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Artikel

Een integrale veiligheidsmonitor als hulpmiddel bij het sturen op beleidsdoelen: theorie, praktijk en geleerde lessen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden monitoring, safety goals, cooperation, lessons learned, governance
Auteurs Ike Kroesbergen en Arthur Rijkers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a case description of the development of an integrated safety monitor for the governance on policy goals. The governance on these safety goals took place in cooperation between eight municipalities and Police, Justice, Fireworks, Health Care providers for addiction or domestic violence and partners in incident and crisis management. Two problems were adressed. The first problem is that the evidence on process and results of monitoring from data to interpretation and policy choices in cooperation with different safety partners, is scarce. The second problem is that monitoring of a wide range of indicators on integrated safety is also scarce. In our case, the gathering of data and the interpretation of these data together with all the partners formed a cyclical process. This corresponds with the theory of governance developed by Ansell and Gash in a meta-analysis in 2008. The starting conditions were made clear. The design of the monitoring process was translated into themes of working sessions with a group of policy advisors, giving them a structure for the governance on the policy goals. This group developed a layered set of indicators. These set of indicators was broken down in the four policy goals as well as in different steps in the safety chain. Indicators from different registrations of the safety partners were combined with indicators about the perception of safety measured by a representative sample of the residents. The layered set of indicators was supportive in the discussion about a well balanced monitoring on prevention, signals, interventions and effect. The data were interpreted together with the safety partners. This was helpful in creating a joint perspective on safety problems and in the discussion about meaningful policy actions. The challenge now is to persevere in the cyclical process from data to interpretation and shared understanding about policy goals.


Ike Kroesbergen
Ike Kroesbergen is als senior onderzoeker veiligheid & gezondheid werkzaam bij de GGD West-Brabant. i.kroesbergen@ggdwestbrabant.nl

Arthur Rijkers
Arthur Rijkers is als coördinator COVID19-vaccinatie werkzaam bij de GGD West-Brabant. a.rijkers@ggdwestbrabant.nl
Artikel

Ontwikkelingstrajecten van hackers: een longitudinale studie naar defacements op Nederlandse websites

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Web defacements, hackers, cybercrime, trajectory analysis, Zone-H
Auteurs Steve van de Weijer, Rutger Leukfeldt en Thomas Holt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this study we examined the developmental trajectories of hackers, based on their self-reported web defacements. During a web defacement, the content of a website is altered without permission. In total, 50,330 defacements of websites with a Dutch extension (.nl websites) were analyzed, which were executed by 3,640 defacers between January 2010 and march 2017. Using trajectory analysis, six different groups of defacers could be distinguished: two chronic groups of attackers and four groups who only defaced websites during a limited time period. These groups also differed in their motivations and modus operandi. The high frequent chronic attackers consist of less than 2% of the hackers, but were responsible for more than half of all defacements. It would therefore be most efficient when future interventions focus on this small group of chronic offenders. For future studies it would be an interesting topic to examine the content of the web defacements.


Steve van de Weijer
Steve van de Weijer is werkzaam aan het Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement: Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving,Researcher,Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement: Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving. SvandeWeijer@nscr.nl

Rutger Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt is werkzaam aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving en de Haagse Hogeschool. rleukfeldt@nscr.nl

Thomas Holt
Thomas Holt is werkzaam aan de Michigan State University. holtt@msu.edu
Artikel

