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Artikel

Ons cybergedrag is veel onveiliger dan we zelf denken

Implicaties voor effectief beïnvloedingsbeleid door de overheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden cyber hygiene, security behavior, human vulnerability, COM-B, policy implications
Auteurs Dr. Rick van der Kleij, Dr. Susanne van ’t Hoff-de Goede, Dr. Steve van de Weijer e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this research was to examine how Dutch citizens behave online and to explain their online behavior. The results of an experimental survey (N=2,426) show that unsafe behavior is highly prevalent. For example, nearly 40% of the respondents use a weak password. However, it appears that there are major differences between self-reported behavior and objective behavior. The objective measurements in the survey show that people behave more unsafely than they self-report. The research further shows that there is no silver bullet for promoting more safe online behavior. Different online behaviors seem to stem from different sources. Nevertheless, the authors do see a lot of value in interventions that focus on adaptations to the technology that people use for online activities, such that the possibility of unsafe behavior is reduced and the possibility of safe behavior is increased – also known as security by design. There is a role here for policy measures encouraging technology manufacturers to make these adjustments.


Dr. Rick van der Kleij
Dr. R. van der Kleij werkt als senior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool en als senior onderzoeker bij TNO.

Dr. Susanne van ’t Hoff-de Goede
Dr. S. van ’t Hoff-de Goede is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool.

Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S. van de Weijer is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.

Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt
Dr. E.R. Leukfeldt werkt als lector Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool en als senior onderzoeker bij het NSCR.
Artikel

Vissen met een nieuwe hengel: een onderzoek naar betaalverzoekfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden payment request fraud, online advertisement platforms, modus operandi, cybercrime, spearphishing
Auteurs Joke Rooyakkers MSc. en Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Online fraudsters seem to adapt to new digital opportunities. While the academic literature about phishing mainly focuses on phishing through emails, fraudsters also appear to use new means of communication and platforms to find and deceive their victims. Based on analysis of 728 police reports from the period from June 20th to August 20th 2019, this article provides a descriptive study on the new phenomenon of payment request fraud on the Dutch advertisement platform Marktplaats.nl (similar to eBay). The article will provide a thorough description of the crime script and its success factors. As fraudsters now use new means of communication, it will also be assessed to what extent they use new persuasion techniques, and to what extent victims may have different characteristics. The research, therefore, focuses on the modus operandi, persuasion techniques used by the fraudsters, and victim characteristics.


Joke Rooyakkers MSc.
I.J.M. Rooyakkers MSc. is analist cybercrime bij de Nationale Politie, eenheid Limburg.

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Persoonlijke pagina: https://research.vu.nl/en/persons/marleen-weulen-kranenbarg.
Artikel

Politie en krijgsmacht samen in speciale eenheden voor de politietaak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden police, military, SWAT, violent crime, terrorism
Auteurs Dr. Jaap Timmer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2006 the police and the army in the Netherlands cooperate within the System of Special Units. These units are called upon in life-threatening situations with imminent or actual severe violence related for example to organized crime or terrorism. The author examines this cooperation and its added value. The work of the special units system in the police organization should be viewed and treated as police work. Considering today’s concerns about terrorism, it seems wise to invest in an adequate anti-terrorism capacity. Yet the reality is that there are far fewer terrorist attacks and victims in the Netherlands now than in the 1970s. At the same time the number of arrests under life-threatening circumstances that are dealt with by the Arrest Team (SWAT) within the police organization is much higher nowadays. The SWAT lacks capacity to deal with this situation adequately.


