Zoekresultaat: 368 artikelen

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Bij de buren

Failed or incomplete constitutional transitions in Sub-Saharan Africa

Some insights from Cameroon, Kenya and Benin

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Constitutioneel Recht, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden transition, reform, transformations of constitutional orders, constitutional transitions
Auteurs D. O’Kubasu
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The subject of this article is constitutional transformations in Sub-Saharan Africa upon and after the region’s encounter with the third wave of democratization in Africa (TWD) that took place between 1989 and 1994. Since failure in democratic rule in the region was associated with the ease with which political elites amended formal constitutions to subvert democracy, anti-authoritarian factions perceived the solution to the problems bedevilling democratic governance in Africa to lie in formal constitutional rewriting. Hence, virtually all countries ventured into constitutional change – amendment or substitution – in the early 1990s. Inasmuch as different countries changed different formal aspects of their constitutions, they largely recognized multiparty democracy and obliterated the hitherto formulations that either allowed or endorsed single-party political regimes. Yet, on the ground different transitional outcomes were achieved, with a majority of countries either failing to transform at all from de facto authoritarianism or simply making partial transitions into semi-authoritarian or rather hybrid regimes. Using Cameroon, Kenya and Benin, this article contends that disestablishment of authoritarian rule depends on certain enabling factors, which seem to go beyond textual formulation and which may account for both the present conditions of these countries and the different transitional outcomes that were realized after these countries changed their formal constitutions in the early 1990s.


D. O’Kubasu
D.M. (Duncan) O’Kubasu LLB (Hons), LLM, PhD is a lecturer in Public Law, Moi University, and Advocate, High Court of Kenya.
Artikel

Access_open Oude wijn in nieuwe zakken?

Een studie naar de gepercipieerde effectiviteit van buurtinformatienetwerken in een veranderende context

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden community safety, crime prevention, neighborhood inhabitants, Neighborhood Watch, police
Auteurs Thom Snaphaan, Lieven Pauwels en Wim Hardyns
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rise of the internet and social media has important consequences for the way we interact, communicate and access information. This has repercussions for the police organization and also for the cooperation between police and citizens. One of these forms of cooperation between police and citizens are neighborhood watch (NW) projects (also known as ‘BINs’ in Belgium and ‘burgerwachten’ in the Netherlands). This study uses semi-structured interviews (n=380) in Belgium to examine how NW members and non-NW members perceive the effectiveness of both formal and informal NW projects and how the two relate to each other. The perceived effectiveness is assessed based on several criteria, including impact on crime, fear of crime, policing, and the relationship between police and citizens.


Thom Snaphaan
T. Snaphaan, MSc is veiligheidswetenschapper en criminoloog. Hij is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Universiteit Gent en lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).

Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Universiteit Gent en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).

Wim Hardyns
Prof. dr. W. Hardyns is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Universiteit Gent en lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP). Daarnaast is hij als gastprofessor verbonden aan de master in de Veiligheidswetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen.
Sociaal beleid

Gelijke beloning voor mannen en vrouwen: geen woorden meer maar daden

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 1-2 2022
Trefwoorden handhaving, toezicht, effectieve rechtsbescherming, transparantie
Auteurs Prof. mr. L.A.J. Senden en Drs. R. Hesdahl
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De loonkloof m/v is een hardnekkig probleem ondanks lang bestaande wetgeving. Dat komt onder meer doordat naleving van het recht op gelijke beloning vooral als een individueel probleem is beschouwd van de klaagster. Het richtlijnvoorstel over meer loontransparantie en betere handhaving van gelijkebeloningswetgeving m/v vormt een welkome trendbreuk doordat het niet alleen individuele rechtsbescherming versterkt maar ook toezicht en handhaving. Het voorstel maakt de loonkloof tot een gedeelde verantwoordelijkheid van werkgevers, sociale partners, gelijke behandelingsorganen, arbeidsinspectie, rechters en een aan te wijzen toezichtsorgaan. Daarmee zet het de lidstaten aan om eindelijk de daad bij het woord te voegen en de loonkloof daadwerkelijk te dichten.
    Voorstel voor een richtlijn van het Europees Parlement en de Raad ter versterking van de toepassing van het beginsel van gelijke beloning van mannen en vrouwen voor gelijke of gelijkwaardige arbeid door middel van beloningstransparantie en handhavingsmechanismen, Brussel, 4 maart 2021, COM(2021)93 final.


