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Artikel

Access_open Liberal Democracy and the Judeo-Christian Tradition

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering Pre-publications 2020
Trefwoorden national identity, historical narratives, universal values, equal citizenship
Auteurs Tamar de Waal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Increasingly often, it is stated that the universal values underpinning Western liberal democracies are a product of a ‘Judeo-Christian’ tradition. This article explores the legitimacy of this claim from the perspective of liberal-democratic theory. It argues that state-endorsed claims about the historical roots of liberal-democratic values are problematic (1) if they are promoted as though they are above democratic scrutiny and (2) if they insinuate that citizens who belong to a particular (majority) culture remain the ‘cultural owners’ of the core values underpinning the state. More pragmatically, the paper suggests that the claim carries the risk of failing to facilitate all citizens becoming or remaining committed to nurturing fundamental rights and a shared society based on norms of democratic equality.


Tamar de Waal
Tamar de Waal is Assistant Professor of Legal Philosophy at the Amsterdam Law School of the University of Amsterdam.

    Juliet Stumpf is de Robert E. Jones Professor of Advocacy and Ethics aan de Lewis & Clark Law School. Stumpf onderzoekt het fenomeen crimmigratie door een interdisciplinaire lens, waarbij ze inzichten uit het (immigratie- & straf-) recht in verband brengt met inzichten uit de sociale en geesteswetenschappen. Haar werk is gepubliceerd in een indrukwekkende reeks tijdschriften en boeken, waaronder een serie van ‘crimmigratie-artikelen’ waarvan haar inmiddels breed bekende artikel ‘The Crimmigration Crisis: Immigrants, Crime, and Sovereign Power’ (56 Am. U. L. Rev. 367) de eerste was.

Article

Access_open The Potential of Public Policy on Open Access Repositories

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden public policy, dissemination, governance, open access, repositories
Auteurs Nikos Koutras
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To address the potential of public policy on the governance of OARs it is necessary to define what is meant by public policy and the importance of public policy in designing an efficient governance framework. Critical components are the subject matter of public policy and its objectives. Hence, it is useful to consider declarations, policies and statements in relation to open access practice and examine the efficiency of these arrangements towards the improvement of stakeholders’ engagement in governance of OARs. Secondly, policies relating to dissemination of scientific information via OARs should be examined. In this regard, it is relevant to consider the public policy basis for Intellectual Property (IP) laws that concerning the utility of OARs. Therefore, economic theories relevant with the role of IP laws should be examined. Such examination depicts to what extend these laws facilitate the utility of OARs. In order to specify justifications for the desirability of OARs the objectives of social theories should be also considered. Thus, there is consternation that without legal protection against copying the incentive to create intellectual property will be undermined. As scholarly communication infrastructure evolves, it is necessary to recognize the efforts of the relationship between Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and communication technologies in the context of public policy and after engagement with it. After employing such multilevel approach, the paper argues about a socio-economic framework to enhance the governance of OARs through public policy.


Nikos Koutras
Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp.
Article

Access_open Access and Reuse of Machine-Generated Data for Scientific Research

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden machine-generated data, Internet of Things, scientific research, personal data, GDPR
Auteurs Alexandra Giannopoulou
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Data driven innovation holds the potential in transforming current business and knowledge discovery models. For this reason, data sharing has become one of the central points of interest for the European Commission towards the creation of a Digital Single Market. The value of automatically generated data, which are collected by Internet-connected objects (IoT), is increasing: from smart houses to wearables, machine-generated data hold significant potential for growth, learning, and problem solving. Facilitating researchers in order to provide access to these types of data implies not only the articulation of existing legal obstacles and of proposed legal solutions but also the understanding of the incentives that motivate the sharing of the data in question. What are the legal tools that researchers can use to gain access and reuse rights in the context of their research?


