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Een goudmijn vol tips

Het gebruik van genealogische DNA-‍databanken bij opsporing en identificatie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden genealogical DNA databases, criminal investigation, Sweden, the Lisa project, Golden State Killer
Auteurs Lex Meulenbroek en Diederik Aben
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The success of investigative genetic genealogy (IGG) in the US hasn’t gone unnoticed in Europe. After US police announced worldwide that the Golden State Killer had been identified with the application of IGG, the Swedish police and judiciary applied the same method to solve a double murder that had remained unsolved for sixteen years. How did this method come about? A young woman unfamiliar with her real name, age, parents, and origins came up with the idea that private genealogical DNA databases that allow customers to trace their distant relatives could also be used to discover her identity. Since then, in the US many cold cases have been solved with the help of these databases and also the identity of many unidentified human remains has been traced. Questions concerning this new method of investigation arise, to which the beginning of an answer is given here. What does the method entail? Is it allowed to use this method in the Netherlands as well?


Lex Meulenbroek
Drs. A.J. Meulenbroek is als forensisch deskundige humane biologische sporen en DNA-onderzoek verbonden aan het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut (NFI).

Diederik Aben
Mr. D.J.C. Aben is advocaat-generaal bij de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden.

Anouk van de Beek MSc
A. van de Beek MSc behaalde recent haar wo-master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Toekomstige risico’s voor de nationale veiligheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden national security, risk analysis, scenarios, horizon scanning, foresight
Auteurs Dr. Minke Meijnders, Ir. Leendert Gooijer en Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What are the most important threats for national security in the following years? What do we foresee for the longer term? How are threats interrelated? In this article, we discuss the work of the Dutch Network of Safety and Security Analysts (ANV), which deals with this type of questions since 2011. The main task of this multidisciplinary network is to provide input for the National Security Strategy. It does so by providing an Integrated Risk analysis and a Horizon scan National Security. The authors discuss the foresight-methods used by the network (scenario studies and horizon scanning techniques), as well as the most important conclusions from both studies.


Dr. Minke Meijnders
Dr. M. Meijnders was tot voor kort Research Fellow bij Instituut Clingendael en in die functie betrokken bij het ANV.

Ir. Leendert Gooijer
Ir. Leendert Gooijer is programmacoördinator nationale veiligheid bij het RIVM en tevens Algemeen Secretaris van het ANV.

Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven
Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven is Senior scientist nationale veiligheid bij TNO en in die functie betrokken bij het ANV.
Artikel

Controle of begeleiding? Ervaringen met reclasseringstoezicht tijdens de voorwaardelijke invrijheidstelling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden parole, desistance, supervision, Re-entry, risk management
Auteurs Jennifer Doekhie MSc, Dr. Esther van Ginneken, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Little is known about how ex-prisoners’ parole supervision experiences relate to desistance. The aim of this article therefore is to gain insight into the nature of release conditions and parole supervision of ex-prisoners and parolees’ perceptions of their supervision related to the desistance process. A total of 23 Dutch parolees were interviewed in depth at three waves starting in prison up to one year after their release, and the 69 interviews were combined with their parole files containing information about conditions, violations and sanctions. Parole files revealed the practice of highly engaged parole officers, who worked with parolees to strengthen factors known to foster desistance. However, the interviews showed that most parolees found their parole experience predominantly surveillance-oriented and not very helpful for desistance. Parole was experienced as most beneficial when parole officers used their discretionary power to adjust conditions creating ‘space’ for trial-and-error.


Jennifer Doekhie MSc
J.V.O.R. Doekhie MSc is als docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Esther van Ginneken
Dr. E.F.J.C. van Ginneken is als docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Facebookvrienden worden met de verdachte

Over undercoverbevoegdheden op internet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden undercover operations, investigative powers, infiltration, Internet, jurisdiction
Auteurs Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates which online undercover investigative methods are applied in practice and how they fit in the Dutch legal framework. In particular, the three special investigative powers of a pseudo purchase, systematic information gathering and infiltration are examined. Investigative powers cannot be applied unilaterally (across state borders). When law enforcement officials cannot reasonably determine the location of the suspect, the online unilateral application of undercover investigative powers is allowed. However, there is still a risk that diplomatic tensions arise with the involved state. States should agree in treaties under which circumstances cross-border online undercover operations are allowed.


Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans is als onderzoeker verbonden aan eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Intelligence leadership

Leidinggeven in het schemerdonker tussen geheim en openbaar

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence leadership, Intelligence and security services, Transparency, Political accountability, Reform
Auteurs Prof. dr. Paul Abels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article highlights the special position of European heads of intelligence and security services. In the search for important characteristics of intelligence leadership through time, a comparison is made between five services from five different countries (Germany, France, the Netherlands, Greece and Spain). Using Anglo-American reference information and a leadership typology developed by intelligence expert Robarge, the consecutive heads of service in these European countries are profiled and categorized. This leads to a picture that has always been dominated by males, a strong military presence and many end-of-career heads. Their influence on the internal and external service development was often substantial, with alternate appointments of inside and outside reformers. The scale of openness usually constituted a struggle with both the inside and outside world. Nowadays, the heads are being confronted with new challenges and demands, which leads to the conclusion that a new form of ‘distributed’ or ‘interdependent’ leadership is required, in which old reflexes to appoint people with an operational, military or police background as heads of these services are no longer self-evident.


Prof. dr. Paul Abels
Prof. dr. P.A.H.M. Abels is bijzonder hoogleraar Governance of Intelligence and Security Services bij het Institute for Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) van de Universiteit Leiden. Hij is ook raadadviseur bij de Nationaal Coördinator Terrorismebestrijding en Veiligheid (NCTV). Dit artikel kwam tot stand met medewerking van Julia van Heesewijk, Roderik Stol, Stefanos K. Skafidas, Robin van der Burgh, Giandrick Dabian en Marijn Adams.
Artikel

Zwijgen is zilver en spreken is goud

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff en Dr. Constant Hijzen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although traditionally, it has been argued that intelligence and security services can barely be discussed in public – a veil of secrecy makes a thorough and informed debate almost impossible, the outside world is ignorant, say the insiders – we argue that today’s mature civil society does not accept that anymore. Although the government has struggled to address social anxiety and political criticism in the past decades, communication and strategic discussions have never received proper attention. Due to the technological changes, affecting the intelligence practice as well as daily life of citizens, the authors argue that the positioning of intelligence and security services in the broader democratic state should receive structural attention and sustainable communication efforts.


Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff
Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff is hoogleraar intelligence and security studies aan de Universiteit Utrecht, www.uu.nl/medewerkers/bgjgraaff/0.

Dr. Constant Hijzen
Dr. C.W. Hijzen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs en aan het Instituut Geschiedenis (Universiteit Leiden).
Artikel

Verdachten met een LVB in het politieverhoor

De invloed van verhoormethoden op de inhoud van verklaringen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden interrogation methods and techniques, suspect and witness, (borderline) intellectual disability, false confessions, false statements
Auteurs P.R. Kranendonk MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The main goal of an interrogation is to elicit truthful information about the involvement of a suspect or witness in a criminal act. Some interrogation methods and techniques are useful for extracting information from otherwise unwilling suspects, but they can also elicit false confessions or statements from innocent (and vulnerable) suspects and witnesses. Multiple studies show that a large proportion of false confessions are made by suspects with an intellectual disability. Intellectual disabilities are often difficult to recognize, because of an individual’s streetwise behavior. This vulnerable group is extremely sensitive to suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Some interrogation methods and techniques used by the police can have a severe influence on these features and therefore on the reliability of statements. Given the overrepresentation of people with an intellectual disability in the Dutch criminal justice system, it is of great importance to prevent unwanted risks in the interrogation.