Prof. mr. L.A.J. Senden
Prof. mr. L.A.J. (Linda) Senden is hoogleraar Europees recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht, RENFORCE en IOS Gender and Diversity Hub.

Drs. R. Hesdahl
Drs. R. (Rian) Hesdahl, LL.M is onderzoeksassistent aan de Universiteit Utrecht, ­RENFORCE.
Artikel

Access_open Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part II: The Purposes of Including Legal Philosophy

Tijdschrift Law and Method, januari 2022
Trefwoorden legal philosophy, research methods, interdisciplinary research, conceptual analysis
Auteurs Sanne Taekema en Wibren van der Burg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many doctrinal legal research questions require making use of other academic disciplines or perspectives. This article explains the relevance of legal philosophy for doctrinal research projects. Often legal research questions have conceptual or evaluative dimensions that presuppose philosophical understanding. For research on the concept of democracy, the function of constitutional rights, or the possible introduction of a referendum in the Netherlands, questions of a philosophical nature need to be answered. Legal philosophy can supplement and enrich doctrinal research in various ways. In this article, we present seven purposes that legal philosophy may serve in the context of a doctrinal research project: conceptual clarification, exposition and reconstruction of fundamental normative principles and values, theory building, providing creative perspectives, structural critiques, evaluation, and recommendations. For each objective, we illustrate how to use relevant philosophical methods. Thus, this article complements our earlier publication ‘Legal Philosophy as an Enrichment of Doctrinal Research – Part I: Introducing Three Philosophical Methods’.1x http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.

Noten

  • * This text has been presented to classes at the University of Zagreb, Queen Mary University of London and Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam; we profited from the feedback of our students. We also want to thank Irma Bluijs, Machteld Geuskens, Tamar de Waal and the reviewers for their helpful comments on previous versions of this article, and Jacqueline Brand and Robert Poll for providing research assistance.
  • 1 http://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2020/01/lawandmethod-D-19-00006.


Sanne Taekema
Prof. mr. dr. Sanne Taekema is Professor of Jurisprudence, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.

Wibren van der Burg
Prof. dr. mr. Wibren van der Burg, is Professor of Legal Philosophy, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.

    In recent years, big data technology has revolutionised many domains, including policing. There is a lack of research, however, exploring which applications are used by the police, and the potential benefits of big data analytics for policing. Instead, literature about big data and policing predominantly focuses on predictive policing and its associated risks. The present paper provides new insights into the police’s current use of big data and algorithmic applications. We provide an up-to-date overview of the various applications of big data by the National Police in the Netherlands. We distinguish three areas: uniformed police work, criminal investigation, and intelligence. We then discuss two positive effects of big data and algorithmic applications for the police organization: accelerated learning and the formation of a single police organization.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg is bijzonder hoogleraar Digital Surveillance aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en universitair docent aan Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Melvin Soudijn
Melvin Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid Nationale Politie en research fellow bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Access_open Global Solidarity and Collective Intelligence in Times of Pandemics

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Global solidarity, Pandemics, Global Existential Threats, Collective Intelligence, CrowdLaw
Auteurs José Luis Martí
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some of the existential threats we currently face are global in the sense that they affect us all, and thus matter of global concern and trigger duties of moral global solidarity. But some of these global threats, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are global in a second, additional, sense: discharging them requires joint, coordinated global action. For that reason, these twofold global threats trigger political – not merely moral – duties of global solidarity. This article explores the contrast between these two types of global threats with the purpose of clarifying the distinction between moral and political duties of global solidarity. And, in the absence of a fully developed global democratic institutional system, the article also explores some promising ways to fulfill our global political duties, especially those based on mechanisms of collective intelligence such as CrowdLaw, which might provide effective solutions to these global threats while enhancing the democratic legitimacy of public decision-making.


