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Artikel

Access_open De strafbaarstelling van straatintimidatie en het risico van etnisch profileren

Een pragmatische ‘sociologie van kritiek’

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Street Harassment, Feminism, Ethnic profiling, Gender-based violence, Criminalization
Auteurs Mischa Dekker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2014, several countries have introduced legislation to criminalize ‘street harassment.’ In France, this criminalization was framed within a feminist perspective, by conceiving of street harassment as the first level of a ‘continuum of violence against women.’ In the Netherlands, on the other hand, proposals to criminalize these behaviors came from right-wing political parties. They framed ordinances as protecting public order and focused on racialized loitering youth as the main problem group. Despite these differences, proponents of penalization in both countries encountered a similar criticism: according to left-wing politicians, feminists, and anti-racist activists, criminalizing street harassment could lead to disproportionate punishment of racialized men from disadvantaged backgrounds. This article argues for a pragmatic ‘sociology of critique’ within the sociology of law, which provides insight into how actors involved in the introduction of regulation develop reflexivity about the risks of legislation, as well as their blind spots.


Mischa Dekker
Mischa Dekker is socioloog aan het Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d’études sur les réflexivités, École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Parijs. Zijn onderzoek gaat over publieke problemen, gendergerelateerd geweld, rechtssociologie en sociale bewegingen. Voor zijn proefschrift deed hij onderzoek naar de opkomst van straatintimidatie als publiek probleem in Nederland en Frankrijk.
Artikel

Inspecteurs met voeten in de klei

Een nieuw model voor controle bij agrarisch natuurbeheer

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Agri-environmental governance, Inspection & compliance, Socio-legal, Nature conservation, Self regulation
Auteurs Edwin Alblas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Agri-environmental schemes serve to financially compensate farmers for promoting the quality of nature and landscapes on their land. In 2016, the Netherlands implemented a new scheme that is unique in an EU and even global context. Within this model, rule-setting, inspection and enforcement tasks are shared between public actors and private ‘environmental cooperatives’: groups of farmers legally organized as conservation organizations.
    With a focus on the theme of inspection, this study adds new empirical insights to emerging scholarship on the interactions public policy and private authority. The study finds that present interactions between government inspectors and inspectors of the cooperatives can mainly be defined as ‘coexistence’, rather than complementary or competitive. A lack of coordination between the two types of actors was found to result in confusion among farmers and missed opportunities for mutual learning by inspectors. The study concludes with three policy recommendations to come to a more constructive relationship between public and private inspectors in the Dutch agri-environmental governance model.


Edwin Alblas
Edwin Alblas is universitair docent milieurecht aan de Wageningen University & Research, en post-doc onderzoeker aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Edwins onderzoek en onderwijswerkzaamheden richten zich op de thema’s natuurbeschermingsrecht, landbouwbeleid en milieu.
Werk in uitvoering

Researching racialisation: the regulation of interracialised intimacies in France (1954-1979)

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden France, Interracial intimacies, Migration, Gender, Race
Auteurs Rébecca Franco
Auteursinformatie

Rébecca Franco
Rébecca Franco is promovenda aan de rechtenfaculteit van de Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam. Haar onderzoek is deel van het ERC project ‘Euromix: Regulating mixd intimacies in Europe’. Zij doet onderzoek naar de regulatie van geïnterracialiseerde intimiteiten in Frankrijk tijdens- en in de nasleep van de dekolonisatie.
Redactioneel

Veiligheid op de zorgwerkvloer

Een noodzakelijke voorwaarde voor goede zorg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidsrecht, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden gezondheidsrecht
Auteurs Mr. F.H. de Haan
Auteursinformatie

Mr. F.H. de Haan
Frank de Haan is manager Strategie en Bestuur en bedrijfsjurist Amphia Ziekenhuis.
Artikel