Alexandra Giannopoulou
Institute for Information Law (IViR) – University of Amsterdam.
Artikel

Informatiegestuurd politiewerk: met reflecties voor de strafrechtsketen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2019
Trefwoorden Informatiegestuurd politiewerk, Kennismanagement, Organisatiefactoren, Strafrechtsketen
Auteurs Flore van Rosmalen MSc, Dr. ir. Annette de Boer, Dr. ir. Mariëlle den Hengst e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intelligence-led policing (ILP) has been adopted by police organisations worldwide, yet organisational implementation appears to be difficult. Results of this study uncover organisational factors that affect ILP and give insight on how these facilitate or hinder ILP. The organisational factors can be categorised into technological, structural, cultural and people related factors. This research was conducted by means of a literature review and two case studies on the investigation of organised drug-related crime and on football and safety in two different units of the Dutch police. The results of this study can be considered as relevant input regarding future implementation of intelligence-led operations in the whole criminal justice chain.


Flore van Rosmalen MSc
Flore van Rosmalen MSc is consultant veiligheid en crisismanagement bij Berenschot.

Dr. ir. Annette de Boer
Dr. ir. Annette de Boer is directeur van GGD Haaglanden.

Dr. ir. Mariëlle den Hengst
Dr. ir. Mariëlle den Hengst is projectleider bij RTI-lab politie.

Ir. Pascal Gemke
Ir. Pascal Gemke is strategieconsultant bij YGroup Companies.
Artikel

Triangulaire arbeidsrelaties in de platformeconomie: een voorstel tot een vermoeden van uitzendbureau

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Platformen, Platformwerk, Arbeidsbemiddeling, Uitzendarbeid, Terbeschikkingstelling
Auteurs Prof. dr. V. De Stefano en Mr. M. Wouters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De opkomst van de platformeconomie, met als prominente voorbeelden Uber en Deliveroo, deed de discussies omtrent de aard van de arbeidsrelatie heropleven. Zijn deze platformwerkers in werkelijkheid werknemers, en is het arbeidsrecht aan hervorming toe indien ze het wel of niet zijn? Deze bijdrage heeft eveneens tot doel om de werkingssfeer van het arbeidsrecht ter discussie te stellen door de regelgeving omtrent private arbeidsbemiddeling en uitzendarbeid toe te passen op platformen. Dienaangaande bepleit deze bijdrage om ten eerste de regelgeving omtrent private arbeidsbemiddeling aan te wenden om ook de bemiddeling van dienstverleningsovereenkomsten tussen werkzoekenden en opdrachtgevers te omkaderen. Ten tweede wijst de bijdrage op de mogelijke totstandkoming van ‘verdoken’ uitzendarbeid door middel van digitale platformen. Om dit te voorkomen stellen de auteurs een ‘vermoeden van uitzendbureau’ voor.


Prof. dr. V. De Stefano
Prof. dr. V. De Stefano is BOF-ZAP onderzoekprofessor aan de KU Leuven.

Mr. M. Wouters
Mr. M. Wouters is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan de KU Leuven.
Artikel

Uitdagingen in publiek-private samenwerking in de aanpak van drugscriminaliteit in de Rotterdamse haven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden public private partnerships, Rotterdam harbor, security, drugs, crime
Auteurs Dr. Lieselot Bisschop, Dr. Robby Roks, Prof.dr. Richard Staring e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the challenges associated with public-private partnerships in tackling drug crime in the port of Rotterdam. The authors identified the actors involved in the fight against drug crime and, more generally, security in the port. The authors show how these various actors view the subject of drug crime (so-called mentalities), what they set as objectives (finalities) and how they try to achieve these objectives. Subsequently the various aspects of the interactions between these actors are being analyzed. The article is empirically based on 76 interviews with public and private actors in the port of Rotterdam, that were conducted in the period from January 2018 to February 2019, and an analysis of literature, news items, government reports and other documents.


Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
Dr. L.C.J. Bisschop is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R. Roks is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof.dr. Richard Staring
Prof.dr. R. Staring is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Elisabeth Brein MSc
E. Brein MSc is als onderzoeker en programmamanager verbonden aan de Rotterdam School of Management van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Researching elites at the margins of research ethics frameworks

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden code of ethics, corporate crime, research ethics, gaining access, interviewing elites
Auteurs Daniel Beizsley PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For social scientists undertaking critical research on elites in organisational contexts securing access is a challenging exercise that may rely on the use of several access strategies over extended periods. This process is further complicated by the existence of research ethics frameworks that establish boundaries to access strategies, posing dilemmas on how to best balance access needs with a commitment to ethical practices. This article focuses on such dilemmas – or the ‘ethics of access’ – through a reflection on PhD fieldwork during 2016-2017 in Luxembourg spent researching the European Investment Bank. The paper will conclude by calling for an overhaul of existing frameworks in order to foster more research on elites.


Daniel Beizsley PhD
Daniel Beizsley is a PhD candidate on the European Commission funded Doctorate in Cultural and Global Criminology (DCGC) programme supervised by Utrecht University and ELTE University.
Artikel

The concept of violence in (times of) crisis

On structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden structural violence, institutional violence, anti-institutional violence, economic crisis, Greece
Auteurs Marilena Drymioti
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Attempting to understand the Greek narrative of crisis, this paper examines the most prominent forms of violence that emerged in the period of acute economic recession and political upheaval in Greece namely structural, institutional and anti-institutional violence. This paper aims to highlight existing theoretical gaps and avoid common fallacies of the current body of knowledge. In contrast to some of the more common features of the discussion on violence, this note sets out to: a) acknowledge that violence is not necessarily a physical act, b) acknowledge that the outcomes of violence performances might not be physical either, c) specify and adequately distinguish agency and structural dynamics and d) address the cultural and contextual aspects of violence. Vital to this endeavor is to acknowledge, identify and understand the interactive relation between different forms of violence that emerge during the same period of time in a context in which conflict escalates.


Marilena Drymioti
Marilena Drymioti is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Top-down and out?

Reassessing the labelling approach in the light of corporate deviance

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden labelling, corporate crime, moral entrepreneurs, peer group, late modernity
Auteurs Anna Merz M.A.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Multi-national corporations are increasingly facing attention and disapproval by different actors, including authorities, public and (non-) commercial organizations. Digital globalization and especially social media as a low-cost, highly interactive and multidirectional platform shape a unique context for this rising attention. In the literature, much attention has been devoted to top-down approaches and strategies that corporations use to avoid stigmatization and sanctioning of their behaviour. Reactions to corporate harm are, however, seldom researched from a labelling perspective. As a result, corporations are not considered as objects towards whom labelling is targeted but rather as actors who hamper such processes and who, as moral entrepreneurs, influence which behaviour is labelled deviant. Based on theoretical analysis of literature and case studies, this article will discuss how the process of labelling has changed in light of the digitalized, late-modern society and consequently, how the process should be revisited to be applicable for corporate deviance. Given a diversification of moral entrepreneurs and increasingly dependency of labelling and meaning-making on the online sphere, two new forms of labelling are introduced that specifically target institutions; that is bottom-up and horizontal labelling.


Anna Merz M.A.
Anna Merz is promovendus aan de Sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Integratief seksindustriebeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland

Succes voor een unieke sociale beweging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden sekswerk, Nieuw-Zeeland, decriminalisering, sociale beweging, beleidsverandering
Auteurs Dr. Joep Rottier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contrary to its allies in other countries, the sex industry decriminalization movement in New Zealand, embodied by the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC), achieved its goal in 2003. This article explores the reform of the sex industry policy in this country on the basis of a Social Movement Concept. Apart from the specific New Zealand culture, particularly the interaction between three social political aspects – awareness, political opportunities, and a strong social movement organisation – can be identified as crucial factors in realizing a decriminalized sex industry environment. The enactment of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 meant a unique and huge success for a small sex workers movement.


Dr. Joep Rottier
Dr. Joep Rottier, onderzoeker, promoveerde in december 2018 aan de Universiteit Utrecht op de effecten van het seksindustrie decriminaliseringbeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland. Hij is bestuurslid van het Platform SekswerkExpertise Nederland.
Article

Access_open Impact of International Law on the EU Customs Union

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden European Union, customs union, international law, customs legislation, autonomous standards
Auteurs Achim Rogmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution examines the various international instruments, in both hard and soft law, that have been established by international organisations such as the WTO and WCO and scrutinises how they have been implemented into EU legislation governing the EU Customs Union, thus demonstrating the substantial influence of international instruments on the Customs Union. As the relevant international instruments affect not only the traditional elements of European customs law, but also the EU’s entire export control regime and the framework of the internal market, this contribution demonstrates, moreover, how the Customs Union functions in a globalised world.


