Zoekresultaat: 44 artikelen

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Artikel

Boulevard Zuid in Rotterdam: een onderzoek naar het vertrouwen van winkeliers in politie en gemeente

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden shopkeepers, procedural justice, the Netherlands, ethnic minorities, performance theory
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg, Laura Messie en Darnell de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, we analyze which aspects of performance theory and the procedural justice-based model are explaining the trust of shopkeepers in the police and local government. Utilizing a survey of 156 shopkeepers and 94 semi-constructed interviews with shopkeepers, which are located at the South Shopping Boulevard in Rotterdam (The Netherlands), the study finds that shopkeepers have a relatively high trust in the police and local government. This is surprising because various attempts in the past 30 years to revive the high street by the government have failed to improve its bad image, as dwindling visitor numbers, poor turnover, limited range of retailers, empty shops and high crime and offence levels show only too plainly. The findings also highlight that ethnic minority respondents have more trust in local government than Dutch shopkeepers. The explanation therefor is sought in the dual frame of reference theory.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Laura Messie
Laura Messie, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Darnell de Vries
Darnell de Vries, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De burgemeester als ‘sheriff’ in de aanpak van ondermijnende misdaad: op weg naar een wettelijke grondslag?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden burgemeester, ondermijning, openbare orde, georganiseerde criminaliteit
Auteurs Benny van der Vorm en Petrus C. van Duyne
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Traditionally, the mayor has an important role as a citizen’s father and as a maintainer of public order. In the context of the so-called ‘undermining’ criminality, the mayor has been increasingly empowered with new legal instruments to combat undermining criminality. Some mayors see themselves as a sheriff. However, in the Dutch Municipal Act, the mayor only has a task of maintaining the public order. How does this task relate to combating undermining criminality? What is the role of the mayor in the combat of undermining criminality? Nowadays, there is no legal basis in the Dutch Municipal Act to equip the mayor with crime-fighting duties. This article proposes to equip the mayor with a legal duty as a crime fighter.


Benny van der Vorm
Benny van der Vorm is universitair docent straf(proces)recht en is verbonden aan het Montaigne Centrum voor Rechtsstaat en Rechtspleging en het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Petrus C. van Duyne
Petrus C. van Duyne is emeritus hoogleraar Empirische aspecten van de strafrechtspleging aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Psychomacht: hoe sturen data en algoritmen de veiligheid in smart cities?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden psychopower, smart cities, Bernard Stiegler, Michel Foucault, security
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with the relationship of smart security technologies to broader modes of exercising power and subjugating individuals. It claims that the notion of psychopower is precisely what is missing from post-Foucaultian accounts of the smart city. In the article psychopower is defined as the manipulation of our consciousness in order to channel our desires toward ‘normal’ social behavior, drawing a line between what is ‘acceptable’ and what is ‘unacceptable’. Psychopower raises a series of concerns related to its democratic legitimacy and accountability as behaviorally informed conditioning of the mind runs the risk of constant surveillance, where human agency is diluted in a techno-utopian vision that promises to improve city-wide efficiency, decision-making, and security.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

From the securitisation of migration to the criminalisation of solidarity towards migrants

The shrinking space for NGOs and volunteers in the Mediterranean Sea

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden migration, securitisation, solidarity, growing pattern of criminalisation
Auteurs Fleur Boixiere
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, migration has been at the centre of European debates and the number of migrants trying to cross the Mediterranean remains alarming. To this day, hundreds of people continue to risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean on small boats in order to flee conflict zones, persecution or extreme poverty. However, due to the lack of legal alternatives, migrants engage in dangerous journeys and find themselves helpless in the hands of smugglers. This article will address the growing pattern of criminalisation of migration and humanitarian assistance throughout Europe and consider the extent to which national, European and international anti-smuggling laws affect the work of civil society actors.


