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Artikel

Access_open Experimental Regulations and Regulatory ­Sandboxes – Law Without Order?

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordás & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, december 2021
Trefwoorden experimental regulations, regulatory sandboxes, methodology, regulatory quality
Auteurs Sofia Ranchordás
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the key methodological shortcomings of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes. I argue that the poor design and implementation of these experimental legal regimes have both methodological and legal implications. The deficient design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes can have three adverse effects: First, the internal validity of experimental legal regimes is limited because it is unclear whether the verified results are the direct result of the experimental intervention or other circumstances. The limited external validity of experimental legal regimes impedes the generalizability of the experiment. Second, experimental legal regimes that are not scientifically sound make a limited contribution to the advancement of evidence-based lawmaking and the rationalization of regulation. Third, methodological deficiencies may result in the violation of legal principles which require that experimental regulations follow objective, transparent, and predictable standards. I contribute to existing comparative public law and law and methods literature with an interdisciplinary framework which can help improve the design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes. I draw on social science literature on the methods of field experiments to offer novel methodological insights for a more transparent and objective design of experimental regulations and regulatory sandboxes.


Sofia Ranchordás
Sofia Ranchordás is Full Professor of EU and Comparative Public Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands & Associate Professor of Public Law, Innovation, and Sustainability at the Faculty of Law, LUISS Guido Carli, Italy.
Redactioneel

Roldynamiek binnen juridische professies

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Role theory, Legal professions, Occupational role, Role dynamism, Structural functionalism
Auteurs Peter Mascini en Nienke Doornbos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue focuses on the role concept, which has largely fallen out of use in sociology, but which seems ideally suited to analyze the circumstances in which legal professionals work nowadays. Their occupations are often surrounded by constitutional guarantees and professional standards, but at the same time in full swing due to policy reforms referred to as New Public Management and Socially Effective Judiciary (Maatschappelijk Effectieve Rechtspraak). This combination of relative role stability and rapid change can ensure that the predictability and desirability of the interpretation attributed to professional roles become subject of discussion and reflection. The way the role concept is used in this special issue is deliberately decoupled from the much-criticized structural functionalism with which it is often associated. The fact that this sociological perspective has lost much of its sway since the 1960s, because of its conservative character, makes it easier to give dynamics, ambiguity, conflict and resistance a prominent place in contemporary analyzes in which the role concept is central. The authors in this special issue examine whether the role fulfillment by professionals working in the legal field is actually subject of discussion and reflection and how this dynamic manifests itself.


Peter Mascini
Peter Mascini is werkzaam als hoogleraar Empirical Legal Studies bij de Erasmus School of Law en universitair hoofddocent sociologie bij de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen. Tevens is hij programmadirecteur van de opleiding sociologie en lid van het managementteam van het Erasmus Center for Empirical Legal Studies (ECELS). Hij verricht onderzoek naar de legitimering, uitvoering en handhaving van wetgeving en beleid.

Nienke Doornbos
Nienke Doornbos is universitair docent en onderzoeker bij de afdeling Algemene Rechtsleer, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij rondde in 2021 een empirisch onderzoek af naar probleemoplossende rechtspraak. Haar onderzoeksexpertise ligt op het terrein van kwalitatief, rechtssociologisch onderzoek naar toegang tot recht en de organisatie en beroepsethiek van juridische professies.

    In its decision rendered on 29 September 2020, the Austrian Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof, ‘OGH’) ruled that periods of prior professional services completed with employers in the EU or the EEA other than the current employer must be taken into account for salary classifications to guarantee the freedom of movement of workers under Article 45 TFEU.


Stefan Zischka
Stefan Zischka is Partner at Jank Weiler Operenyi Attorneys at Law / Deloitte Legal Austria.