Digitale coproductie van preventie en opsporing met burgers

Een verkenning naar de contouren van een nieuw beleidsregime

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden Digitale coproductie, digitaal burgerschap, digitale buurtpreventie, digitale opsporing, Technologieregime
Auteurs Steven van den Oord en Ben Kokkeler
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the years, the use of data and digital technology in neighbourhood watch groups for prevention and detection of crime and citizens initiatives to enhance public safety has increased due to social and technological changes of citizen participation in coproduction of safety and digitization of economy and society. This causes a transition towards a new technology regime, a shift from a ‘closed’ information and communication technology regime owned by governmental organizations towards (inter)national ‘open’ platforms, which in turn challenges the current policy regime. This transition creates new societal expectations and challenges, often with contrasting dynamics. For instance, citizens are becoming the so-called ‘eyes and ears’ for government in prevention and detection of crime in neighbourhoods, while professionals are increasingly expected to coproduce safety with citizens through new forms of prevention and detection. With the rise of data and digital technology such as platforms and applications citizens are increasingly enabled to take the lead and initiate collaboration and organize new forms of prevention and surveillance in their own neighbourhoods.
    Both in literature as in public policy practice, neighbourhood prevention and crime detection in general is addressed. However, less attention is spent on the role and impact of data and digital technology. We propose this is an issue because the emerging digital technology regime requires a new conceptual view wherein citizen initiatives are no longer perceived as merely instrumental to government interventions, but are understood as coproducers of public safety in their neighbourhoods, as part of a broader societal shift in which citizens are enabled by digital technology to organize their own data environments. Based on the introduction of digital coproduction, we illustrate four case examples to explain which opportunities for safety professionals and local governments arise to create a policy regime that suits the emerging digital technology regime.


Steven van den Oord
Steven van den Oord is werkzaam aan Avans Hogeschool ’s-Hertogenbosch.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool ’s-Hertogenbosch.
Artikel

De maatschappelijke integratie van de politie

Politieleiders over de actualiteit van een beladen concept

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden politie, maatschappelijke integratie, gebiedsgebonden politie
Auteurs Ivo van Duijneveldt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the 1970s social integration of the police has been considered as a key element of the Dutch police. This article focusses on the question of the relevance of social integration of the contemporary police. The article is based on interviews with present and former strategic leaders of the Dutch police. This study shows that social integration is still often considered to be a highly important value for the Dutch police, particularly with regard to the growing polarisation in society. However, some of the police chiefs also express their disapproval of the concept of social integration; in their view the concept reminds us of the past. Also, police chiefs are critical of the value of the concept because of its supposed geographical focus. The paper shows that this criticism can be understood as an interpretation of social integration in terms of ‘neighbourhood policing’ and as an operational police strategy.


Ivo van Duijneveldt
Ivo van Duijneveldt is organisatieadviseur bij Andersson Elffers Felix en buitenpromovendus aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

Persoonlijkheidskenmerken van e-fraudeslachtoffers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Online fraud, Big Five personality traits, Phishing, online marketplace fraud, cybercrime prevention
Auteurs Jildau Borwell, Jurjen Jansen en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the digitization of society, perpetrators gained new tools to commit crimes. Online fraud, also referred to as e-fraud, is one of the most common types of cybercrime. The present study focusses on two types of e-fraud: phishing and online consumer fraud. Although e-fraud always contains a digital component, the human is the weakest link in such crimes. Perpetrators deceive their victims to acquire sensitive data or to conclude a fraudulent sale, which makes victims unwillingly participate in the offence. However, not every person adheres to such fraudulent schemes. This raises the question what makes some people comply with these schemes and thus become a victim of cybercrime, while others do not. In this study, the differences between personality traits of e-fraud victims and the Dutch population were investigated. Personality traits influence the way people process information and react to situations, which also applies when people are confronted with e-fraud. Data were collected through an online survey, in which 224 e-fraud victims participated. The outcomes of the survey were compared with norm groups representative for the Dutch population. E-fraud victims, compared to the Dutch population, scored higher on extraversion, altruism and conscientiousness, and lower on neuroticism. Based on the findings, recommendations have been made for the development of targeted preventive measures against e-fraud.


Jildau Borwell
Jildau Borwell is werkzaam bij de Dienst Regionale Informatieorganisatie (Analyse & Onderzoek), Nationale Politie, Eenheid Noord-Nederland, Groningen. Email: jildau.borwell@politie.nl.

Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is werkzaam bij de Faculteit cultuur- en rechtswetenschappen aan de Open Universiteit, Heerlen en bij het Lectoraat cybersafety, NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie, Leeuwarden en Apeldoorn. Email: j.jansen@nhl.nl.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. Email: wstol@planet.nl.
Artikel

Determinanten en motivaties voor intentie tot aangifte na slachtofferschap van cybercrime

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Cybercriminaliteit, Slachtofferschap, Aangiftebereidheid, Politie
Auteurs Lisanne Jong, Rutger Leukfeldt en Steve van de Weijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study focusses on determinants of willingness to report cybercrime to the police or to other organizations and motivations for (not) reporting victimization. In this study, a questionnaire containing vignettes is used. Vignettes are semi-experimental designs in which hypothetical situations are presented and certain factors can be manipulated between and within respondents. Factors that are measured within the vignettes are the type and seriousness of the offence, the relationship between offender and victim and which possibilities for reporting the offence are available.
    It is shown that the type of offence is an important determinant for willingness to report the offence, which is highest for fraud, followed by hacking and malware. Likewise, willingness to report is higher for more serious offences than for less serious offences. These results are comparable to results on willingness to report traditional crimes.
    With regard to psychological determinants, results are not in line with previous results on willingness to report traditional crimes. For the relationship between offender and victim, mixed results are found. If the offender is an acquaintance of the victim, willingness to report to the police increases, but willingness to report to another organization decreases, compared to the offender being unfamiliar to the victim. Another surprising result is that no correlation is found between attitudes towards the police and willingness to report offences. Also unexpectedly, it is found that respondents who have previously reported crime and were unsatisfied about this experience, were more willing to report offences than respondents who never reported crimes before.
    Regarding motivations for willingness to report, it is found that, in general, motivations for reporting cybercrime are strongly comparable to motivations for reporting traditional crime, however, differences in motivations are found between the different types of cybercrime.


Lisanne Jong
Lisanne Jong is statistisch onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Email: lps.jong@cbs.nl.

Rutger Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt is postdoc onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving. Email: rleukfeldt@nscr.nl.

Steve van de Weijer
Steve van de Weijer is postdoc onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving. Email: svandeweijer@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Online vergaren van informatie voor opsporingsonderzoek

Een beknopte evaluatie van voorgestelde wetgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden opsporingsbevoegdheden, digitalisering, Politie
Auteurs Wouter Stol en Litska Strikwerda
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Police Act provides the police with the legal power to gather information about a person on the internet as long as this does not cause more than ‘a limited violation of privacy’. If the police are gathering more information about a person they need a special legal power laid down in the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure. The dividing line between ‘a limited violation of privacy’ and ‘more than a limited violation of privacy’ is not always clear. The legislator is preparing a new piece of legislation to provide the police with more clarity. This article discusses the suggested law article with respect to the gathering of information from open sources. Furthermore, this article suggests to not only regulate the amount of information the police are gathering but also the kind of tools that the police use (simple search machine versus an advanced web crawler).


Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. Email: wstol@planet.nl.

Litska Strikwerda
Litska Strikwerda is Universitair Docent Metajuridica aan de Open Universiteit. Email: litska.strikwerda@ou.nl.
Redactioneel

Access_open Veiligheid in een digitaliserende samenleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Auteurs Wouter Stol, Ben Kokkeler, Emile Kolthoff e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. Email: wstol@planet.nl.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool. Hij is daarnaast senior consultant bij de Europese Technopolis Group, kantoor Amsterdam, waar hij evaluaties en verkenningen uitvoert rond ehealth en smart cities. Email: bjm.kokkeler@avans.nl.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en doet onderzoek bij Avans University en de VU Amsterdam. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. Email: emile.kolthoff@ou.nl.