Achim Rogmann
Achim Rogmann, LL.M is professor of law at the Brunswick European Law School at Ostfalia Hochschule fur angewandte Wissenschaften.
Kroniek

Criminalisering van migratie en grensmobiliteit als een legitieme zorg voor de publieke criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden crimmigration, border mobility, criminalization, migration, public criminology
Auteurs Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What role do Dutch criminologists play in the – especially since the onset of the so-called migration crisis – heated national and international debates on the criminalization of migration and border mobility? This will be the central question in this publication. Based on an inventory of national and international peer-reviewed publications written by Dutch criminologists, the article will reflect upon Dutch criminologists’ public role. In addition, based on the observed ‘silences’ in the scholarly debates on the criminalization of migration and border mobility, three avenues for further criminological research will be identified.


Maartje van der Woude
Prof. mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie aan het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur en Samenleving van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Over Cyber Forecasting-toernooien

Naar een effectiever gebruik van gekwantificeerde voorspelllingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Regina Joseph MSc, Dr. Marieke Klaver, Dr. Judith van de Kuijt e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Threats, vulnerabilities, and new forms of attack within the cyber domain develop rapidly. To keep up with and respond to these trends, cyber security professionals must demonstrate reaction velocity, accuracy and a high tolerance for complexity. Publicly available information (PAI) can serve as an important aid to personnel engaged in cyber security analysis. However, evaluation of cyber analytical capacity – a pre-requisite for any measurement of quality or improvement – is still inchoate. This article covers the concept and design of an initial phase of research begun in October 2018 in The Netherlands to measure and improve cyber analysis techniques. The research program features a forecasting tournament to record participants’ probabilistic estimates on future cyber outcomes based exclusively on PAI knowledge acquisition. This phase of research seeks to address whether analysts’ predictions are more accurate in certain subjects within the cyber domain than in others and to assess how predictive accuracy in the cyber domain compares to accuracy in other domains in which forecasting tournaments have been organized.


Regina Joseph MSc
R. Joseph M.Sci. is oprichter van de denktank Sibylink, gevestigd in Den Haag.

Dr. Marieke Klaver
Dr. M. Klaver is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Dr. Judith van de Kuijt
Dr. J. van de Kuijt is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Dr. Diederik van Luijk
Dr. D. van Luijk is werkzaam bij het Nationaal Cyber Security Centrum van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.

    This article focusses on the question whether quantitative modelling and simulation is useful for judicial forecasting, ex-ante testing of judicial policies, and (re)designing chains of organisations like the judicial chain. Specific attention is given to methods that can be used in the face of complexity and deep uncertainty. That is, when facing many substantial uncertainties. Complexity and uncertainty are first of all focused on. Subsequently, modelling methods for dealing with complexity and uncertainty are discussed in more detail, examples are given, and the process needed to build such models in a participatory way is discussed.


Dr. Erik Pruyt
Dr. E. Pruyt is als universitair hoofddocent Policy Modelling verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft. Hij is tevens founding partner van het Center for Policy Exploration Analysis and Simulation en directeur van het Institute for Grand Challenges.
Artikel

Waarom is er verschil in jeugdoverlast tussen buurten?

Een ‘mixed method’-onderzoek naar de voorspellende waarde van buurtkenmerken in relatie tot jeugdoverlast

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden sociale desorganisatie, Jeugdoverlast, Hangplek, vrije tijd
Auteurs Floris Bots MSc en Dr. Joris Beijers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The matter for this research is the request from the municipality of Eindhoven to map youth nuisance in the city of Eindhoven and to find explanations for differences between neighborhoods in order to provide policy makers with guidance. Quantitative and qualitative methods tested the social disorganization theory. Factors that may explain youth nuisance are a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity, low neighborhood participation and a high level of physical deterioration. In addition, youngsters who have unstructured leisure time prefer a place to hang out where there is no social control. Policy makers can use these insights to design their neighborhoods.