Christina Feistritzer
Christina Feistritzer is Associate at Jank Weiler Operenyi Attorneys at Law / Deloitte Legal Austria.
Peer-reviewed artikel

Privaat toezicht als onderdeel van publiek toezicht

Een vergelijking tussen de voedselsector en de bouw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden bouwtoezicht, privaat toezicht, voedselveiligheid, publiek-private samenwerking, Toezicht
Auteurs Annalies Outhuijse en Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Combinaties van publiek en privaat toezicht zijn niet weg te denken uit onze huidige maatschappij. In deze bijdrage vergelijken we de manier waarop privaat en publiek toezicht worden gecombineerd in twee sectoren, namelijk toezicht op voedselveiligheid en toezicht op veilige nieuwbouw. Na een uiteenzetting van de samenwerkingsarrangementen wordt ingegaan op de sterke en zwakke kanten van de gemaakte keuzes. Daarbij staat in het bijzonder één criterium centraal: betrouwbaarheid. Kan de overheid vertrouwen op toezicht en controle door private partijen? Zijn de private partijen in staat en bereid om effectief toezicht op voedselveiligheid en bouwkwaliteit uit te oefenen en welke factoren uit het samenwerkingsarrangement hebben hier invloed op? Naast de constatering dat private toezichthouders een toegevoegde waarde kunnen bieden aan de stelsels van toezicht, wijzen we op enkele potentiële risico’s die we in praktijk van bouw- en voedseltoezicht hebben geïdentificeerd: onvoldoende onafhankelijkheid en belangenverstrengeling, beperkte intrinsieke motivatie, kans op papieren werkelijkheid en onvoldoende corrigerende werking van het publieke toezicht.


Annalies Outhuijse
Mr. dr. A. Outhuijse is advocaat bij Stibbe binnen de praktijkgroep bestuursrecht. Eerder heeft zij een proefschrift geschreven op het gebied van het mededingingstoezicht bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Tetty Havinga
Dr. ir. T. Havinga is rechtssocioloog en als fellow verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Het Athene van de 21ste eeuw?

Reflecties op Leuven Restorative City

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Restorative City, stad, stadstaat, gemeenschapsvorming, cascades
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay is a scientific reflection on Leuven Restorative City (LRC). The cities, which present themselves as ‘restorative cities’, aim to ensure that restoration continues to nestle in the capillaries of our society. The article argues that realizing the LRC-promise requires restorative thinking through the meso-level of local public life. This involves reference to a number of notions that can be traced back to Ancient Greek thought in Athens, in which the intellectual virtue of ­phronesis – practical wisdom in a social and political context – is central. Citizens are seen as allies in the solution of social issues. LRC contributes to this through its focus on ‘turning conflict into opportunities’. Restorative justice wisdom is more widely applicable in society. However, the LRC process can sometimes be erratic and unpredict­able. The article points to the possible alternation of good and bad periods, and puts forward the expectation that the development of restorative practices in Leuven can be understood as cascades. In these cascades, the course of the diffusion of restorative practices is presented in terms of successive waves of learning experi­ences and knowledge sharing.


Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is hoogleraar aan het Leuven Institute of Criminology (KU Leuven) en is verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Text-mining for Lawyers: How Machine Learning Techniques Can Advance our Understanding of Legal Discourse

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden text mining, machine learning, law, natural language processing
Auteurs Arthur Dyevre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many questions facing legal scholars and practitioners can be answered only by analysing and interrogating large collections of legal documents: statutes, treaties, judicial decisions and law review articles. I survey a range of novel techniques in machine learning and natural language processing – including topic modelling, word embeddings and transfer learning – that can be applied to the large-scale investigation of legal texts


Arthur Dyevre
Arthur Dyevre is Professor at the KU Leuven Centre for Empirical Jurisprudence, Leuven, Belgium. arthur.dyevre@kuleuven.be.
Article