Robin van Halderen
Robin Christiaan van Halderen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid, Avans Hogeschool (www.expertisecentrum-veiligheid.nl) en redacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. Email: rc.vanhalderen@avans.nl.
Artikel

Gedragsprofiling: het bepalen van kwade bedoelingen en het meten van effectiviteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden gedragsprofiling, afwijkend gedrag, psychologie, effectiviteitsmetingen, beveiligingspersoneel
Auteurs Helma van den Berg, Remco Wijn en Dianne van Hemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Is behavioural profiling a viable alternative to more traditional approaches to profiling, viewed from the perspectives of underlying theoretical assumptions and measures of effectiveness? In this article we describe behaviour profiling in relation to other types of profiling, we review relevant psychological mechanisms that underpin behaviour profiling, and discuss effectiveness of this type of profiling as well as methodological aspects of measuring effectiveness. Behaviour profiling is a method largely used to select potential offenders before the offence is committed by observing and giving meaning to behaviours preceding incidents. Deviant behaviours exhibited by suspects can be either part of a modus operandi related to the offence, the consequence of increased stress, or an atypical response to prodding actions by security officers. Relevant psychological mechanisms to explain ways behaviour profiling works include direct characteristics of deception as well as indirect indicators of deception, such as a criminal being more self-focused and more cognitively engaged. Effectiveness of behaviour profiling is increased by training, including learning more about modi operandi and related behaviours, awareness of biases in general, specific relevant biases, and techniques to correct for these biases.


Helma van den Berg
Helma van den Berg is werkzaam bij TNDO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences. Helma.

Remco Wijn
Remco Wijn is research scientist bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences

Dianne van Hemert
Dianne A. van Hemert is werkzaam bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Slachtofferschap van cybercrime in kaart gebracht

Hacken, e-fraude, identiteitsfraude en voorschotfraude

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden cybercrime, hacking, online fraud, identity fraud, victim survey
Auteurs Miranda Domenie, Rutger Leukfeldt, Johan van Wilsem e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the results of a Dutch study that focuses specifically on victimization of various forms of cybercrimes among civilians. The survey addresses the cybercrimes hacking, fraud through selling and auction websites, identity theft and fraud and advanced fee fraud. The results are based on a validated questionnaire which was posted amongst a representative sample of 21,800 citizens, the response rate was 10,314 (47 per cent). In this article of each of these cybercrimes the prevalence is shown. Concerning prevalence, the victim survey shows that in the twelve months preceding the survey 4.3 percent of all Internet users were victims of hacking, 2.4 percent were victims of online scams (by paying for a good or service but not receiving them), 0.8 percent were victims of identity fraud and 0.2 percent of advanced fee fraude. Of all victims, 11.9 percent was victim of more than one of the cybercrimes we studied for this article. If we compare this with figures of offline crime we see that in the Netherlands in 2010, 1 percent were victims of assault, 1.2 percent of burglary and 1.5 percent of sexual offenses. In comparison with these offline crimes, the cybercrimes in our study have significant numbers of victims. Among Internet users, we see that victims of hacking and fraud by auction or selling sites are more often youngsters than older people (for hacking 15 till 35 years in fraud 15 till 25 years), people without a partner are at higher risk than people with partners and people with indicated that their most recently completed education were low are more at risk than people with high education. Especially with the online fraud this is remarkable, because it appears that people who make the most purchases over the Internet are higher educated and mostly in 25 till 45 years old.


Miranda Domenie
M.M.L. (Miranda) Domenie BSc is onderzoeker bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie. E-mail: m.m.l.domenie@nhl.nl

Rutger Leukfeldt
E.R. (Rutger) Leukfeldt MSc is onderzoeker bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en promovendus aan de Open Universiteit. E-mail: e.r.leukfeldt@nhl.nl

Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.

