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Over de sociologie van gebiedsverboden en de praktijk van het Collectief Winkelverbod

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden collective shopping ban, shoplifting, public space, purification, Mary Douglas
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author reports on an ethnographic research conducted on the Collective Shopping Ban, a measure taken in the Netherlands in an effort to make shopkeepers co-responsible for maintaining safety and security. By describing the practice of the Collective Shopping Ban in The Hague, he investigates how the involved shopkeepers are dealing with offenses like theft, nuisance, intimidation, and vandalism. The author describes the sociological background of banning orders and what the banning of people means in terms of purification of public space.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

‘Slimme Don’: de intelligente maffiabaas van Rusland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden intelligent criminals, Russian Mafia, Semjon Mogilevitsj, organized crime, financial crimes
Auteurs Prof. dr. D. Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on material from her extensive study of Russian organized crime, the author sketches a portrait of Semjon Mogilevitsj. This Russian ‘godfather’ enjoys the reputation of being the smartest and highest educated mafia boss worldwide. Indeed Mogilevitsj obtained a master’s degree in Economics with good results, but this alone doesn’t explain his phenomenal successes in criminal as well as in legal business. Describing the steady expansion of his criminal activities from Russia into Israel, the United States, Eastern Europa, Italy and Canada, the author suggests that the social and economic circumstances in Russia just before and during the collapse of the Soviet Union might have served as an ideal playing ground for Mogilevitsj to develop the specific social intelligence and skills needed to successfully run a criminal organization.


Prof. dr. D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Data Protection by Design als argument in het FBI vs. Apple-debat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden FBI vs. Apple, Data Protection by Design, Data Protection by Default, GDPR, privacy
Auteurs Dr. C. Cuijpers en S. van Schendel LLB
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adhering to a strict interpretation, Data Protection by Design (DPbD) can conflict with the needs of law enforcement in their fight against terrorism and criminality. An illustration of this tension can be found in the case of FBI vs. Apple, where the FBI wants Apple to help bypass security on an iPhone in order to gain access to data. The FBI needs the help of Apple – or third parties – to get such access, for which they might need to create new legal mandates. However, private parties like Apple, may want to design their products in such a way that evading and breaking the security of the system is not possible, as consumers demand secure and privacy friendly devices. This article adds to this debate by posing DPbD as an argument in favor of private parties not to cooperate in making their products less secure and less privacy friendly. This argument is especially relevant when a similar case unfolds in the EU under the new regime of the General Data Protection Regulation in which DPbD is explicitly embedded.


Dr. C. Cuijpers
Dr. Colette Cuijpers is als Associate Professor verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).

S. van Schendel LLB
Sascha van Schendel, LLB is als student-assistent verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).
Artikel

Wie heeft hier de regie?

Coffeeshops tussen lokaal, nationaal en internationaal drugsbeleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden coffee shops, drug policy, international drug treaties, drug tourism, multi-level governance
Auteurs Dr. M. van Ooyen-Houben en Dr. A. Mein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Tensions between the central national level and the local level become clearly visible in coffee shop policies, which have to fit within the international VN and EU treaties and strategies, national drug policy principles and local interests of public order. Three cases, all concerning long-term problems of drug tourism, nuisance and crime around coffee shops, illustrate these tensions. In the case of coffee shop Checkpoint near the Belgian border the Public Prosecutor aimed at solving the problem by prosecuting the coffee shop as a criminal network, while the mayor tried to minimize the negative effects by facilitating visitor flows. In the case of the private club and residence criterion in 2012 not all the mayors actually enforced these national criteria. This leads to a bigger emphasis on local tailoring. Thirdly, several mayors have opted for a regulation of cannabis production for coffee shops, while the stance of the national government is that international treaties banning this practice should be respected. The influence of local policies may be small, but in the end the local communities seem crucial when it comes to finding new ways of managing drug problems.


Dr. M. van Ooyen-Houben
Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Dr. A. Mein
Dr. Arnt Mein is onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.
Artikel

De offshore vennootschap

Het ideale verhullingsinstrument voor de witwasser?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden money laundering, offshore companies, offshore knowledge center, International Business Company (IBC), risk signals
Auteurs T.J. van Koningsveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Offshore companies play a substantial role in the laundering of dirty money, especially in bigger cases. This article reflects on the definition of offshore companies and analyses several cases of money laundering through these often complicated financial business structures. The lack of knowledge on offshore money laundering practices hampers criminal investigation worldwide. Improving the registration of cases and sharing knowledge internationally would help to develop better prevention measures and to detect money laundering through offshore companies. The author also provides a list of risk indicators signalizing possible abuse of offshore companies.


T.J. van Koningsveld
Mr. Tjalling Jan van Koningsveld is directeur van het Offshore Kennis Centrum in Almere (www.okcnl.nl) en promovendus aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Wat is witwassen eigenlijk?