Access_open Teaching Technology to (Future) Lawyers

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden legal education, law and technology, legal analytics, technology education, technological literacy
Auteurs Mikołaj Barczentewicz
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article offers a reflection on how applications of computer technology (including data analytics) are and may be taught to (future) lawyers and what are the benefits and limitations of the different approaches. There is a growing sense among legal professionals and law teachers that the technological changes in the practice of law are likely to promote the kind of knowledge and skills that law graduates often do not possess today. Teaching computer technology can be done in various ways and at various depths, and those different ways and levels have different cost and benefit considerations. The article discusses four models of teaching technology: (1) teaching basic technological literacy, (2) more advanced but general technology teaching, (3) teaching computer programming and quantitative methods and (4) teaching a particular aspect of technology – other than programming (e.g. cybersecurity). I suggest that there are strong reasons for all current and future lawyers to acquire proficiency in effective uses of office and legal research software and standard means of online communication and basic cybersecurity. This can be combined with teaching of numerical and informational literacy. I also claim that advanced technology topics, like computer programming, should be taught only to the extent that this is justified by the direct need for such skills and knowledge in students’ future careers, which I predict to be true for only a minority of current lawyers and law students.


Mikołaj Barczentewicz
Mikołaj Barczentewicz is the Research Director, Surrey Law and Technology Hub, as well as Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) in Law, University of Surrey School of Law. He is also a Research Associate of the University of Oxford Centre for Technology and Global Affairs.
Article

Access_open Big Data Ethics: A Life Cycle Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden big data, big data analysis, data life cycle, ethics, AI
Auteurs Simon Vydra, Andrei Poama, Sarah Giest e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The adoption of big data analysis in the legal domain is a recent but growing trend that highlights ethical concerns not just with big data analysis, as such, but also with its deployment in the legal domain. This article systematically analyses five big data use cases from the legal domain utilising a pluralistic and pragmatic mode of ethical reasoning. In each case we analyse what happens with data from its creation to its eventual archival or deletion, for which we utilise the concept of ‘data life cycle’. Despite the exploratory nature of this article and some limitations of our approach, the systematic summary we deliver depicts the five cases in detail, reinforces the idea that ethically significant issues exist across the entire big data life cycle, and facilitates understanding of how various ethical considerations interact with one another throughout the big data life cycle. Furthermore, owing to its pragmatic and pluralist nature, the approach is potentially useful for practitioners aiming to interrogate big data use cases.


Simon Vydra
Simon Vydra is a Researcher at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Andrei Poama
Andrei Poama is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Sarah Giest
Sarah Giest is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Alex Ingrams
Alex Ingrams is Assistant Professor at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Bram Klievink
Bram Klievink is Professor of Digitization and Public Policy at the Institute for Public Administration, Leiden University, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Access_open Time and Law in the Post-COVID-19 Era: The Usefulness of Experimental Law

Special Issue Experimental Legislation in Times of Crisis, Sofia Ranchordas & Bart van Klink (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, september 2021
Trefwoorden COVID-19, time and law, law-making, parliament, government, legal certainty
Auteurs Erik Longo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 pandemic swept the world in 2020 impelling us to reconsider the basic principles of constitutional law like the separation of power, the rule of law, human rights protection, etc. The two most pressing legal issues that have attracted the attention of legal scholars so far are, on the one hand, the different regulatory policies implemented by governments and, on the other, the balance among the branches of government in deciding matters of the emergency. The pandemic has determined a further and violent acceleration of the legislature’s temporal dimension and the acknowledgement that, to make legislation quicker, parliament must permanently displace its legislative power in favour of government. Measures adopted to tackle the outbreak and recover from the interruption of economic and industrial businesses powerfully confirm that today our societies are more dependent on the executives than on parliaments and, from a temporal perspective, that the language of the law is substantially the present instead of the future. Against this background, this article discusses how the prevalence of governments’ legislative power leads to the use of temporary and experimental legislation in a time, like the pandemic, when the issue of ‘surviving’ becomes dominant.