Fleur Boixiere
Fleur Boixiere is a former student of Public International Law at Leiden University and this contribution is based on her Master thesis. While writing her article, she did an internship at the ICC.
Artikel

Access_open Een einde aan ondermijning

Over de opkomst en werking van een nieuwe veiligheidsstrategie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden ondermijning, speech act, veiligheidsbeleid, drugs
Auteurs Hans Boutellier, Ronald van Steden, Yarin Eski e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Undermining has become a buzz-word in Dutch politics and security governance. On national and local level there is great concern about the disappearing lines between the legal and illegal world, which affects the democratic order and rule of law in the Netherlands. Hence, everything possible should be done in order to combat the creeping threat of undermining. However, what is undermining actually? And why has the concept become so popular now? In this contribution, the authors will consider those and other relevant key questions about the rise and effect of the undermining concept to provide more conceptual clarity. By critically reflecting on undermining as a speech act, that is ‘underminization’ (cf. securitization), and based on empirical research, the authors suggest that there are two discourses at work that hinder the effectivity of the concept: one is specifically focused on the drugs industry with its illegal activities and one broadens the concept into unlawful and undesired developments that interfere with societal stability. The authors conclude that the concept of undermining may mobilize at policy level, yet seems to paralyze at operational level.


Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Yarin Eski
Yarin Eski is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mauro Boelens
Mauro Boelens was verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en nu werkzaam bij TwynstraGudde.
Uit het veld

Toezicht in een wereld zonder grenzen roept dilemma’s op voor de natiestaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden globalisering, toezicht, platformbedrijven, neoliberalisme, democratische natiestaten
Auteurs Jaap Koelewijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De wereldeconomie is na 2001 snel verder geïntegreerd. De globalisatie heeft een extra dimensie gekregen door de opkomst van platformbedrijven. Het gaat hier feitelijk om virtuele ondernemingen die zich betrekkelijk eenvoudig aan de fiscale regels kunnen onttrekken. Ook de financiële sector is sterk geglobaliseerd, maar het toezicht op deze sector is nog steeds grotendeels voorbehouden aan lokale autoriteiten. Om effectief toezicht te kunnen houden zouden de natiestaten bevoegdheden moeten overdragen aan supranationale autoriteiten. Dat staat echter op gespannen voet met de mogelijkheid om op basis van een lokaal democratische legitimatie beleid te voeren. In deze bijdrage worden een aantal casusposities geanalyseerd en verschillende oplossingsrichtingen besproken.


Jaap Koelewijn
Prof. dr. J. Koelewijn is deeltijdhoogleraar Corporate Finance aan Business Universiteit Nyenrode en eigenaar van Financieel Denkwerk.
Kroniek

Criminalisering van migratie en grensmobiliteit als een legitieme zorg voor de publieke criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden crimmigration, border mobility, criminalization, migration, public criminology
Auteurs Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What role do Dutch criminologists play in the – especially since the onset of the so-called migration crisis – heated national and international debates on the criminalization of migration and border mobility? This will be the central question in this publication. Based on an inventory of national and international peer-reviewed publications written by Dutch criminologists, the article will reflect upon Dutch criminologists’ public role. In addition, based on the observed ‘silences’ in the scholarly debates on the criminalization of migration and border mobility, three avenues for further criminological research will be identified.


Maartje van der Woude
Prof. mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie aan het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur en Samenleving van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Securitisatieverordening van kracht!

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 10 2019
Trefwoorden securitisatie, STS, cessie, CRR, toetsingsvermogen
Auteurs Mr. M. Kuilman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sinds 1 januari 2019 is een raamwerk voor simple, transparant and standardised (STS) securitisaties van kracht. In deze bijdrage wordt een aantal vermogensrechtelijke en prudentiële gevolgen van een securitisatie besproken en de impact van het nieuwe raamwerk. Daarbij wordt gekeken naar de richtsnoeren en de toelichting van de EBA.