José Luis Martí
José Luis Martí is Associate Professor of Legal and Political Philosophy, Department of Law, Pompeu Fabra University of Barcelona.
Artikel

Access_open Dividing the Beds: A Risk Community under ‘Code Black’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Cosmopolitan solidarity, COVID-19, Health care regulation, Risk society, Argumentative discourse analysis
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the COVID-19 crisis a risk of ‘code black’ emerged in the Netherlands. Doctors mentioned that in case of code black, very senior citizens might not receive intensive care treatment for COVID-19 due to shortages. Sociologist Ulrich Beck argued that palpable risks lead to the creation of new networks of solidarity. In this article this assumption is investigated by analyzing the different storylines prevalent in the public discussion about ‘code black’. Initially, storylines showing sympathy with the plight of the elderly came to the fore. However, storylines brought forward by medical organizations eventually dominated, giving them the opportunity to determine health care policy to a large extent. Their sway over policymaking led to a distribution scheme of vaccines that was favourable for medical personnel, but unfavourable for the elderly. The discursive process on code black taken as a whole displayed a struggle over favourable risk positions, instead of the formation of risk solidarity.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is Assistant Professor of Jurisprudence at Tilburg Law School.
Artikel

Access_open Solidarity and COVID-19

A Foucauldian analysis

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, COVID-19 epidemic, Foucault, Social cohesion, Practicing
Auteurs Marli Huijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, most governments in Europe have imposed disciplinary and controlling mechanisms on their populations. In the name of solidarity, citizens are pressed to submit to lockdowns, social distancing or corona apps. Building on the historical-philosophical studies of Michel Foucault, this article shows that these mechanisms are spin-offs of health regimes that have evolved since the seventeenth century. In case of COVID-19, these regimes decreased the infection, morbidity and mortality rates. But, as a side-effect, they limited the opportunities to act together and practice solidarity. This negatively affected the social cohesion and public sphere in already highly individualistic societies. To prevent the further disappearing of solidarity – understood as something that is enacted rather than as a moral value or political principle – governments and citizens need to invest in the restoral of the social conditions that enable and facilitate the practicing of solidarity after the epidemic.


Marli Huijer
Marli Huijer is Emeritus Professor of Public Philosophy at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Suffering from Vulnerability

On the Relation Between Law, Contingency and Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Vulnerability, Contingency, Freedom and Anxiety, Solidarity, Legal concept of inclusion
Auteurs Benno Zabel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 crisis has produced or amplified disruptive processes in societies. This article wants to argue for the fact that we understand the meaning of the COVID-19 crisis only if we relate it to the fundamental vulnerability of modern life and the awareness of vulnerability of whole societies. Vulnerability in modernity are expressions of a reality of freedom that is to some extent considered contingent and therefore unsecured. It is true that law is understood today as the protective power of freedom. The thesis of the article, however, boils down to the fact that the COVID-19 crisis has resulted in a new way of thinking about the protection of freedom. This also means that the principle of solidarity must be assigned a new social role. Individual and societal vulnerability refer thereafter to an interconnectedness, dependency, and a future perspective of freedom margins that, in addition to the moral one, can also indicate a need for legal protection. In this respect, law has not only a function of delimitation, but also one of inclusion.


Benno Zabel
Benno Zabel is Professor of Criminal Law and Philosophy of Law at the University of Bonn.
Kroniek

De hybride en het klimaat

Het belang van Bruno Latour voor de criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden Bruno Latour, ecocide, herstelrecht, antropocentrisme, antropoceen
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This chronicle discusses the importance of Bruno Latour’s work for criminology, paying attention to the role of technology and our relationship to nature. The author proposes to criminalize ecocide and advocates the use of restorative justice in dealing with environmental crimes.


Marc Schuilenburg
Prof. dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg is Bijzonder Hoogleraar Digital Surveillance aan de Erasmus Universiteit en universitair docent aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam binnen het departement Strafrecht en Criminologie.
Article

Access_open A Comparative Perspective on the Protection of Hate Crime Victims in the European Union

New Developments in Criminal Procedures in the EU Member States

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden hate crime, victims, victim rights, procedural justice, EU Member States, criminal procedure
Auteurs Suzan van der Aa, Robin Hofmann en Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hate crime victims involved in a criminal procedure experience difficulties that are different from problems encountered by other victims. In trying to meet the specific procedural needs of hate crime victims many EU Member States have introduced protective measures and services in criminal proceedings, but the adopted approaches are widely disparate. By reporting the results of an EU-wide comparative survey into hate crime victims within national criminal procedures the authors aim to: (1) make an inventory of the national (legal) definitions of hate crime and the protection measures available (on paper) for hate crime victims; and (2) critically discuss certain national choices, inter alia by juxtaposing the procedural measures to the procedural needs of hate crime victims to see if there are any lacunae from a victimological perspective. The authors conclude that the Member States should consider expanding their current corpus of protection measures in order to address some of the victims’ most urgent needs.