Politie en de COVID-19-pandemie in België: impact op het politiewerk, de interne relaties en politie-burgerinteracties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden COVID-19 regulations, crisis, procedural justice, police legitimacy, self-legitimacy
Auteurs Yinthe Feys
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author reflects on the impact of COVID-19 on policing, the relations among police officers and the interactions between police and citizens based on systematic social observations in small to semi-sized local police forces during the pandemic. The article discusses the nature of police work during the crisis and new types of interventions that police officers are confronted with (e.g. curfew controls). Additionally, the impact of the pandemic on the internal and external relations is discussed. Internally, the COVID-19 measures may have an impact on police officers’ possibilities for personal, social interactions among colleagues, which may potentially challenge the solidarity within the police force. Externally, tensions may arise in relations with citizens, partly because of unclear regulations or variable interpretations of those regulations. Those unclear regulations, but also uncertainties concerning one’s own competences and questions regarding the police’s role in enforcing the pandemic regulations, put pressure on the police’s (self-)legitimacy.


Yinthe Feys
Dra. Y. Feys is doctoraatsonderzoeker bij het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, Universiteit Gent.
Redactioneel

Relaties tussen politie en burgers in een veranderende context

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Interaction, Police-citizen, Police organization, Societal developments, Organizational developments
Auteurs Jan Terpstra, Antoinette Verhage en Lisa van Reemst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past years important changes have occurred in police work in the Netherlands and Belgium. These developments, and new questions that arose because of these developments, are the reason we dedicate a special issue to ‘the police and citizen in a changing context’. In this introduction of this issue, we describe a number of developments and new questions. We address the changing distance between police officers and citizens, authority and trust, the role of citizens, technology and digitization and growing complexity and diversity. In addition, the articles in this special issue are introduced.


Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen en fellow aan de Vrije Universiteit te Brussel (Crime & Society Research Group).

Antoinette Verhage
Prof. dr. A. Verhage is hoofddocent aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht en lid van het IRCP (Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy), Universiteit Gent.

Lisa van Reemst
Dr. L. van Reemst is Universitair docent aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Oude wijn in nieuwe zakken?

Een studie naar de gepercipieerde effectiviteit van buurtinformatienetwerken in een veranderende context

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden community safety, crime prevention, neighborhood inhabitants, Neighborhood Watch, police
Auteurs Thom Snaphaan, Lieven Pauwels en Wim Hardyns
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rise of the internet and social media has important consequences for the way we interact, communicate and access information. This has repercussions for the police organization and also for the cooperation between police and citizens. One of these forms of cooperation between police and citizens are neighborhood watch (NW) projects (also known as ‘BINs’ in Belgium and ‘burgerwachten’ in the Netherlands). This study uses semi-structured interviews (n=380) in Belgium to examine how NW members and non-NW members perceive the effectiveness of both formal and informal NW projects and how the two relate to each other. The perceived effectiveness is assessed based on several criteria, including impact on crime, fear of crime, policing, and the relationship between police and citizens.


Thom Snaphaan
T. Snaphaan, MSc is veiligheidswetenschapper en criminoloog. Hij is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Universiteit Gent en lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).

Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Universiteit Gent en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).

Wim Hardyns
Prof. dr. W. Hardyns is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht van de Universiteit Gent en lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP). Daarnaast is hij als gastprofessor verbonden aan de master in de Veiligheidswetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen.
Artikel

A comparative law analysis of no-fault comprehensive compensation funds: international best practice & contemporary applications

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Vergoeding Personenschade, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden no-fault, alternative compensation system, tort remedies, socio-legal frameworks, access to justice
Auteurs K. Watts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Compensation funds in different jurisdictions have varying functions and objectives to remedy loss. This doctoral research addresses the significant knowledge gap in relation to no-fault comprehensive compensation funds. These are a single publicly-managed structure that provides a wide, compulsory and complete replacement for tort remedies.
    The research identifies the hallmarks of these funds’ successful establishment, administration, operation and further development. This includes analysis of the functional harms covered, compensation quantum and funding. There is also a novel first principles analysis of the interaction between large funds and human rights law. These analyses inform concrete recommendations for the legislative improvement of existing funds, new funds, and the framework’s application to contemporary liability problems.