Mr. M. Kuilman
Mr. M. Kuilman is werkzaam bij De Nederlandsche Bank N.V. op de divisie juridische zaken.
Artikel

Eerder verbindend dan visionair

Een analyse van de overwegingen van burgemeesters bij het gebruiken van de handhavende bevoegdheden uit de Wet Damocles

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden home closure, Mayors, political leadership, leadership style, the Netherlands
Auteurs Ineke Bastiaans en Niels Karsten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Several authors fear that the expansion of Dutch mayors’ executive powers in the field of safety and security will harm their position as non-partisan and consensus-oriented leaders. Empirical research into how mayors use their powers, however, is still rare. From a leadership perspective, the current article analyzes how mayors in the region of South East Brabant in Netherlands use their administrative power to close homes involved in drug-related crime. Drawing on Fischer’s framework of discursive practices, we analyze mayors’ considerations in terms of the argumentation they provide for closing homes. Our analysis, which draws on interviews and document analysis, covers 27 cases from the police region of South-East Brabant and includes 120 considerations. Our findings indicate that mayors vindicate home closures mostly through policy-derived technical and situational argumentations. Vindications that aspire a particular societal effect, such as the reduction of criminal activity, or ideological motivations are rarer, which is indicative of a non-decisive leadership style. In addition, mayors mostly respect the local closure policies. As such, they show very little decisive and individualistic leadership. And, to the extent that they deviate from agreed-upon regional policies, their motivation is to be able to take into account unique local circumstances. In the use of their administrative powers mayors, thus, show mostly situational and adaptive leadership, which, rather than as visionaries, positions them as caretakers. The leadership style of Dutch mayor in the use of this administrative power is, thus, much more in accordance with their traditional bridging-and-bonding leadership style than some authors suspect. Some of the limitations of our study are that we have analyzed closure decisions from one region only and that real-life decisions are susceptible to contextual influences. At the same time, our study provides a rare insight into real-world mayoral leadership in the Netherlands in the field of safety and security.


Ineke Bastiaans
Ineke Bastiaans is onderzoeker en adviseur bij Necker van Naem.

Niels Karsten
Niels Karsten is Universitair Docent aan Tilburg University.
Artikel

Access_open Verborgen strijd in het veiligheidsdomein: over samenwerking tussen politie en gemeente bij de bestuurlijke aanpak van overlast en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Interorganisationele samenwerking, Politie, Gemeenten, bestuurlijke aanpak, overlast en criminaliteit
Auteurs Renze Salet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, over the past 25 years mayors have had an increasing number of formal powers, based on administrative law, to fight against crime and disorder. Now, the Dutch mayors have the power to impose a restraining order, to close houses in case of drugs and/or drugs trade, or to decline a request for a permit when it might be used for illegal activities.
    To implement these measures, the local government is highly dependent on (information provided by) the police. At this moment we do not have much information about this cooperation between local government and the police in the management of crime and disorder. This paper is based on an empirical study concerning this issue. It shows that the inter-organizational cooperation between local government and the police may differ strongly, however this cooperation still often depends on central factors and circumstances. An important factor is the (growing) distance between the police and local government in regard to the local approach of problems of crime and disorder. A significant number of local police officers concentrates mainly on the maintenance of law and order by criminal law enforcement instead of the implementation of administrative measures. As a result, local government is often unsatisfied about the contribution of the police. For example, the quality of the information provided by the police is often perceived as insufficient. In some cases local governments try to diminish the degree of interdependency with the police and to strengthen their own position in the local safety domain.


Renze Salet
Renze Salet is Universitair Docent Criminologie bij de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Radboud Universiteit (Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid).
Artikel

Access_open Het belemmeren van buitenlandse financiering van geloofsgemeenschappen

Een grondrechtengevoelige kwestie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden godsdienstvrijheid, EVRM, Islam, financiering geloofsgemeenschappen
Auteurs Dr. Adriaan Overbeeke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the Coalition Agreement 2017-2021, the Dutch government intends to develop policy to prevent religious communities from receiving support from abroad if this support comes from so-called ‘unfree countries’. In the article, the author argues that restrictive measures in this area touch upon the collective freedom of religion, which is protected by the ECHR, measures that can only be justified under strict conditions in the light of religious freedom as guaranteed in article 9 ECHR.