Floris Bots MSc
Floris Bots MSc is afgestudeerd in de master Sociology: Contemporary Social Problems.

Dr. Joris Beijers
Dr. Joris Beijers is docent bij de afdeling Sociologie van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Bert Keirsbilck
B. Keirsbilck is hoofddocent aan de KU Leuven, co-directeur van het Instituut voor Consument, Concurrentie en Markt (CCM), en campusdecaan in Brussel.

Evelyne Terryn
E. Terryn is gewoon hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven en co-directrice van CCM.

Elias Van Gool
E. Van Gool is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan de KU Leuven en lid van CCM.
Article

Access_open The Brussels International Business Court: Initial Overview and Analysis

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden international jurisdiction, English, court language, Belgium, business court
Auteurs Erik Peetermans en Philippe Lambrecht
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In establishing the Brussels International Business Court (BIBC), Belgium is following an international trend to attract international business disputes to English-speaking state courts. The BIBC will be an autonomous business court with the competence to settle, in English, disputes between companies throughout Belgium. This article focuses on the BIBC’s constitutionality, composition, competence, proceedings and funding, providing a brief analysis and critical assessment of each of these points. At the time of writing, the Belgian Federal Parliament has not yet definitively passed the Bill establishing the BIBC, meaning that amendments are still possible.


Erik Peetermans
Erik Peetermans is a legal adviser at the Federation of Enterprises in Belgium (FEB).

Philippe Lambrecht
Philippe Lambrecht is the Director-Secretary General at the Federation of Enterprises in Belgium (FEB).
Article

Access_open International Commercial Courts in France: Innovation without Revolution?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden international commercial court, dispute resolution, business court, Brexit, judicial system
Auteurs Alexandre Biard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2018, in the wake of Brexit, the French legal profession took several important measures to strengthen the competitiveness of France and the French legal system, and to make Paris an attractive go-to-point for businesses when the latter have to deal with international commercial litigation. When taking a closer look at it, Brexit is only the top of the iceberg, and has mostly served as a catalyst. Reasons explaining the development of international commercial courts in France are manifold. They are consequences of long-standing efforts aimed at boosting the French judicial marketplace to adapt it to the requirements of globalization and to the expectations of multinational corporations. The setting-up of the French international business courts has made several procedural adjustments necessary. Although the latter undoubtedly represent clear innovations, they however do not constitute a full-blown revolution. France has indeed decided to maximize already-existing procedural rules, combined with a new organisational format inspired by the Common Law tradition. If it remains too early to draw clear conclusions on the impact of these new developments, it is essential to keep our ears to the ground, and to be forward-looking. We should carefully consider the possible side-effects on the French justice system considered as a whole, and in particular wonder whether these international commercial courts might in the future open the door to broader far-reaching evolutions within the judicial system. Finally, the multiplication of international business courts across Europe nowadays triggers some questions concerning the role and potential added value of an EU initiative in this domain.


Alexandre Biard
Postdoctoral researcher, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Matchmaking International Commercial Courts and Lawyers’ Preferences in Europe

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden choice of court, commercial court, lawyers’ preferences, survey on lawyers, international court
Auteurs Erlis Themeli
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    France, Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands have taken concrete steps to design and develop international commercial courts. Most of the projects claim to be building courts that match the preferences of court users. They also try to challenge England and Wales, which evidence suggests is the most attractive jurisdiction in the EU. For the success of these projects, it is important that their proposed courts corresponds with the expectations of the parties, but also manages to attract some of the litigants that go to London. This article argues that lawyers are the most important group of choice makers, and that their preferences are not sufficiently matched by the new courts. Lawyers have certain litigation service and court perception preferences. And while the new courts improve their litigation service, they do not sufficiently addressed these court perception preferences.


Erlis Themeli
Postdoc, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
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