K. Watts
K. Watts (PhD in Law) is Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Antwerp.
Artikel

Boosheid, verdriet of walging?

Een systematische literatuurreview naar de rol van emotie bij het effect van gruwelijk bewijsmateriaal op schuldbeslissingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2021
Trefwoorden gruwelijk bewijs, emotie, schuldbeslissing, systematische literatuurreview
Auteurs Dante Hoek, Janne van Doorn en Sigrid van Wingerden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research has shown that gruesome evidence influences guilt decisions. Several scholars have put forward that the emotional response to gruesome evidence drives this effect. The current systematic review aims to critically scrutinize the current literature on this underlying emotion mechanism, by reviewing studies on the potential mediating role of emotion. A synthesis of the literature suggests that specific emotions have different effects: disgust shows a mediating effect, fear and sadness do not, whereas the effect of anger is inconsistent. The question remains whether an emotional effect is desirable in the courtroom. Recommendations for future research and the legal practice are made.


Dante Hoek
Dante Hoek is een tweedejaars masterstudent van de International Master’s in Advanced Research in Criminology (IMARC). Deze literatuurreview is verricht in het kader van haar bachelorscriptie Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Janne van Doorn
Dr. J. van Doorn is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Sigrid van Wingerden
Dr. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden is universitair hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en tevens voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.
Artikel

Access_open Dividing the Beds: A Risk Community under ‘Code Black’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Cosmopolitan solidarity, COVID-19, Health care regulation, Risk society, Argumentative discourse analysis
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the COVID-19 crisis a risk of ‘code black’ emerged in the Netherlands. Doctors mentioned that in case of code black, very senior citizens might not receive intensive care treatment for COVID-19 due to shortages. Sociologist Ulrich Beck argued that palpable risks lead to the creation of new networks of solidarity. In this article this assumption is investigated by analyzing the different storylines prevalent in the public discussion about ‘code black’. Initially, storylines showing sympathy with the plight of the elderly came to the fore. However, storylines brought forward by medical organizations eventually dominated, giving them the opportunity to determine health care policy to a large extent. Their sway over policymaking led to a distribution scheme of vaccines that was favourable for medical personnel, but unfavourable for the elderly. The discursive process on code black taken as a whole displayed a struggle over favourable risk positions, instead of the formation of risk solidarity.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is Assistant Professor of Jurisprudence at Tilburg Law School.
Artikel

Access_open The Exceptionality of Solidarity

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, COVID-19, Crisis, Normalcy, Exceptionality
Auteurs Amalia Amaya Navarro
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In times of crisis, we witness exceptional expressions of solidarity. Why does solidarity spring in times of crisis when it wanes in normal times? An inquiry into what may explain the differences between the expression of solidarity in crisis vs. normalcy provides, as I will argue in this article, important insights into the conditions and nature of solidarity. Solidarity requires, I will contend, an egalitarian ethos and state action within and beyond the state. It is neither a momentary political ideal, nor an exclusionary one, which depends for its sustainment on formal, legal, structures. Transient, sectarian, and informal conceptions of solidarity unduly curtail the demands of solidarity by restricting its reach to times of crisis, to in-group recipients, and to the social rather than the legal sphere. The article concludes by discussing some aspects of the dynamics of solidarity and its inherent risks that the analysis of the exceptionality of solidarity helps bring into focus.


Amalia Amaya Navarro
Amalia Amaya Navarro is British Academy Global Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
Artikel

Access_open Solidarity and Community

From the Politics of the Clan to Constituent Power

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, Community, COVID-19 pandemic, Humanity, Ethnocentrism
Auteurs Luigi Corrias
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What is at stake in invoking solidarity in legal-political contexts? The guiding hypothesis of this article is that solidarity is always and necessarily linked to the concept of community. A plea for solidarity will, in other words, directly lead one to the question: solidarity with whom? On the one hand, solidarity may be understood as extending only to those who belong to the same community as us. In this reading, solidarity builds upon an already existing community and applies to members only. On the other hand, invoked by those who aim to question the status quo, solidarity also plays a key role in practices of contestation. In these contexts, it focuses on collective action and the reimagination of political community. The article ends by articulating how this second interpretation of solidarity might prove helpful in making sense of our current predicament of a global pandemic.