Suzan van der Aa
Suzan van der Aa, PhD, is Professor of Criminal Law at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Robin Hofmann
Robin Hofmann is Assistant Professor at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is Professor at Maastricht University, the Netherands.
Article

Access_open How Do Victims With the Need for Protection Judge Their Experiences With the Police in the Netherlands?

An Exploration

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden victim needs, protection, reasons to report, contribution to safety, police information, victim-offender relationship
Auteurs Annemarie ten Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a preliminary analysis of how victims who report to the police for protection in the Netherlands judge their experiences with the police, in comparison with victims reporting crimes for other reasons. An existing dataset was used: the data was originally collected for a comprehensive survey among crime victims of 12 years and older in 2016. Female victims of violent (sexual and non-sexual) crimes constitute the major part of the victims for whom protection is the most important reporting reason. Victim perceptions of police contribution to safety as well as police information were investigated. The analyses show that overall, victim perceptions of the police’s contribution to safety are rather negative. Contribution to safety is judged somewhat better by victims for whom protection is their most important reporting reason; however, the respondents who are positive still form a minority. Police information is judged positively by more victims than contribution to safety. Of the respondents for whom protection is a reporting reason, victims of sexual crimes appear to judge police information positively more often than victims of other crime types.


Annemarie ten Boom
Annemarie ten Boom, PhD, was a researcher at the WODC, Ministry of Justice and Security in the Netherlands until February 2022.
Artikel

Over schade en schande

Shaming en stigmatisering van ondernemingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden naming and shaming, organisatiecriminaliteit, stigma, reputatie, Shell
Auteurs Judith van Erp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Naming-and-shaming campaigns, in which civil society groups publicly call upon corporations to end harmful behavior via social media, are a powerful mechanism for social control of corporations. This article investigates naming and shaming in modern, global markets through a case study of Shell - one of the most stigmatized corporations of our time. First, the perspective of organizational sociology is used to answer the question why Shell is receiving such significant attention. Next, the article addresses how shaming manifests itself in global markets. The example of Shell illustrates reintegrative shaming, aiming to end harmful activities, as well as stigmatizing shaming that undermines a corporation’s license to operate.
    Finally, this article discusses the potential consequences of naming and shaming for corporate reputations. In the case of Shell, Goffman’s concept of courtesy stigma appears to form the greatest reputational risk, as stigmatization of Shells business partners will create status anxiety and will limit opportunities to develop business.


Judith van Erp
Prof. dr. Judith van Erp bekleedt de leerstoel ‘Regulatory Governance’ aan de Universiteit Utrecht, binnen het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap. j.g.vanerp@uu.nl
Article

Access_open Victim-Offender Contact in Forensic Mental Health

Resocialisation and Victim Acknowledgement During the Execution of the Dutch TBS Order

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden victim-offender contact, resocialisation, victim acknowledgement, forensic psychiatry, mentally disordered offenders
Auteurs Lydia Dalhuisen en Alice Kirsten Bosma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crime victims have gained a stronger position in all phases of the criminal procedure, including the post-sentencing phase. It is in this phase specifically that victims’ needs and interests relating to acknowledgement interplay with the offenders’ needs and interests relating to resocialisation. In the Netherlands, offenders who suffer from a mental disorder at the time of the offence limiting their criminal accountability and pose a significant safety threat, can be given a TBS order. This means that they are placed in a forensic psychiatric hospital to prevent further crimes and receive treatment aimed at resocialisation. As resocialisation requires the offender to return to society, contact with the victim might be a necessary step. This article focuses on victim-offender contact during the execution of this TBS order, and looks at risks and opportunities of victim-offender contact in this context, given the particular offender population. Offenders are divided into three groups: those with primarily psychotic disorders, those suffering from personality disorders and those with comorbidity, especially substance abuse disorders. The TBS population is atypical compared to offenders without a mental disorder. Their disorders can heighten the risks of unsuccessful or even counterproductive victim-offender contact. Yet, carefully executed victim-offender contact which includes thorough preparation, managing expectations and choosing the right type of contact can contribute to both successful resocialisation as well as victim acknowledgement.