Introductie tot theorie en praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden money laundering, Organized, Crime, Bitcoin, financial crime
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en M.R.J. Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, which serves as an introduction, the authors take a closer look at theoretical definitions as well as empirical manifestations of money laundering. They discuss the judicial definition and the often used theoretical distinction between ‘three stages’ of money laundering. Furthermore, the authors provide the reader with a quick overview of several forms of money laundering. This overview is based on actual criminal investigations. It covers the transfer of cash money and ‘concealed consumption’, both of which are frequently overlooked by authors who use the three stages model. Also ‘traditional’ forms of money laundering such as loan backs, abuse of legal trade, feigning gambling profit, structuring of real estate deals and ‘new’ forms, i.e. the use of bitcoins, are dealt with.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

M.R.J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid.
Artikel

Witwasonderzoeken zonder aantoonbaar gronddelict

Het rechterlijk toetsingskader en efficiënt opsporen in zes stappen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Criminal investigations money laundering, Prosecution, Jurisprudence, Burden of proof, Administration of justice
Auteurs J.P. Rozemeijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Dutch criminal money laundering investigations there is no need to fully proof the predicate offence. When a criminal suspicion of money laundering exists without a direct connection to the predicate offence it’s the suspect who must prove the legal origin of his income or possessions. If the suspect doesn’t succeed in this, the judge will rule that the origin has to be criminal. This article shows in six steps how judges rule in this kind of cases and how an investigation can be done. These six steps are combined with examples from recent jurisprudence. The goal of this article is to raise awareness on this subject in order to operate more efficiently and effectively in money laundering investigations.


J.P. Rozemeijer
Mr. Joris Rozemeijer is werkzaam als beleidsmedewerker witwassen bij het bureau van de Landelijk Officier van Justitie (LOvJ) Witwassen en Terrorisme Financiering van het Functioneel Parket.
Artikel

Veranderende mensbeelden van gedetineerden

Een kort historisch overzicht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden man’s view of detainees, prison history, detainees rights, prison circumstances, punitive tendencies
Auteurs C. Kelk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Throughout history the way detainees were portrayed by society has varied. At first, until the Second World War, detainees were mainly seen as blameworthy objects. After the war they became a fellow human being with dignity in need of resocialization or psychological treatment. In the Seventies detainees became citizens with a legal status according to the rule of law. When in the Eighties criminal law became more punitive, prisoners developed into enemies of society. Since then the detainee is moreover seen as dangerous and as a risk. Consequently the desirability of resocialization is questioned. This has resulted in a more individual approach towards prisoners, who need to prove that they are motivated for resocialization programs. In the end this leaves the most vulnerable detainees to their fate and expresses a view of man which could be characterized as the lost human.


C. Kelk
Prof. mr. Constantijn Kelk is emeritus hoogleraar straf(proces)recht en penitentiair recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Drie drijvende krachten achter bedrijfscriminaliteit

Een empirisch onderzoek naar fraude in het midden- en kleinbedrijf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden business crime, small and medium sized enterprises, control, opportunity, motivation
Auteurs G.W. Brummelkamp, W. Huisman en T. Flikweert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a report of an empirical study on business crime among small and medium sized enterprises (< 250 employees). The researchers examined 37 cases of business crime by interviewing the entrepreneurs. They were asked how the offence occurred, about their personal stake and their reflections on the interests that were impaired. Although the concept of business crime covers a huge amount of unlawful actions committed with various intentions, in the end there are three main driving forces: control, opportunity and motivation. Control refers to the entrepreneurs’ professionalism and ability to bring business processes – that can be rather complex – in line with regulations. Opportunity refers to the economic interest c.q. the (opportunity) costs of compliance. Motivation refers to the entrepreneurs’ perception of responsibility toward direct stakeholders and social values.


G.W. Brummelkamp
Drs. Guido Brummelkamp is senior onderzoeker bij Panteia.

W. Huisman
Prof. dr. mr. Wim Huisman is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

T. Flikweert
Mr. drs. Tamara Flikweert is als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Faillissementsfraude: een hardnekkig fenomeen

Pleidooi voor een preventieve aanpak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Bankruptcy fraud, Preventive approach, Prosecution, Trade Register, New legislation
Auteurs F. Kemp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands new criminal law measures will be introduced to prevent and combat bankruptcy fraud. In this article the author argues that the emphasis on criminal law measures is not sufficient to effectively tackle the phenomenon of bankruptcy fraud because prosecution and punishment always occur after the damage is done. What is needed is an integrated approach realising preventive measures, such as tools to detect fraud at an early stage. Fraud is, after all, characterised by typical behaviour that throws up digital red flags. After detecting those red flags subsequent action can be taken to stop the fraud. Also modernising the Trade Register would contribute considerably to the protection of creditors.


F. Kemp
Mr. Frits Kemp is als advocaat en curator verbonden aan Fort advocaten te Amsterdam. Hij is lid van de initiatiefgroep 1Overheid en docent Insolventierecht bij verschillende universiteiten en instellingen.
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