Luigi Corrias
Luigi Corrias is Assistant Professor of Legal Philosophy, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open What Solidarity?

A Look Behind the Veil of Solidarity in ‘Corona Times’ Contractual Relations

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Mechanical solidarity, Organic solidarity, Contract, Good faith, Punishment
Auteurs Candida Leone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article uses three prominent examples from the Dutch context to problematize the relationship between contractual and social solidarity during the coronavirus crisis. The social science ideal types of ‘mechanical’ and ‘organic’ solidarity, and their typified correspondence with legal modes of punishment and compensation, are used to illuminate the way in which solidarity language in private relationships can convey and normalize assumptions about the public interest and economic order.


Candida Leone
Candida Leone is Assistant Professor at the, Amsterdam Centre for Transformative Private Law.
Artikel

Access_open Sick and Blamed

Criminal Law in the Chilean Response to COVID-19

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Solidarity, Punishment, Legitimacy, Inequality, COVID-19
Auteurs Rocío Lorca
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Chilean government called upon ideas of social solidarity to fight the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 and it relied heavily on the criminal law in order to secure compliance with sanitary restrictions. However, because restrictions and prosecutorial policy did not take into account social background and people’s ability to comply with the law, prosecutions soon created groups of people who were being both over-exposed to disease and death, and over-exposed to control, blame and punishment. The configuration of this overpoliced and underprotected group became so visibly unjust that appealing to social solidarity to justify the criminal enforcement of sanitary restrictions became almost insulting. This forced the Fiscal Nacional to develop a ‘socially sensitive’ prosecutorial strategy, something that we have not often seen despite Chile’s inequalities. The changes in policy by the Fiscal Nacional suggest that perhaps, at times, penal institutions can be made accountable for acting in ways that create estrangement rather than cohesion.


Rocío Lorca
Rocío Lorca is Assistant Professor at Universidad de Chile’s School of Law.
Redactioneel

Kunst in de wereld van herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2021
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis en Ivo Aertsen
Auteursinformatie

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is jurist, vicevoorzitter van het European Forum for Restorative Justice en redacteur van dit tijdschrift. Zij is als onderzoeker en trainer verbonden aan Restorative Justice Nederland.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus gewoon hoogleraar KU Leuven bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie. Hij is actief betrokken bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice en bij meerdere onderzoeks- en praktijkontwikkelingen op het vlak van het herstelrecht, van het lokale Leuven Restorative City, de Vlaamse bemiddelingsdienst Moderator tot The International Journal of Restorative Justice en het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht.
Kroniek

Het leefklimaat in penitentiaire inrichtingen: een overzicht van onderzoek uit de Lage Landen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden Prison, Climate, Correlates, Consequences, Overview
Auteurs Elien Goossens en Tom Daems
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years scientific interest in various aspects of prison climate has increased exponentially. At first, such research was being initiated and undertaken predominantly within Anglo-Saxon penology but, more recently, research into prison climate is also increasingly taking place elsewhere, including in the Netherlands and Belgium. In this article the authors offer an overview of Dutch and Belgian research on prison climate. They discuss the literature from two broad angles: first, the characteristics of prisons and incarcerated individuals that determine the quality of prison climate; and, second, research on the impact of prison climate on inmates themselves.


Elien Goossens
MSc E. Goossens is doctoraatsonderzoeker FWO aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), KU Leuven.

