrich Beck argued that palpable risks lead to the creation of new networks of solidarity. In this article this assumption is investigated by analyzing the different storylines prevalent in the public discussion about ‘code black’. Initially, storylines showing sympathy with the plight of the elderly came to the fore. However, storylines brought forward by medical organizations eventually dominated, giving them the opportunity to determine health care policy to a large extent. Their sway over policymaking led to a distribution scheme of vaccines that was favourable for medical personnel, but unfavourable for the elderly. The discursive process on code black taken as a whole displayed a struggle over favourable risk positions, instead of the formation of risk solidarity.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is Assistant Professor of Jurisprudence at Tilburg Law School.
Redactioneel

Access_open Solidarity and COVID-19: An Introduction

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Auteurs Wouter Veraart, Lukas van den Berge en Antony Duff
Auteursinformatie

Wouter Veraart
Wouter Veraart is Professor of Legal Philosophy at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Lukas van den Berge
Lukas van den Berge is Assistant Professor of Legal Theory at Utrecht University.

Antony Duff
Antony Duff is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Stirling and Emeritus Professor of Law at the University of Minnesota.
Artikel

Access_open The Exceptionality of Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, COVID-19, Crisis, Normalcy, Exceptionality
Auteurs Amalia Amaya Navarro
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In times of crisis, we witness exceptional expressions of solidarity. Why does solidarity spring in times of crisis when it wanes in normal times? An inquiry into what may explain the differences between the expression of solidarity in crisis vs. normalcy provides, as I will argue in this article, important insights into the conditions and nature of solidarity. Solidarity requires, I will contend, an egalitarian ethos and state action within and beyond the state. It is neither a momentary political ideal, nor an exclusionary one, which depends for its sustainment on formal, legal, structures. Transient, sectarian, and informal conceptions of solidarity unduly curtail the demands of solidarity by restricting its reach to times of crisis, to in-group recipients, and to the social rather than the legal sphere. The article concludes by discussing some aspects of the dynamics of solidarity and its inherent risks that the analysis of the exceptionality of solidarity helps bring into focus.


Amalia Amaya Navarro
Amalia Amaya Navarro is British Academy Global Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
Artikel

Access_open Solidarity, Religious Freedom and COVID-19

The Case of the Ultra-Orthodox Sects in Israel

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Social solidarity, COVID-19, Religious freedom, Cultural defence, Ultra-Orthodox sects in Israel
Auteurs Miriam Gur-Arye en Sharon Shakargy
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses the tension between social solidarity and religious freedom as demonstrated by the refusal of the ultra-Orthodox sects in Israel to comply with COVID-19 regulations. The article provides a detailed description of the refusal to comply with the regulations restricting mass prayer services in synagogues and studying Torah in the yeshivas, thus interfering with the ultra-Orthodox religious life. The article suggests possible explanations for that refusal, based on either religious beliefs or a socio-political claim to autonomy, and discusses whether the polity should be willing to tolerate such a refusal on the basis of the cultural defence. The article concludes that despite the drastic restrictions on religious life caused by the social distancing regulations, and the special importance of freedom of religion, reducing the pandemic’s spread called for awarding priority to solidarity over religious freedom, and the enforcement of social solidarity legal duties – the social distancing regulations – on all.


Miriam Gur-Arye
Miriam Gur-Arye is the Judge Basil Wunsh Professor of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Sharon Shakargy
Sharon Shakargy is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Artikel

Access_open Solidarity and Community

From the Politics of the Clan to Constituent Power

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, Community, COVID-19 pandemic, Humanity, Ethnocentrism
Auteurs Luigi Corrias
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What is at stake in invoking solidarity in legal-political contexts? The guiding hypothesis of this article is that solidarity is always and necessarily linked to the concept of community. A plea for solidarity will, in other words, directly lead one to the question: solidarity with whom? On the one hand, solidarity may be understood as extending only to those who belong to the same community as us. In this reading, solidarity builds upon an already existing community and applies to members only. On the other hand, invoked by those who aim to question the status quo, solidarity also plays a key role in practices of contestation. In these contexts, it focuses on collective action and the reimagination of political community. The article ends by articulating how this second interpretation of solidarity might prove helpful in making sense of our current predicament of a global pandemic.