Lydia Dalhuisen
Lydia Dalhuisen, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Alice Kirsten Bosma
Alice Kirsten Bosma is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law of Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
Article

Access_open The Role of the Vienna Rules in the Interpretation of the ECHR

A Normative Basis or a Source of Inspiration?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, techniques of interpretation, the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Auteurs Eszter Polgári
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The interpretive techniques applied by the European Court of Human Rights are instrumental in filling the vaguely formulated rights-provisions with progressive content, and their use provoked widespread criticism. The article argues that despite the scarcity of explicit references to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, all the ECtHR’s methods and doctrines of interpretation have basis in the VCLT, and the ECtHR has not developed a competing framework. The Vienna rules are flexible enough to accommodate the interpretive rules developed in the ECHR jurisprudence, although effectiveness and evolutive interpretation is favoured – due to the unique nature of Convention – over the more traditional means of interpretation, such as textualism. Applying the VCLT as a normative framework offers unique ways of reconceptualising some of the much-contested means of interpretation in order to increase the legitimacy of the ECtHR.


Eszter Polgári
Eszter Polgári, PhD, is assistant professor at the Department of Legal Studies of the Central European University in Austria.
Artikel

Criminele netwerken achter orgaanhandel: een sociale netwerkanalyse van de Medicus-zaak

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden organ trafficking, social network analysis, organized crime
Auteurs Henrieke Doosje, Frederike Ambagtsheer en Arjan Blokland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Though less well-known than for instance the narcotics or weapons trade, illegal organ trade is a lucrative business with yearly revenues estimated between 840 million and 1.7 billion USD. The most commonly reported form of organ trade is the trade in living donor kidneys. The current study maps the criminal network behind the illegal organ trade that took place in the Medicus clinic in Kosovo based on police files, indictments, transcripts of suspect and victim statements, court rulings and interviews. The Medicus case involved at least 27 living kidney donations. Operations were performed by eleven actors in teams of varying composition. The total criminal network consisted of 107 individuals and is characterized by a low density and features a number of central actors.


Henrieke Doosje
M.H. Doosje MSc LLB is criminoloog en masterstudente Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden. Zij was ten tijde van het onderzoek masterstudente Forensische Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en stagiaire bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.

Frederike Ambagtsheer
Dr. F. Ambagtsheer LLM is Universitair Docent bij het Transplantatie Instituut van het Erasmus MCin Rotterdam.

Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Als wetgeving niet zwart of wit is, maar grijs

Strategieën van professionals en burgers om met ambiguïteit in de Wmo 2015 om te gaan

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Tailor-made social support, Discretionary space, Role-ambiguity, Coping strategies, Multi-actor network
Auteurs Eline Marie Linthorst en Lieke Oldenhof
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we study a case of responsive law, i.e. the Dutch Social Support Act, which entails the open norm to provide tailored support as the antithesis of universal ‘one-size-fits-all-solutions’. Rather than assessing clients’ needs based on check lists, street-level bureaucrats are expected to jointly explore fitting solutions in dialogue with citizens during a so-called kitchen table talk. The space to tailor support to the individual situation, however, creates ambiguity about the interpretation of this open norm and conflicting expectations with regard to stakeholders’ roles. This role-ambiguity is not only situated in the interaction between professional and citizen at the kitchen table, but is nested in a multi-actor network of policy makers, frontline workers, clients of social support, lawyers and judges. In this article we zoom in on this network to investigate how multiple stakeholders cope with ambiguity regarding the interpretation of the open norm and each other’s roles. The conducted qualitative study (observations, interviews and document analysis) provides revealing insights into the strategies employed by multiple actors when role-ambiguity emerges, including strategies of standardization, proto professionalization and objectification. These strategies cannot be seen in isolation from one another and their interaction results in the unintended effect of more rules and administrative burden and less discretionary space for tailored support. Based on these findings we argue that mutual trust and insights into the various roles within this network is of great importance in order to prevent rule-reflex. In addition, professionals should be better equipped to conduct open dialogues about what constitutes appropriate support with the client. Finally, sufficient financial leeway is needed for municipalities so that they are not forced to constantly seek the legal boundaries of what can be regarded as the minimum variant of social support.