Wouter Stol
Prof. dr. W.Ph. (Wouter) Stol is Lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.
Artikel

Politieonderzoek in open bronnen op internet

Strafvorderlijke aspecten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden criminal investigation, surveillance, OSINT, investigation powers, legal basis
Auteurs Bert-Jaap Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Analysing large amounts of data goes to the heart of the challenges confronting intelligence and law enforcement professionals today. Increasingly, this involves Internet data that are ‘open source’ or ‘publicly available’. Projects such as the European FP7 VIRTUOSO aim at developing platforms for open-source intelligence by law enforcement and public security, which open up opportunities for large-scale, automated data gathering and analysis. However, the mere fact that data are publicly available does not imply an absence of restrictions to researching them. This paper investigates one area of legal constraints, namely Dutch criminal-procedure law in relation to open-source data gathering by the police. Which legal basis is there for this activity? And under what conditions can foreign open sources be investigated?
    After sketching the context of the VIRTUOSO project and legal constraints of open-source intelligence in general, this paper discusses provisions of the Dutch Police Act 1993 and the Code of Criminal Procedure to determine which is the correct legal basis for gathering data from openly accessible and semi-open sources. Next, cross-border gathering of data is discussed on the basis of article 32 of the Cybercrime Convention. The paper draws the conclusion that investigating open sources by the police will often go beyond what is allowed on the basis of the general task description of the police (art. 2 Police Act 1993); hence, an order from the Public Prosecutor for systematic observation or intelligence is required. Moreover, the tools used must meet the non-manipulability and auditing requirements of the Dutch Decree on Technical Devices in Criminal Procedure.


Bert-Jaap Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society, Universiteit van Tilburg. Het onderzoek voor dit artikel werd mede gefinancierd door het Europese KP7-project VIRTUOSO (projectnr. FP7-SEC GA-2009-242352).
Redactioneel

Redactioneel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Joyce Kerstens, Leontien M. van der Knaap en Ralf Beerens
Auteursinformatie

Joyce Kerstens
Drs. J.W.M. (Joyce) Kerstens is Projectleider Jeugd & Cybersafety bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie.E-mail: j.kerstens@nhl.nl

Leontien M. van der Knaap
Dr. L.M. (Leontien M.) van der Knaap is universitair hoofddocent aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: L.M.vdrKnaap@uvt.nl

Ralf Beerens
R. (Ralf) Beerens Ph.D is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV) en promovendus aan de Universiteit van Lund, Zweden. E-mail: ralf.beerens@nifv.nl

    In this contribution the author reviews: Verkenning cybercrime in Nederland 2009, by E.R. Leukfeldt, M.M.L. Domenie & W.Ph. Stol.


Rudie Neve
Dr. Rudie Neve is senior onderzoeker bij het Team Strategische Analyse van de KLPD, Dienst IPOL. E-mail: rudie.neve@klpd.politie.nl.
Artikel

Downloaders van kinderporno

Een overzicht van de literatuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderporno, Downloaden, Zedencriminaliteit, Literatuurstudie
Auteurs Anton van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Unlike the physical abusers of children, little is known about downloaders of child pornography. The key questions in this article are: who are the downloaders, what are their backgrounds, why and how they download child pornography, how they behave offline and online and what types of downloaders can be distinguished? A simple answer to these questions is currently impossible to give. There is more, preferably longitudinal, research needed on risk factors for downloading child pornography and the various types of downloaders. Combating the downloaders requires a lot of the police in terms of international cooperation and up to date knowledge and expertise. This also served the treatment practices, which is partly dependent on a properly conducted police investigation.


Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke. E-mail: a.vanwijk@beke.nl.
Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Beheersing van criminaliteitsrisico's door het bedrijfsleven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2008
Trefwoorden risico, bedrijfstak, politie, bank, illegaal, deskundigheid, diefstal, schade, muziekindustrie, toezicht
Auteurs J. Terpstra

J. Terpstra
Nieuws

Kinderen beter beschermd tegen seksueel misbruik

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden minderjarige, strafbaarheid, investering, kind, politie, seksueel misbruik, openbaar ministerie, producent, bezit, downloaden
Auteurs K. Lünnemann, S. Nieborg en M. Goderie

K. Lünnemann

S. Nieborg

M. Goderie
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