Tom Daems
Prof. dr. T. Daems is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), KU Leuven.
Artikel

Handvatten voor een kwaliteitsbeoordeling van big data: de introductie van het Total Error raamwerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden big data, criminology, data quality, total error framework, accuracy
Auteurs Thom Snaphaan en Wim Hardyns
Samenvatting

    The availability and use of big data sources is increasing exponentially. The variety of new and emerging data sources offers opportunities to complement, replace, improve or add to conventional data sources. Survey data are one kind of conventional data sources. In survey research, a framework to assess the accuracy of survey data already existed for quite some time. This framework is known as the Total Survey Error (TSE) framework. The philosophy behind this framework has only recently been universalized to (big) data in general in the form of the Total Error (TE) framework. This generic framework, which allows for assessing the accuracy of (big) data, is outlined in this article. Additionally, the TE framework is applied to big data sources that could be relevant for policing: police-registered crime data, Twitter data and mobile phone data.


Thom Snaphaan

Wim Hardyns
Article

Access_open Dutch Penal Protection Orders in Practice

A Study of Aims and Outcomes

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden enforcement practice, victim safety, street level bureaucracy, criminal justice chain, penal protection orders
Auteurs Tamar Fischer en Sanne Struijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Penal protection orders (PPOs) aim to protect initial victims from repeat victimisation and in a broader sense from any danger for his or her dignity or psychological and sexual integrity and may therefore be important instruments for victim safety. However, knowledge on the actual practice of the PPOs and the successes, dilemmas and challenges involved is scarce. In this article, we describe the legal framework and actual enforcement practice of Dutch PPOs. The theoretical framework leading our explorative analyses regards Lipsky’s notion of ‘street-level bureaucracy’ and the succeeding work of Maynard & Musheno and Tummers on coping strategies and agency narratives of frontline workers. Using interview data from criminal justice professionals, victims and offenders, we describe the conditions of the enforcement practice and answer the question which coping mechanisms and types of agencies the professionals tend to apply in order to meet the legislative aims and to protect victims as effectively as possible. Results show that the five conditions described by Lipsky are clearly present. So far, in almost all situations the process of monitoring violations is reactive and because knowledge on risk indicators for violent escalation is still limited, it is difficult for frontline workers to decide how many and what type of resources should be invested in which cases. This results in a ‘moving away from clients’ strategy. However, within this context in which reactive enforcement is the default, we also found several examples of coping that represent ‘moving towards clients’ strategies.


Tamar Fischer
Tamar Fischer is Associate Professor of Criminology at the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Sanne Struijk
Sanne Struijk is Professor of Penal Sanctions Law and associate professor of Criminal Law at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Over schade en schande

Shaming en stigmatisering van ondernemingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden naming and shaming, organisatiecriminaliteit, stigma, reputatie, Shell
Auteurs Judith van Erp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Naming-and-shaming campaigns, in which civil society groups publicly call upon corporations to end harmful behavior via social media, are a powerful mechanism for social control of corporations. This article investigates naming and shaming in modern, global markets through a case study of Shell - one of the most stigmatized corporations of our time. First, the perspective of organizational sociology is used to answer the question why Shell is receiving such significant attention. Next, the article addresses how shaming manifests itself in global markets. The example of Shell illustrates reintegrative shaming, aiming to end harmful activities, as well as stigmatizing shaming that undermines a corporation’s license to operate.
    Finally, this article discusses the potential consequences of naming and shaming for corporate reputations. In the case of Shell, Goffman’s concept of courtesy stigma appears to form the greatest reputational risk, as stigmatization of Shells business partners will create status anxiety and will limit opportunities to develop business.


Judith van Erp
Prof. dr. Judith van Erp bekleedt de leerstoel ‘Regulatory Governance’ aan de Universiteit Utrecht, binnen het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap. j.g.vanerp@uu.nl

Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan Erasmus University Law School Rotterdam. Zij is hoofdredacteur van TMD en vicevoorzitter van SKM Examencommissie Mediatorsfederatie Nederland. Haar aandachtsgebied in onderwijs en onderzoek is rechtsvergelijking, met accent op geschiloplossing in vergelijkend perspectief.
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