Dr. Jaap Timmer
Dr. J.S. Timmer is politiesocioloog. Hij is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Jeugdigen en jongvolwassenen met licht verstandelijke beperkingen en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden Youth, mild intellectual disability, Criminality, Diagnosis, Prevention
Auteurs Prof. dr. X. Moonen en Dr. H. Kaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminological literature there is an ongoing discussion about the relation between intellectual disability and criminality. Because of differences of definitions and measurement methods prevalence figures may vary. Recent assessment of prevalence in the Netherlands using a valid Dutch screener (the SCIL) reveals a relatively high percentage of people with mild intellectual disability and borderline intelligence in the Dutch criminological system. People with mild intellectual disability and borderline intelligence cannot be considered as belonging to one group. Five typologies with even more subtypes based on mixed characteristics can be distinguished. A need for early detection and personalized interventions is stressed as is treatment based on the specific characteristics of these subtypes.


Prof. dr. X. Moonen
Prof. dr. Xavier Moonen is als bijzonder hoogleraar Kennisontwikkeling over kinderen en jongvolwassenen met licht verstandelijke beperkingen en gedragsproblemen verbonden aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens bijzonder lector Inclusie van mensen met verstandelijke beperkingen aan de Zuyd Hogeschool Heerlen en werkt als beleidsadviseur voor Koraal te Sittard.

Dr. H. Kaal
Dr. Hendrien Kaal is als lector Licht Verstandelijke Beperking en Jeugdcriminaliteit verbonden aan de Hogeschool Leiden en het Expertisecentrum William Schrikker.
Artikel

Empirisch-juridisch onderzoek – toekomstmuziek of werkelijkheid?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden empirical legal studies, law in action, law in the real world, evidence-based law
Auteurs Dr. N.A. Elbers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical Legal Studies (ELS) are studies investigating the law in the real world, using empirical methods. Internationally, ELS is on the rise. However, not much is known about what is being done around ELS in the Netherlands. This article describes the results of a systematic review, investigating how many PhD researchers who defended their thesis at a Dutch law faculty in 2015 have collected empirical data, what topic they investigated, which method they used and what background they have. The findings are that 33% of the PhD theses could be labelled as ELS. The majority of ELS were conducted by researchers who have a social science degree. Some of the (only few) lawyers collecting empirical data did not aim to conduct ELS, even though their research questions were very empirical. It is concluded that more empirical education and research funding are needed to stimulate lawyers to conduct more ELS.


Dr. N.A. Elbers
Dr. Nieke Elbers is postdoc-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en projectleider voor de stimuleringsactie Empirical Legal Studies. Zij is als sociale wetenschapper (MSc (neuro)psychologie) gepromoveerd bij de rechtenfaculteit van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (afdeling privaatrecht).
Artikel

Technologie voor opsporing en handhaving

Kansen, ervaringen en knelpunten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden technology in policing, effectiveness, promising technologies, legal obstacles, success stories
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers en B. Vergouw MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police forces and law enforcement agencies in many countries are continuously trying to optimize the use of technologies in policing and law enforcement. Efforts are being made to remove existing technological, legal and organizational obstacles to create more opportunities of promising technologies, both existing and new. This contribution describes the results of a survey among 46 police forces and other law enforcement agencies in eleven countries. Their experiences with policing technologies and their needs and preferences in this regard are described. The prevalence and satisfaction of existing technologies, including wiretapping, fingerprints, DNA research, database coupling, data mining and profiling, camera surveillance and network analyses were investigated. Legal, technological and organizational obstacles for the use of technology in policing were mapped and the extent to which policing technologies are evaluated and yield success stories was investigated. The main obstacles, according to the respondents, are insufficient financial resources and insufficient availability of technology. One in four organizations is lacking any clear, appealing success stories and half of the respondents indicated they were not performing any evaluations on the effectiveness of using particular technologies in policing. As a result, the information available on whether technologies in policing are actually working is very limited.


Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

B. Vergouw MSc.
Bas Vergouw MSc. is werkzaam als digitaal onderzoeker bij de Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM) en houdt zich voornamelijk bezig met open source intelligence.
Artikel

Datagestuurde stedelijke planning en ‘smart cities’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, data analytics, governance, smart cities, urban science
Auteurs Prof. R. Kitchin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article provides a critical overview of data-driven urbanism and smart cities focusing in particular on the relationship between data and the city, and critically examines a number of urban data issues, including: the politics of urban data; data ownership and control, data protection and privacy, dataveillance, and data uses such as social sorting and anticipatory governance; and technical data issues such as data quality and veracity of data models and data analytics. Whilst data-driven urbanism provides a set of solutions for urban problems, it does so within limitations and in the service of particular interests.


