Zoekresultaat: 38 artikelen

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Artikel

Hoe de bezwaarprocedure bij de overheid kan profiteren van inzichten uit empirisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden administrative authorities, objection procedure, conflict, dispute resolution, neutrality
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. A.T. Marseille
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, someone who disagrees with an administrative order is only allowed to seek redress with the administrative courts after he has lodged an objection with the administrative authority responsible for the order. Administrative authorities have much freedom with respect to the organization of their objection procedure. Their freedom concerns two aspects of handling objections. Firstly, they can choose between setting up an independent external advisory committee or using only their own personnel in preparing their decision. Secondly, they can choose to model their objection procedure after the procedure before the administrative courts or to opt for a more consensual, as opposed to a more conflictual, style of dispute resolution. This article focuses on the question to what extent results of recent research can help administrative authorities in making a choice between these options. While the available research does not provide specific and finite answers as to which way the procedure should be organized, it does show that it is important that the procedure is characterized by information, consultation and neutrality.


Prof. mr. dr. A.T. Marseille
Prof. mr. dr. Bert Marseille is als hoogleraar bestuurskunde verbonden aan de vakgroep Staatsrecht, Bestuursrecht en Bestuurskunde van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Naar een succesformule voor empirisch-juridisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden empirical legal research, Relevance of ELR, United States, legal community, education
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. G. van Dijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How to make empirical legal research successful? This article seeks to find an answer. It does so by building on experiences in the US with empirical legal research. Three themes are identified that should be considered when thinking about advancing empirical legal research in the Netherlands, and possibly in other countries. First, empirical legal research should address topics that the legal community can relate to and that are considered relevant. Second, empirical legal research should educate the legal community about the possibilities and pitfalls of empirical legal research in addition to conducting empirical legal research. Third, legal scholars should be educated in conducting empirical legal research. The combination of these three elements is likely to determine empirical legal research’s success.


Prof. mr. dr. G. van Dijck
Prof. mr. dr. Gijs van Dijck is hoogleraar Privaatrecht aan Maastricht University.
Artikel

Amerikaans rechtsrealisme en empirisch-juridisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden American Legal Realism, Empirical Legal Studies, New Deal Policy, Research program, Lakatos
Auteurs Prof. dr. F.L. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The American Legal Realism movement, which originated in the beginning of the twentieth century and was active until the Fifties, can be seen as one of the founders of current Empirical Legal Studies because of the importance it attached to social scientific knowledge on behavior of – for instance – judges and others involved in the judiciary. The author sketches several characteristics of Legal Realism at that time. Exploring their range of thought he also examines whether Legal Realism’s studies can be seen as a research program. The recent emergence of New Legal Realism in the US and elsewhere leads to the question what characterizes this (re)new(al) movement. Finally it is argued that American Legal Realism especially contributed to scientific progress by posing new questions, changing focus and by stressing the importance of empirical evidence.


Prof. dr. F.L. Leeuw
Prof. dr. Frans Leeuw is directeur van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie en daarnaast hoogleraar Recht, openbaar bestuur en sociaal-wetenschappelijk onderzoek aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Empirisch-juridisch onderzoek – toekomstmuziek of werkelijkheid?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden empirical legal studies, law in action, law in the real world, evidence-based law
Auteurs Dr. N.A. Elbers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical Legal Studies (ELS) are studies investigating the law in the real world, using empirical methods. Internationally, ELS is on the rise. However, not much is known about what is being done around ELS in the Netherlands. This article describes the results of a systematic review, investigating how many PhD researchers who defended their thesis at a Dutch law faculty in 2015 have collected empirical data, what topic they investigated, which method they used and what background they have. The findings are that 33% of the PhD theses could be labelled as ELS. The majority of ELS were conducted by researchers who have a social science degree. Some of the (only few) lawyers collecting empirical data did not aim to conduct ELS, even though their research questions were very empirical. It is concluded that more empirical education and research funding are needed to stimulate lawyers to conduct more ELS.