Erik Longo
Prof. Dr. Erik Longo is associate professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Florence.
Article

Access_open The Child’s Contact with Grandparents

Tijdschrift Family & Law, september 2021
Trefwoorden Family life, Best interest of the child, Contact rights, Grandchildren, Grandparents
Auteurs prof. M. Holdgaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Grandparents hand down their experiences, knowledge, traditions and values to their grandchildren. As a high level of grandparental involvement may play an important role in a child’s well-being, legal protection of that family relation may be in the best interest of a given child. There is a continuing interaction between family law, cultural and social norms of what constitutes a family and how family life should be, and actual family practices and structures. Due to changing family patterns combined with an increasing number of divorces and cohabiting couples with children splitting up grandparents now play an increasing role in their grandchildren’s lives. Children become members within other types of family structures, e.g. single parents (raising half-siblings), families with yours and/or mine (and joint) children etc. When a child’s family includes a step-parent with children and step-grandparents – as well as the biological parents and grandparents – a potential risk of conflict among the family members is high. Grandparents, therefore, risk losing contact or having less contact than they had previously. At first glance, there might appear to be little reason for society to regulate the practices of grandparents as providers of non-formalized childcare or to protect the rights of children in these relationships. However, due to the changing family practices and social norms, one could argue that the legal protection of contact between grandparents and grandchildren is an important legal topic in domestic law and in academic discussions in the coming years. This article articulates these issues by framing three articles that together create a thematic map in this journal on Spanish and Catalan law, and Scandinavian law as well as the grandparents’ right to maintain contact with their grandchildren under the European Convention on Human Rights seen in a context of the best interest of the child.


prof. M. Holdgaard
Marianne Holdgaard is Professor in family and inheritance law at the School of Law, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Aalborg
Jurisprudentie

Kroniek ondernemingsstrafrecht

Eerste helft 2021

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2021
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), mr. J.S. Boeser, mr. J. Boonstra e.a.

Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

mr. J.S. Boeser

mr. J. Boonstra

mr. dr. S.S. Buisman

mr. A.A. Feenstra

mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

mr. A.C.M. Klaasse

mr. dr. I. Koopmans

mr. V.S.Y. Liem

prof. mr. M. Nelemans

mr. dr. J.S. Nan

mr. dr. drs. B. van de Vorm

mr. dr. W.S. de Zanger
Rulings

ECJ 20 May 2021, Case C-879/19 (Format), Social Insurance

FORMAT Urządzenia i Montaże Przemysłowe – v – Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych I Oddział w Warszawie, Polish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Social Insurance
Samenvatting

Artikel

Access_open Professional Ethics for Judges – Lessons Learned from the Past. Dialogue as Didactics to Develop Moral Leadership for Judges

Special Issue on Education in (Professional) Legal Ethics, ­Emanuel van Dongen & Jet Tigchelaar (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, juli 2021
Trefwoorden professional ethics, ethical dilemmas, judiciary, independence
Auteurs Alex Brenninkmeijer en Didel Bish
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is an intimate link between good conduct by judges and the rule of law. The quintessence of their role is that judges shape a trustworthy and fair legal system from case to case. Ethical trading is not carved in granite, and judges must determine their course on different levels. First, it concerns personal conduct and requires integrity and reliability. On the second level, the challenge is to achieve proper adjudication by conducting a fair trial in accordance with professional standards. Third, judges exercise discretion, in which normative considerations run the risk of becoming political. They should act independently as one of the players in the trias politica. A triptych of past cases illustrate moral dilemmas judges may encounter in their profession. Calibrating the ethical compass is not an abstract or academic exercise. A dialogue at the micro (internal), meso (deliberation in chambers) and macro levels (court in constitutional framework) could be incorporated in the legal reasoning as a didactic framework to make future judges aware of their ethical challenges.


Alex Brenninkmeijer
A.F.M. Brenninkmeijer, PhD is Member of the European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg. Professor of Institutional Aspects of the Rule of Law at Utrecht University.