P.R. Kranendonk MSc
Robin Kranendonk MSc doet als promovenda bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam onderzoek naar de knelpunten en risico’s bij het verhoren van verdachten en getuigen met een LVB.
Artikel

Ontwikkelingen in de jeugdcriminaliteit, 1997 tot 2015

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden trends in juvenile and young adult crime, crime drop, Cybercrime, explanations for the crime drop, social media
Auteurs Dr. A.M. van der Laan, Dr. M.G.C.J. Beerthuizen en Dr. H. Goudriaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2008 juvenile crime rates in the Netherlands annually decreased. The decrease is shown in official police and justice crime, as well as in self-reported delinquency. However, this crime drop mainly accounts traditional offline crime, whereas little is known about cybercrime amongst juveniles and young adults. According to the Juvenile Crime Monitor, approximately 20% of juveniles and young adults report involvement in cyber or digitized delinquency. Trends with regard to cyber or digitized crime are not (yet) available. Previous research indicates that multiple factors are responsible for the crime drop amongst juveniles. These explanations mainly regard to offline factors and are primarily focused on traditional offline crime. In this article the increased use of social media is also discussed as a potential explanation.


Dr. A.M. van der Laan
Dr. André van der Laan is senior onderzoeker en plaatsvervangend afdelingshoofd bij de afdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Zie www.wodc.nl/organisatie/medewerkers/CRS/AndrevanderLaan.aspx.

Dr. M.G.C.J. Beerthuizen
Dr. Marinus Beerthuizen is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Zie www.wodc.nl/organisatie/medewerkers/CRS/RikBeerthuizen.aspx.

Dr. H. Goudriaan
Dr. Heike Goudriaan is senior onderzoeker en plaatsvervangend afdelingshoofd bij het Team Rechtsbescherming en Veiligheid van het CBS in Den Haag.
Artikel

Toepassing van rechtssociologisch en rechtspsychologisch onderzoek in de rechtspraktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Sociology of law, Legal psychology, Legal practice, Policy, Empirical research
Auteurs Mr. dr. M. Malsch, L. ten Hove MSc en Prof. dr. H. Elffers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Findings of empirical research may have direct or indirect relevance to legal practice and policy. This article investigates the relevance of findings from both research in sociology of law and legal psychology and law for legal practice and policy. It then discusses an empirical study in the Netherlands among scholars from these two disciplines into actual use in practice of empirical findings. A distinction is made between direct and indirect application of empirical findings. Both a survey and face-to-face interviews have been conducted. Findings suggest that, although the criminal justice system and policymakers do apply empirical knowledge to a certain degree, the actual use of empirical results seems defective.


Mr. dr. M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam.

L. ten Hove MSc
Leonie ten Hove MSc heeft als stagiaire bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam meegewerkt aan het in dit artikel beschreven onderzoek.

Prof. dr. H. Elffers
Prof. dr. Henk Elffers is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam en emeritus hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit aldaar.
Artikel

Het belang van grootouders in hedendaagse gezinnen en het recht op omgang met kleinkinderen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden grandparents, grandchildren, child care, rights of access, intergenerational solidarity
Auteurs Dr. T. Geurts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the context of a recent call for the strengthening of the legal position of grandparents with regards to visitation rights, this article presents a brief review of major conceptual notions and empirical findings within the literature on grandparent-grandchild relationships. Three major topics for understanding the intergenerational relationship are addressed: the historical context, the importance of the relationship, and changes over individual time.


Dr. T. Geurts
Dr. Teun Geurts is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Toepassingsmogelijkheden van Quantified Self-data

Enkele voorbeelden uit de forensisch psychiatrische praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden quantified self-data, self-monitoring, technological devices, aggression treatment, forensic psychiatry
Auteurs Dr. C.H. de Kogel en Dr. L.J.M. Cornet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How many hours a night do I sleep? What is my average resting heart rate? How physical active am I during the day? Self-monitoring with help of technological devices, including smartphones, mobile applications and electronic sensors, allow individuals to quantify biometrics that they never knew existed. During the last decade, the ‘quantified-self’ movement has become popular among hobbyists, but also among professionals in the medical field. In this article the authors explore the potentials of quantified-self devices for the criminal justice setting. Could, for example, skin conductance measurements help to improve self-awareness among aggressive patients? And could biofeedback intervention with help of a mobile application serve as an alternative intervention program for those who are currently not responsive to traditional correctional therapy? On the other hand, what are the limitations and perhaps ethical concerns when implementing quantified-self devices in the criminal justice setting?