Dr. Adriaan Overbeeke
Dr. A.J. Overbeeke is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Staats- en bestuursrecht van de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de VU Amsterdam en is onderzoeker aan de Universiteit Antwerpen. Hij studeerde politicologie aan de KU Leuven en rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.
Artikel

Over de grenzen van de criminologie

Internationale betrekkingen en de criminologie van internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden international criminology, international relations, international crimes
Auteurs dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminologists decided over the last few decades that it is important to study international crimes, meaning genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, from a criminological perspective. With the international community taking up the responsibility to protect populations from these crimes and the prominence of international criminal justice on the world stage, it is argued that international criminology should embrace international relations more as an important sub-discipline.


dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn
Dr. Maartje Weerdesteijn is universitair docent bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie en onderzoeker bij het Center for International Criminal Justice, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: m.weerdesteijn@vu.nl.
Artikel

Preventieve politiecontroles en interne grenscontroles in het Schengengebied

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Grenscontrole, Profileren, Schengen
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Peter Rodrigues en Prof. mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Ever since the 2015 start of what is now often referred to as the European ‘migration crisis’, European member states have been struggling with one of the key fundaments of the European Union and in particular the Schengen Agreement: the principle of free movement. Whereas this principle entails that people should be able to move freely within the Schengen Area, as a result of the ongoing securitization and politicization of migration, Member States are exploring the different opportunities the Schengen Border Code allows them to monitor intra-Schengen cross-border mobility. In doing so, countries seem to have two options: either to temporarily reintroduce border controls or to – permanently – carry out police or immigration controls in an area around the border. In this article we explore and critically assess the choices various countries have made and what seems to be the position of the European Commission in all this.


Prof. dr. mr. Peter Rodrigues
Prof. dr. mr. P.R. Rodrigues is Hoogleraar Immigratierecht en voorzitter van het Instituut voor Immigratierecht. Hij is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en lid van de redactie van Crimmigratie & Recht.

Prof. mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Prof. mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is Hoogleraar Rechtssociologie bij het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur & Samenleving. Zij is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en lid van de redactie van Crimmigratie & Recht.
Artikel

Access_open Securitisering en seksualisering van migratie: het debat over oud en nieuw in Keulen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Refugees, Gender debate, Sexual violence, Framing analysis
Auteurs Dr. Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article examines the public debate about New Year’s Eve in Cologne in 2015. Theoretical starting point is the idea that public debates are forms of social communication in which reality is produced and social events become meaningful. On the basis of a framing analysis, it is investigated what significance New Year’s Eve in Cologne has as a medial event for society. The question here is how the event is described and explained, how it is mentioned and interpreted, what significance it collectively receives and how these insights can be theoretically interpreted. The analysis shows that different frames were possible, such as the problematization of the work of the police. Instead, the discourse focused on the sexual behaviour of refugees and securitization and sexualisation of migration takes place.


Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is werkzaam als universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. E-mail: m.althoff@rug.nl.

Prof. mr. dr. Erwin Muller
Prof. mr. dr. E.R. Muller is hoogleraar Veiligheid en Recht aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Over toekomstbestendige policing

De dilemma’s van veiligheidsregimes in grote steden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden policing, security, urban regimes, police strategies, risk management
Auteurs Dr. E. Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we identify the political agency and discretion available to metropolises to define and accomplish their own policing agendas and to question what the role of public police forces can be in executing such agendas. Results of a comparative case study of 24 metropolises illustrate a major focus on risk management strategies like environmental opportunity oriented measures, hot spot hot time predictive policing actions and preventative community oriented policing. Also programs like Top 600 in Amsterdam and other early intervention efforts oriented towards ‘groups at risk’ (youngsters, nomads and criminal careers) find a place in the risk assessment regime. This article classifies all urban programs in 5 different ‘urban regimes’ and sheds light on the role the police should take in order to execute stated policy goals, summarized in urban policy coalition plans and security plans.