Didel Bish
D.A. Bish, LLM is a trainee at the European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg.
Article

Access_open Invisible before the law

The legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd) in light of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Tijdschrift Family & Law, juni 2021
Trefwoorden dicrimination, guardianship, incapacitated adults, legal (in)capacity
Auteurs F. Schuthof LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the use of involuntary treatment in the mental health care sector is governed by the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd). This study examines the legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under this Act. The Wzd is analyzed in light of the human rights standards of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The findings of this study show that the Wzd does not meet the standards of Article 12 in several cases. The Wzd does not recognize the legal capacity of persons with intellectual disabilities, it continues to allow for substituted decision-making and support measures are not complemented by adequate safeguards. From a theoretical point of view, an imbalance between the protection of and the respect for the autonomy of persons with intellectual disabilities can be observed. This article formulates several recommendations in order to restore this balance.
    ---
    De Nederlandse Wet zorg en dwang (Wzd) ziet toe op de rechten van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking bij onvrijwillige zorg of onvrijwillige opname. Dit artikel onderzoekt de juridische positie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking ten aanzien van deze wet. De Wzd wordt geanalyseerd in relatie tot artikel 12 van het Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap (VRPH). De bevindingen van dit onderzoek laten zien dat de Wzd in verschillende gevallen niet voldoet aan de normen van artikel 12 VRPH. Zo wordt onder andere de handelingsbekwaamheid, ofwel ‘legal capacity’, van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking niet erkend en blijft plaatsvervangende besluitvorming mogelijk. Vanuit theoretisch oogpunt is er sprake van een disbalans tussen de bescherming van en het respect voor de autonomie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking. Dit artikel doet daarom meerdere aanbevelingen om dit evenwicht te herstellen.


F. Schuthof LLM
Fiore Schuthof conducts research into better empowerment and protection of the elderly as a PhD student at Utrecht University (UU).
Redactioneel

Access_open Where Were the Law Schools?

On Legal Education as Training for Justice and the Rule of Law (Against the ‘Dark Sides of Legality’)

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Iris van Domselaar
Auteursinformatie

Iris van Domselaar
Iris van Domselaar is associate professor in legal philosophy and legal ethics at the Amsterdam Law School, University of Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Teaching Legal Ethics by Non-Ethical Means – With Special Attention to Facts, Roles and Respect Everywhere in the Legal Curriculum

Special Issue on Education in (Professional) Legal Ethics, ­Emanuel van Dongen & Jet Tigchelaar (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, juni 2021
Trefwoorden legal ethics, informal respect, educational integration, importance of setting examples
Auteurs Hendrik Kaptein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legal ethics may be taught indirectly, given resistance to ethics as a separate and presumably merely subjective subject. This may be done by stressing the importance of facts (as the vast majority of legal issues relate to contested facts), of professional role consciousness and of the importance of formal and informal respect for all concerned. This indirect approach is best integrated into the whole of the legal curriculum, in moot practices and legal clinics offering perceptions of the administration of legal justice from receiving ends as well. Basic knowledge of forensic sciences, argumentation and rhetoric may do good here as well. Teachers of law are to set an example in their professional (and general) conduct.


Hendrik Kaptein
Hendrik Kaptein is associate professor of jurisprudence em., Leiden University.

    Criminological research has emphasized the importance of procedural justice of authorities during encounters with citizens. Theory and prior research propose that the procedurally just treatment by the police influences, possibly via legitimacy, citizens’ willingness to cooperate with authorities in the criminal justice chain. This article tests the hypotheses of procedural justice theory using Dutch data of the European Social Survey (N=1,616). The results show an association between the procedurally just treatment of citizens by the police and cooperation with criminal justice authorities. However, this association has not been explained by the legitimacy of the police.


Matthias van Hall
M. van Hall MSc is promovendus bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Pending Cases

Case C-576/20, Social Insurance, Pensions

CC – v – Pensionsversicherungsanstalt, reference lodged by the Oberster Gerichtshof (Austria) on 4 November 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Social Insurance, Pensions
Case Law

Access_open 2021/1 EELC’s review of the year 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Daiva Petrylaitė, Marianne Hrdlicka e.a.
Samenvatting

    Various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Daiva Petrylaitė

Marianne Hrdlicka

Attila Kun

Luca Calcaterra

Francesca Maffei

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Niklas Bruun

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Andrej Poruban

Anthony Kerr

Filip Dorssemont
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