Dr. C.H. de Kogel
Dr. Katy de Kogel is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Dr. L.J.M. Cornet
Dr. Liza Cornet is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Analysemethoden en technieken voor criminologisch onderzoek

Oude trends en nieuwe ontwikkelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Qualitative research, Criminology, Multivariate analytical methods, Size and causes of crime, Mixed methods
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in the use of analytical methods and technics for criminological research in the Netherlands since the beginning of the eighties. The author focuses on quantitative research methods. While classical multivariate technics like (M)AN(C)OVA, canonic correlation analysis and LISREL were dominant until the beginning of the new century, new multivariate analytical methods appeared from 2005 onwards. Especially the analysis of life course trajectories of criminal offenders caught on. The author also discusses various methods to measure the size of crime, like randomized response and capture-recapture, as well as methods identifying the causes of crime. In this latter field the use of fixed-effects methods and the propensity score matching technic has expanded considerably in the last couple of years. When it comes to explaining why people commit crime, quantitative methods do not suffice. The author argues that thorough quantitative methods can reveal the context in which criminal acts occur. The wider use of so-called mixed methods (quantitative as well as qualitative) could contribute to a deeper understanding of crime and stimulate theoretical development. In doing so these methods contribute considerably to understanding why people commit crime.


Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Indammen van sociale agressie met dynamische verlichting

Het De-escalate-project in Eindhoven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden aggression, escalation, environmental factors, lighting, light applications
Auteurs Dr. A. Haans en Dr. Y.A.W. De Kort
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are numerous situations in which human behavior may escalate; in which persons lose self-control, get abusive, aggressive, and cross behavioral boundaries they would normally not cross. Such situations may occur in crowded outdoor situations (public events, urban night life) as well as in small-scale indoor settings (prisons, service & help desks, psychiatric wards). The De-escalate project studies the utilization of dynamic lighting in preventing escalation and in defusing aggressive situations. In De-escalate, Eindhoven University of Technology cooperates with governmental and non-profit organizations, and commercial partners to develop and test mechanisms for de-escalation through light, for example, by lowering arousal, inducing positive mood, broadening attention, increasing self-awareness and self-control. The project aims to broaden our understanding of the effects of light in controlled laboratory studies, and will develop and test methods of de-escalation through light in situ; in two escalation-prone real life settings including Eindhoven’s inner-city entertainment area Stratumseind.


Dr. A. Haans
Dr. ir. Antal Haans is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.

Dr. Y.A.W. De Kort
Dr. ir. Yvonne de Kort is als universitair hoofddocent werkzaam bij de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
Artikel

Als je merkt dat niemand het merkt

Over fraude in de wetenschap

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden categories of science fraud, history of science fraud, causes of science fraud, publication pressure, supervision
Auteurs C.J.M. Schuyt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author deals with some issues concerning fraud in science. First, he wonders if this is a new phenomenon. After exploring the definition of scientific fraud he sets the inquiry to the prevalence of this phenomenon. Various recent science fraud cases are discussed, as well as possible explanations for science fraud. Finally, the author formulates a criminological-oriented hypothetical explanation, which opposes frequently heard explanations dealing with contemporary problems in the universities, such as the publication pressure.


C.J.M. Schuyt
Prof. dr. mr. Kees Schuyt is lid van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, voorzitter van het Landelijk Orgaan Wetenschappelijke Integriteit en emeritus hoogleraar Sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Patronen in de criminele ontwikkeling van fraudeurs

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, life course, risk taking, adult offending, opportunities
Auteurs J.H.R. van van Onna
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both white-collar research and law enforcement tend to focus on the circumstances surrounding the white-collar offence and pay less attention to the background of the offender. Research shows that white-collar offenders are a heterogeneous group and that different development pathways and offender profiles can be identified. For many offenders the offence appears to be an isolated occurrence in norm conform lives, for others patterns in offending can be distinguished. For some this is a divers and long criminal career, others display a mix of norm conform and deviant behaviour. After briefly exploring if an underlying tendency for deviant and risk full behaviour may characterise white-collar offenders and how this may interact with opportunities for white-collar crime, the significance of these findings for law enforcement is discussed.


J.H.R. van van Onna
Drs. Joost van Onna werkt als onderzoeker bij het Functioneel Parket (Openbaar Ministerie) en is als promovendus verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, waar hij onderzoek doet naar de criminele ontwikkeling van fraudeurs.
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