Dr. E. Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is als Associate professor verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Terrorisme- en radicaliseringsstudies

Een explosief onderzoeksveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden terrorism studies, radicalization studies, definition, analysis levels, pitfalls
Auteurs Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Studying terrorism and radicalization is quite problematic because of a lack of reliable sources. Finding out what motivates terrorists often boils down to educated guessing. The author describes the search for an academic definition of terrorism and summarizes the development of this discipline since the 1970s, thereby distinguishing research on three levels: macro, micro and meso. While before 9/11 few academics were involved in this research field, it ‘exploded’ thereafter. Important factor contributing to this expansion is the greater availability of government funds and relevant data for this type of research. However, the growth of this discipline isn’t just good news, researchers should be aware of a number of pitfalls identified as the proximity to government power, too much self-confidence (hybris) of researchers pretending to have designed a ‘unified theory’, the abundance of funds for this type of research, resulting in a lot of low-quality research, and finally the politicization of the subject, which could limit the academic freedom.


Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar History of International Relations & Global Governance verbonden aan de faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

De burgemeester als crisismanager

Implicaties van de decentralisatie van jeugdzorg voor leiderschapsstijlen tijdens crises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden burgemeester, crisis management, jeugdzorg, decentralisatie
Auteurs Patricia Schat en Ruth Prins
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch mayors are confronted with various crises differing from a deadly incident with a monster truck to societal unrest due to convicted sex offenders returning to local society. This article presents the results of a research about the role of the mayor in so-called ‘youth crises’. The ‘big decentralization operation’ of January 1, 2015 resulted in new tasks and responsibilities for local governments regarding youth care. This research focuses on the implications of this decentralization for the leadership style of the mayor when a youth related crisis causes societal unrest. The way in which mayors deal with such a crisis was studied by means of in-depth interviews and a vignette study before and after the decentralization. This research concludes that the leadership style of the mayor did not change after the decentralization. Mayors consistently show two dominant leadership styles when managing a youth crisis: ‘First Civilian’ and ‘Peer Governor.’ As a ‘First Civilian’ the mayor’s crisis management actions focuses primarily on the community and the affected family. The style ‘Peer Governor’ is all about gathering relevant information and consultation with various partners, such as youth care organizations and aldermen. More interestingly, the results show that decentralization of youth care redefines the relationship between the local alderman responsible for youth care and the mayor as a crisis manager safeguarding local order and public safety. This relationship is currently under construction and could grow either competitive or fruitful.


Patricia Schat
Patricia Schat is Consultant COT, Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement, an Aon Company, and alumnus Master Crisis and Security Management, Universiteit Leiden. p.r.schat@gmail.com

Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden, Institute of Security and Global Affairs. r.s.prins@fgga.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

Access_open Positieve veiligheid. Een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden state of nature, trust, empathy, care, ethics
Auteurs dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg en dr. Ronald van Steden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminology has come under the spell of thinking negatively about safety and security. It’s focus merely lies on themes such as control, punishment and exclusion. Much interest therefore goes to public policing, private security, CCTV camera’s, anti-social behaviour orders, gated communities and prisons. Of course, this definition of security and security governance as the protection of citizens against crime and disorder must not be rejected out of hand. Without a minimum level of security, society would fall apart in chaos and despair. At the same time, however, we feel increasingly uncomfortable about the dominance of current negative – control and risk-oriented – approaches to (in)security as they overlook positive interpretations associated with trust, community and care. This introduction therefore provides an overview of academic literature that nuance, counter or resist hegemonic and negative meanings of security. In so doing, our aim is to introduce a positive turn in criminology’s interests and concerns regarding crime and disorder problems.


dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

dr. Ronald van Steden
Dr. Ronald van Steden is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurswetenschappen & Politicologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
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