Dr. N.A. Elbers
Dr. Nieke Elbers is postdoc-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en projectleider voor de stimuleringsactie Empirical Legal Studies. Zij is als sociale wetenschapper (MSc (neuro)psychologie) gepromoveerd bij de rechtenfaculteit van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (afdeling privaatrecht).
Artikel

Toepassing van rechtssociologisch en rechtspsychologisch onderzoek in de rechtspraktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Sociology of law, Legal psychology, Legal practice, Policy, Empirical research
Auteurs Mr. dr. M. Malsch, L. ten Hove MSc en Prof. dr. H. Elffers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Findings of empirical research may have direct or indirect relevance to legal practice and policy. This article investigates the relevance of findings from both research in sociology of law and legal psychology and law for legal practice and policy. It then discusses an empirical study in the Netherlands among scholars from these two disciplines into actual use in practice of empirical findings. A distinction is made between direct and indirect application of empirical findings. Both a survey and face-to-face interviews have been conducted. Findings suggest that, although the criminal justice system and policymakers do apply empirical knowledge to a certain degree, the actual use of empirical results seems defective.


Mr. dr. M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam.

L. ten Hove MSc
Leonie ten Hove MSc heeft als stagiaire bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam meegewerkt aan het in dit artikel beschreven onderzoek.

Prof. dr. H. Elffers
Prof. dr. Henk Elffers is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam en emeritus hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit aldaar.
Artikel

Experimenteren met informeren

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden mandated information disclosure, effectiveness, experimental design, external validity, cult of significance
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. W.H. van Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the regulation of private law relationships, the concept of informed choice-making is an important point of departure for policymakers. As a result, professionals and traders are often under a legal duty to offer certain information to the public in order to inform, persuade or warn against dangers. Policymakers and academics alike tend to refer to findings from purely experimental studies to underpin the effects and overall effectiveness of such information duties. This contribution argues that such studies have limited value as a basis for policymaking. Moreover, it is argued here that policymakers may in fact benefit from practice-oriented research which lacks significant findings.


Prof. mr. dr. W.H. van Boom
Prof. mr. dr. Willem van Boom is hoogleraar civiel recht te Leiden.
Artikel

Buurtwachten in Nederland: ontwikkeling, mechanismen en morele implicaties

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden neighborhood watch, community crime prevention, situational crime prevention, public safety, symbolic violence
Auteurs Dr. V. Lub
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Neighborhood watch schemes have become increasingly popular in the Netherlands. Drawing from data from 340 municipalities and fieldwork in four districts, the article shows how neighborhood watch groups have developed in the Netherlands and illustrates how they contribute to lower crime levels and collective efficacy, advancing theoretical notions from the literature. However, this form of coproduction of public safety is not without its moral problems. Stigmatization, ethnic profiling and excessive social control are real issues.


Dr. V. Lub
Dr. Vasco Lub is socioloog en heeft in de vorm van het Bureau voor Sociale Argumentatie een eigen onderzoeks- en adviespraktijk. Hij is daarnaast informeel verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, afdeling sociologie.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers bij de Nationale Politie: leren van andere organisaties

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden Dutch National Police, volunteering work, innovative mechanisms, customization, managing expectations
Auteurs Prof. dr. M. Thaens en Dr. D. de Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article summarizes the results of a study into new innovative forms of volunteer work which could possibly help the Dutch National Police to increase the number of volunteers. The empirical data were collected by a desk study, the analysis of five case studies and two focus groups. Three different themes were analyzed: mobilizing target groups, matching expectations, and formalization and institutionalization of volunteering work. Public organizations in general don’t realize enough the value of volunteers. Often there is lack of a clear vision, while more attention should go to managing expectations, customization, furthering the education of police volunteers, acceptance and support, guidance and support, recognition, appreciation and reward, and finally more room for volunteers.