Eline Marie Linthorst
Eline Linthorst is promovenda en docent bij de sectie Law & Health Care van Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management en lid bezwaarschriftencommissie Rotterdam (Participatiewet en Wmo 2015). Haar onderzoek is gericht op de Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning 2015 en de wijze waarop maatwerk als open norm in de praktijk uitwerkt.

Lieke Oldenhof
Lieke Oldenhof is universitair hoofddocent antropologie van de veranderende verzorgingsstaat bij de sectie Health Care Governance van Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management. Zij voert in het kader van haar Veni-beurs ‘Maatwerk of willekeur aan de keukentafel’ kwalitatief onderzoek uit naar keukentafelgesprekken.
Redactioneel

Roldynamiek binnen juridische professies

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Role theory, Legal professions, Occupational role, Role dynamism, Structural functionalism
Auteurs Peter Mascini en Nienke Doornbos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue focuses on the role concept, which has largely fallen out of use in sociology, but which seems ideally suited to analyze the circumstances in which legal professionals work nowadays. Their occupations are often surrounded by constitutional guarantees and professional standards, but at the same time in full swing due to policy reforms referred to as New Public Management and Socially Effective Judiciary (Maatschappelijk Effectieve Rechtspraak). This combination of relative role stability and rapid change can ensure that the predictability and desirability of the interpretation attributed to professional roles become subject of discussion and reflection. The way the role concept is used in this special issue is deliberately decoupled from the much-criticized structural functionalism with which it is often associated. The fact that this sociological perspective has lost much of its sway since the 1960s, because of its conservative character, makes it easier to give dynamics, ambiguity, conflict and resistance a prominent place in contemporary analyzes in which the role concept is central. The authors in this special issue examine whether the role fulfillment by professionals working in the legal field is actually subject of discussion and reflection and how this dynamic manifests itself.


Peter Mascini
Peter Mascini is werkzaam als hoogleraar Empirical Legal Studies bij de Erasmus School of Law en universitair hoofddocent sociologie bij de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen. Tevens is hij programmadirecteur van de opleiding sociologie en lid van het managementteam van het Erasmus Center for Empirical Legal Studies (ECELS). Hij verricht onderzoek naar de legitimering, uitvoering en handhaving van wetgeving en beleid.

Nienke Doornbos
Nienke Doornbos is universitair docent en onderzoeker bij de afdeling Algemene Rechtsleer, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij rondde in 2021 een empirisch onderzoek af naar probleemoplossende rechtspraak. Haar onderzoeksexpertise ligt op het terrein van kwalitatief, rechtssociologisch onderzoek naar toegang tot recht en de organisatie en beroepsethiek van juridische professies.
Artikel

Digital investigation powers and privacy

Recent ECtHR case law and implications for the modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure

Tijdschrift Boom Strafblad, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden Right to respect for private life, European Court of Human Rights, Digital investigation powers, Modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure, Regulation
Auteurs Prof. mr. M.F.H. (Marianne) Hirsch Ballin en Dr. mr. M. (Maša) Galič
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the Modernisation of the Code of Criminal Procedure, certain digital investigation powers will for the first time be given a specific statutory basis, such as the search of data carriers, open-source investigation and network searches. Nevertheless, considering the high degree of intrusiveness of such techniques, particularly with the right to privacy, it remains important to take note of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, which continues to set minimum safeguards for the interference with private life. In this paper, we therefore conduct a brief overview of recent ECtHR case law concerning five types of digital investigation powers. We then consider the implications of this case law for the regulation of such powers in the draft Code of Criminal Procedure and for the Modernisation process more broadly.


Prof. mr. M.F.H. (Marianne) Hirsch Ballin
Marianne Hirsch Ballin is professor of Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Vrije Univeristeit Amsterdam and member of the editorial board of this journal.

Dr. mr. M. (Maša) Galič
Maša Galič is assistant professor Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Pauline Kuipers
Mr. drs. D.P. Kuipers is advocaat en partner bij Bird & Bird LLP in Den Haag.

Paul Lugard
Mr. H.H.P. Lugard is partner bij Baker Botts LLP in Brussel.
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