Prof. R. Kitchin
Prof. Rob Kitchin is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het National Institute of Regional and Spatial Analysis van Maynooth University in Ierland.
Artikel

De criminele levensloop van hawaladars

Een verkennend onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden hawala, underground banking, criminal career, Financial sector, Organised crime
Auteurs M.R. J. Soudijn en E.M. de Groen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This research takes a closer look at the criminal careers of 89 offenders who are involved in offering hawala services. The main finding is that 61% has a criminal record that does not consist of hawala related offenses. This finding is important from both a policy and criminological perspective. Firstly, incorporating hawala in the legal financial sector is a difficult prospect with the current people involved. Somehow the sector needs to be cleaned up. Secondly, the findings tie in with other research about criminal careers in organized crime. About two-thirds came into contact with the authorities later in life. However, an important caveat to the authors’ findings is that the outcomes are based on a known group of offenders. The total size of the hawala population is a dark number.


M.R. J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid.

E.M. de Groen
Eline de Groen MSc. studeerde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en liep in het kader van dit onderzoek stage bij het Flexibel Informatie Expertise Team (FIET) Financieel van de Landelijke Eenheid.
Artikel

Durven we de vrijheid nog wel aan?

De bijdrage van een religieus mensbeeld aan het strafrecht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden secular state, civil society, harm principle, responsibility, moral weakness, forgiveness, image of God
Auteurs T.W.A. de Wit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The modern secular democratic state rests on a new portrayal of man and a new status of religions and other comprehensive doctrines compared to the period before the sixteenth and seventeenth century. In this new view of man, as incarnated in the modern rule of law, other persons and communities are no longer seen as a condition for personal aspirations and development, but rather as a limit. This is expressed in the ‘harm principle’ of the French Revolution and John Stuart Mill. Freedom is at the center of this new constellation, so the homogeneity of the state must be generated from below, by a free civil society and also by religious organizations and traditions. Three problematic developments since the nineteenth century make the Christian view of man as free, responsible and undefinable ‘image of God’ relevant: the zoological, ‘scientific’ description of man that reduces man to a risk factor and an object of security management; the disappearance of ‘innocent’ disasters and calamities that increases human responsibility and the temptation to blame ‘others’ for our faults; and the growing gap between a legal and a moral public response to criminal acts that opens the need for forgiveness.


T.W.A. de Wit
Prof. dr. Theo de Wit is als universitair docent sociale en politieke filosofie en bijzonder hoogleraar vraagstukken geestelijke verzorging in justitiële inrichtingen verbonden aan de Faculteit Katholieke Theologie van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Het bestrijden van uitkeringsfraude: mogelijkheden en moeilijkheden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden social security fraud, social assistance benefits, detecting fraud, municipalities, local policies
Auteurs M. Fenger en W. Voorberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the role of local municipalities in detecting and sanctioning benefit fraud, specifically fraud with social assistance benefits. Since the early 2000's, the government's attention for benefit fraud has been increased, resulting in the strengthening of the tasks and responsibilities of local municipalities in combatting and detecting fraud. There are indications that this has been successful: there is an increase in detection and the number of people that claims to offend the rules is decreasing. However, there is a significant amount of variety between municipalities in their performance with this regard. The authors argue that these differences are related to the design and implementation of local policies concerning the detection of benefit fraud. They offer several recommendations for more effective policies at the local level. These recommendations include a better use of available data and knowledge about the background of offenders and social assistance recipients.


M. Fenger
Dr. Menno Fenger is universitair hoofddocent aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

W. Voorberg
William Voorberg MSc is promovendus aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
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