Prof. dr. M. Thaens
Prof. dr. Marcel Thaens is bestuurskundige en werkzaam als Principal Consultant bij PBLQ. Daarnaast is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. D. de Kool
Dr. Dennis de Kool is bestuurskundige en als onderzoeker werkzaam bij Risbo, een onafhankelijk instituut voor onderzoek, training en advies, dat is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Buurtsurveillance in de Haagse Schilderswijk – door de ogen van jongeren uit de buurt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden neighborhood watch, ethnic community, Dutch-Moroccan juveniles, deviant behavior, role of the family
Auteurs M. Boutasmit Msc en Dr. E. Snel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines how Dutch-Moroccan juveniles from the Schilderswijk in The Hague, a neighborhood known as relatively unsafe, experience neighborhood watch and how they cope with it. Does neighborhood watch make juveniles to reduce or to continue their deviant behavior? The authors found that particularly neighborhood watchers from their own ethnic community (‘residential fathers’) have a positive influence on juveniles. Juveniles tend to obey them more because they feel treated with understanding and respect. Also they feel uncomfortable when realizing that supervisors from their own community might know their parents and families and might tell them about their deviant behavior. The role of the family in reducing deviant behavior of migrant juveniles was not yet mentioned in the literature.


M. Boutasmit Msc
Mohamed Boutasmit MSc volgde het masterprogramma Grootstedelijke Vraagstukken en Beleid van de (toenmalige) Afdeling Sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is nu werkzaam als adviseur bij BMC Implementatie, een bedrijf dat tijdelijke professionals voor opdrachtgevers uit de publieke sector rekruteert en beide partijen adviseert.

Dr. E. Snel
Dr. Erik Snel is universitair docent bij het Department of Public Administration & Sociology (DPAS) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij doet vooral onderzoek naar internationale migratie.
Artikel

Overheidsparticipatie in burgerprojecten

Over Buurt Bestuurt, Hillesluis en Schrödingers kat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden ‘Community Governs’, security and safety management, performance theory, procedural justice, Rotterdam
Auteurs Dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article is an ethnographical study of a program called ‘Community Governs’ (Buurt Bestuurt) in Rotterdam’s neighborhood Hillesluis. ‘Community Governs’ is a community-based program which goal is to solve crime and disorder problems. The article investigates the role of the local government in this program. Three different roles are discerned: (1) performance, (2) procedural justice, and (3) participation. The results indicate that to the residents of Hillesluis the performance by the local government is the cornerstone of ‘Community Governs’.


Dr. mr. M.B. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Private bijdragen aan publieke veiligheid: effecten van Buurt-WhatsApp

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden Community WhatsApp, public security, Tilburg, crime prevention, citizens’ involvement
Auteurs Dr. B. Vollaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Community WhatsApp consists of a group of local residents sharing information among each other on suspicious situations in the neighborhood through a smartphone app. In the southern Dutch city of Tilburg the author examined whether Community WhatsApp stimulates people to report suspicious situations through the emergency number 112. The stimulus is possibly the appreciation of other participants for being attentive and taking the initiative to call the emergency number. The author found that Community WhatsApp contributes to the diminishing of crime due to the mechanisms of disruption of criminal activities and deterrence.


Dr. B. Vollaard
Dr. Ben Vollaard is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan Tilburg University.
Artikel

Tussen Heumensoord en Winschoten

Over de tegenstrijdige betekenis van burgerparticipatie in de veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden community crime prevention, public security, instrumental perspective, social polarization, social diversity
Auteurs Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the concluding article of this special issue on civilian participation in public security it is argued that this term covers many different phenomena, from neighborhood watchers cooperating with the police to extremist militia. Much of the literature on civilian participation implicitly and wrongfully has an instrumental perspective. The participation of civilians in public security however, is much more than just an instrument of public administration or the police. Not all activities of citizens in the field of public security are decent or according to the perspective of the administration and the police. Moreover, there is no consensus on what public security exactly means, while the motives of people to get involved in public security activities differ greatly. Mobilizing citizens on the basis of fighting crime bears the risk of producing differences and conflicts in society instead of creating open, tolerant and inclusive communities.


Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

De modernisering van het huwelijksvermogensrecht

Een historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden marital property regimes, community of property, standard prenuptial agreements, legal modernization
Auteurs Prof. mr. L.C.A. Verstappen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives an overview of the changes in the Dutch marital property regimes during the last twenty years. This is preceded by a discourse sketching the reasons for this legal modernization trajectory and the history of the community of property and standard prenuptial agreements.


Prof. mr. L.C.A. Verstappen
Prof. mr. Leon Verstappen is als hoogleraar privaatrecht, in het bijzonder notarieel recht, verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Hij is tevens raadsheer-plaatsvervanger in het gerechtshof te Den Haag en adviseur bij Hekkelman advocaten en notarissen te Arnhem en Nijmegen.
Artikel

Aanpassing afstammings- en gezagsrecht gewenst voor ongehuwd samenwonende ouders

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden informal cohabitation, law of parentage, parental responsibilities, parental authority, child protection
Auteurs Prof. mr. W.M. Schrama
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article attention will be paid to the radical societal changes in respect of informal cohabitation. The rate of extramarital child birth has increased to over 50% of all first-born children. Family law is traditionally focused on marriage, which was for a long time the only acceptable relationship type. The question addressed in this article is whether the law of parentage and the law of parental responsibilities should be reformed in order to meet the needs of modern families.


Prof. mr. W.M. Schrama
Prof. mr. Wendy Schrama is als hoogleraar familierecht en rechtsvergelijking verbonden aan het Utrecht Centre for European Research into Family Law van het Molengraaff Instituut voor Privaatrecht van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Het belang van grootouders in hedendaagse gezinnen en het recht op omgang met kleinkinderen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden grandparents, grandchildren, child care, rights of access, intergenerational solidarity
Auteurs Dr. T. Geurts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the context of a recent call for the strengthening of the legal position of grandparents with regards to visitation rights, this article presents a brief review of major conceptual notions and empirical findings within the literature on grandparent-grandchild relationships. Three major topics for understanding the intergenerational relationship are addressed: the historical context, the importance of the relationship, and changes over individual time.


Dr. T. Geurts
Dr. Teun Geurts is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Continuïteit en verandering in het Nederlandse gezinsleven

Gezinsvormen, arbeidsmarktparticipatie en tijdsbesteding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden divorce, father involvement, female labor force participation, nuclear family, parent-child time
Auteurs Dr. A. Roeters en Dr. F. Bucx
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses continuity and change in family life in the Netherlands over the last decades. The authors consider three characteristics of families: (1) family types, (2) maternal employment, and (3) parent-child time. Analyses are based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the Dutch Time Use Study. The results indicate that there is both continuity and change. Although two married individuals giving care to their children is still the most common family type, alternative family forms have become more popular, including unmarried cohabiting parents and single-parent families. Furthermore, the division of labor is still strongly gendered: Dutch mothers’ participation on the labor market is limited and they still hold the main responsibility for children. Moreover, children are still most likely to grow up in a household with both a father and mother. There are also indicators of change. Maternal employment is much more prevalent than in the 1970s and fathers’ involvement with children increases.


Dr. A. Roeters
Dr. Anne Roeters is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Haar expertise ligt op het gebied van tijdsbestedingsonderzoek en de combinatie van arbeid en zorg.

Dr. F. Bucx
Dr. Freek Bucx is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Hij doet daar onderzoek naar jeugd en gezin.
Artikel

Ouderschap en ouderlijk gezag bij niet-erkende islamitische huwelijken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden unregistered Islamic marriages, polygamy, parentage, custody, parental authority
Auteurs Prof. dr. S.W.E. Rutten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The identified trend of changing family relations and establishing a family without being traditionally married, probably does not apply to the entire Dutch population. Islamic law requires that people get married before children are born. Among Muslims, this standard is still followed on a large scale. Marriages which may be validly established according to Islamic law, however, will not always be recognized in the Netherlands. Examples include the unregistered marriages and polygamous marriages. This has implications for the way in which questions of parentage and custody of children that were born out of these marriages, are answered. In this article it will be argued that the law, where it concerns issues of parentage and custody, provides insufficient protection to the category of those unrecognized Islamic marriages.