Luigi Corrias
Luigi Corrias is Assistant Professor of Legal Philosophy, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Justice and Coercion in the Pandemic

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Justice as impartiality, Justice as mutual advantage, Solidarity, Coercion, Moral motivation
Auteurs Matt Matravers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Coercion plays two essential roles in theories of justice. First, in assuring those who comply with the demands of justice that they are not being exploited by others who do not do so. Second, in responding to, and managing, those who are unreasonable. With respect to the first, responses to the pandemic have potentially undermined this assurance. This is true in the distributions of vaccines internationally, and in some domestic contexts in which the rich and powerful have avoided public health guidance not to travel, to isolate, and so on. With respect to the second, the article considers whether those who refuse to be vaccinated are unreasonable, and if so, what follows for how they ought to be treated.


Matt Matravers
Matt Matravers is Professor of Law, University of York, York, UK.
Artikel

Access_open Living with Others in Pandemics

The State’s Duty to Protect, Individual Responsibility and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, The state’s duty to protect, Duty to rescue, Responsibility, Solidarity
Auteurs Konstantinos A Papageorgiou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses a range of important normative questions raised by anti-COVID-19 measures and policies. Do governments have the right to impose such severe restrictions on individual freedom and furthermore do citizens have obligations vis-à-vis the state, others and themselves to accept such restrictions? I will argue that a democratic state may legitimately enforce publicly discussed, properly enacted and constitutionally tested laws and policies in order to protect its citizens from risks to life and limb. Even so, there is a natural limit, factual and normative, to what the state or a government can do in this respect. Citizens will also need to take it upon themselves not to harm and to protect others and in the context of a pandemic this means that endorsement of restrictions or other mandatory measures, notably vaccination, is not to be seen as a matter of personal preference concerning the supposedly inviolable sovereignty of one’s own body.


Konstantinos A Papageorgiou
Konstantinos A Papageorgiou is Professor of the Philosophy of Law at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Law.

    An Employment Tribunal (ET) decision involving an advertising agency has highlighted the dangers for employers of taking an overly aggressive approach to reducing gender pay gaps. It also provides a reminder that all discrimination is unlawful, even where the victims are from a historically privileged group.


Colin Leckey
Colin Leckey is a partner at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    Following up on the ECJ’s judgment in the Kalliri case, the Greek Council of State (Conseil d’État) held in a Plenary Session decision that a legal provision of Presidential Decree 90/2003 requiring that candidates for admission to the Greek Officers and Policemen School must be at least 1.70 m, independently of their sex, was indirectly discriminatory against female candidates. It based its decision on Directive 76/207/EEC as well as principles of the Greek constitution.


Effie Mitsopoulou
Effie Mitsopoulou is an attorney-at-law at Effie Mitsopoulou Law Office.

    Ethnic profiling by governments unfortunately has a worldwide interest. If we look at the Dutch situation, it turns out that the problem is not limited to the police. Serious problems also arise when it comes to checking the legality of tax benefits and detecting benefit fraud. In this contribution, the authors draw attention to racial discrimination due to the use of profiles by government institutions in the Netherlands. It seems that our anti-discrimination legislation is in good order and that raises the question of whether legal refinement is needed or whether solutions should be sought outside the legal sphere. The authors think the latter strategy and make suggestions for a more holistic solution direction.


Peter Rodrigues
Prof. mr. P.R. Rodrigues is hoogleraar Immigratierecht bij de Universiteit Leiden en voorzitter van de redactie van dit tijdschrift.

Maartje van der Woude
Prof. mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie bij het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur & Samenleving bij Universiteit Leiden en lid van de redactie van dit tijdschrift.
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