Prof. dr. S.W.E. Rutten
Prof. dr. Susan Rutten is als bijzonder hoogleraar islamitisch familierecht in een Europese context verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid. Website: https://ppp.maastrichtuniversity.nl/users/s.rutten.
Artikel

Data Protection by Design als argument in het FBI vs. Apple-debat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden FBI vs. Apple, Data Protection by Design, Data Protection by Default, GDPR, privacy
Auteurs Dr. C. Cuijpers en S. van Schendel LLB
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adhering to a strict interpretation, Data Protection by Design (DPbD) can conflict with the needs of law enforcement in their fight against terrorism and criminality. An illustration of this tension can be found in the case of FBI vs. Apple, where the FBI wants Apple to help bypass security on an iPhone in order to gain access to data. The FBI needs the help of Apple – or third parties – to get such access, for which they might need to create new legal mandates. However, private parties like Apple, may want to design their products in such a way that evading and breaking the security of the system is not possible, as consumers demand secure and privacy friendly devices. This article adds to this debate by posing DPbD as an argument in favor of private parties not to cooperate in making their products less secure and less privacy friendly. This argument is especially relevant when a similar case unfolds in the EU under the new regime of the General Data Protection Regulation in which DPbD is explicitly embedded.


Dr. C. Cuijpers
Dr. Colette Cuijpers is als Associate Professor verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).

S. van Schendel LLB
Sascha van Schendel, LLB is als student-assistent verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).
Artikel

Predictive policing: politiewerk aan de hand van voorspellingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden predictive policing, prescriptive policing, Big Data, risks, legal safeguards
Auteurs Ir. A. de Vries en Dr. S. Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Law enforcement around the world, including the Netherlands, is currently experimenting with predictive policing: policing based on crime predictions. Big Data on past crimes and the help of sophisticated machine learning enable police to use reliable predictions about when and where the next offense will take place. If the effectiveness of policing actions is stored in the system, it can also predict which intervention is most effective. This is called prescriptive policing. The authors explain how these methods work, how reliable and effective they are and which associated risks can be identified. The authors emphasize that legal, ethical and organizational safeguards are necessary for a responsible implementation.


Ir. A. de Vries
Ir. Arnout de Vries is senior onderzoeker en adviseur op het gebied van social media en veiligheid bij TNO en auteur van het boek Social media: het nieuwe DNA.

Dr. S. Smit
Dr. Selmar Smit is aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam gepromoveerd op het onderwerp machine learning en sindsdien werkzaam als data scientist bij TNO.
Artikel

Reflecties op het verantwoord gebruik van kunstmatige intelligentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Artificial Intelligence, Ethical dilemma’s, Designing process, Restrictions and controls, Human rights
Auteurs Dr. M.V. Dignum en Prof.dr. J. van den Hoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The potential perils of robots and other forms of artificial intelligence (AI) have been a subject for discussion since the 1950s. Nevertheless it seems that society is still not prepared for the great impact of the rapid advancement of AI in the last decennium and the many ethical dilemmas involved. How can moral, social and legal values be integrated in the designing process of AI technologies? Is it imaginable that these AI systems would ever be considered as ethical entities? How to control these systems? The authors argue that we should not only analyze these problems, but also reflect on ethics itself. AI has the potential to change the way we live and work. But it is important to introduce restrictions and controls to guarantee our freedom, autonomy and fundamental human rights.


Dr. M.V. Dignum
Dr. Virginia Dignum is als Associate Professor verbonden aan de Faculteit voor Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Prof.dr. J. van den Hoven
Prof. dr. Jeroen van den Hoven is als hoogleraar Ethiek verbonden aan de Faculteit voor Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
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