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Artikel

Doe het zelf? Strategieën om je veiliger te voelen tijdens een avond uit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, coping strategies, avoidance behavior, urban nightlife, individual agency
Auteurs Dr. Jelle Brands en Dr. Janne van Doorn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study investigates the strategies people themselves use to deal with situations in which they fear crime. The authors see people as social agents who hold agency and (also) manage their own safety, instead of viewing people as powerless victims. Previous studies have emphasized people’s agency, often through a focus on avoiding dangerous spaces. Building on insights from the fear of crime literature that approaches fear of crime as situational, the authors illustrate how spaces in which people worry about crime can also be transformed (through action) into safe(r) spaces. The article focuses on the context of urban nightlife areas. Thirty students living in Utrecht, the Netherlands were interviewed. Results show that students perform a range of strategies to cope with their fear, including situational avoidance, arranging companionship, increasing alertness, and reasoning. In the discussion the authors reflect on how the application of such strategies is related to (erosion of) ‘mobility’ and individual freedom of movement.


Dr. Jelle Brands
Dr. J. Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Janne van Doorn
Dr. J. van Doorn is universitair docent aan het Instituut Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Graven naar de wortels van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Resultaten van een onderzoek in twaalf buurten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, tailor-made policy, neighborhoods, avoidance behavior, social stability
Auteurs Dr. Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to search for a more focused approach of fighting back against ‘the fear of crime’. It is based on a study of the backgrounds of risen levels of fear of crime in twelve neighborhoods in the regions of Utrecht and Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Eight central themes could be identified in the stories of 240 respondents: specific locations, avoidance behavior, social stability, social quality, superdiversity, negative neighborhood images, burglary, and societal pessimism. Despite the fact that these central themes appeared in the overall analysis, every neighborhood showed another mix of factors explaining risen levels of fear of crime. This means that policies to reduce ‘the fear of crime’ should focus on specific, local explanations and should always be tailor-made.


Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is als lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid verbonden aan de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Ruimte van de Hogeschool Saxion. Hij is tevens research-fellow bij de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en redacteur van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Etnische diversiteit en onveiligheidsgevoelens in de buurt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, ethnic diversity, neighborhoods, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, geo-linguistic classification
Auteurs Iris Glas MSc en Dr. Roel Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Living in a multicultural environment may be accompanied with an increased fear of crime. Residents may become alienated in a very diverse environment and withdraw themselves in their own social world. This ‘hunkering down’ may ensue feelings of unsafety. However, social scientists have done hardly any research on whether citizens who live in a multicultural environment in Western Europe actually feel more unsafe. This study seeks to contribute to fill in this knowledge gap. The authors’ research reveals that residents are more likely to feel unsafe in neighborhoods with a high degree of ethnic diversity. The aforementioned correlation is the most noticeable in neighborhoods consisting of people on medium incomes.


Iris Glas MSc
I. Glas MSc is PhD-kandidaat aan de Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Roel Jennissen
Dr. R. Jennissen is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid.
Artikel

Hét gevoel van onveiligheid bestaat niet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of victimization, risk perception, feelings of unsafety, measurement, policy
Auteurs Dr. Lonneke van Noije en Dr. Jurjen Iedema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is no such thing as the feeling of unsafety. The trend in feelings of unsafety is measured using a standard question that has figured in the successive Safety Monitors (Veiligheidsmonitors) for many years: ‘Do you occasionally feel unsafe?’ This general question formulation elicits information on how uneasy the Dutch feel about safety. The nature and burden of this unease may vary greatly among them. The authors’ analysis shows that crime-specific measures of fear of victimization differ fundamentally from both cognitive assessments (risk perception) and general measures of feelings of unsafety. Hence, people who occasionally feel unsafe do not automatically think or fear that they will fall victim to crime and vice versa. Consequently, the authors identify four main constellations of subjective safety which emerge in different population groups, some more burdened by fear of victimization than others. The authors argue that policy should at least seek to reduce the most serious problems. They propose personal fear of victimization as an alternative for general feelings of safety.


Dr. Lonneke van Noije
Dr. L. van Noije is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau te Den Haag.

Dr. Jurjen Iedema
Dr. J. Iedema is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau te Den Haag.
Artikel

Waarom het onderzoek naar veiligheidsbeleving een nieuwe impuls nodig heeft

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, critique, fear reduction, security policy, fear drop
Auteurs Marnix Eysink Smeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The security landscape has changed rapidly. New or revived threats have emerged, such as terrorism and cybercrime, bringing new or revived fears and anxieties as well. Actors in security policy feel a need to address these fears, but do not know how. Can the criminological subdiscipline of fear of crime studies provide the knowledge and understanding that is needed? A quick scan of the state of the art in this research domain, gives two reasons why it cannot: (1) fear of crime studies have yielded much knowledge on operationalization, measurement and determinants of fear of crime, but far less in mechanisms, trends, effects and influenceability, whereas insight in the latter issues is what is mostly needed in security policy; and (2) fear of crime studies are still mainly focused on the ‘traditional’ fear of crime, while fear of new crimes and threats remains under-researched. A shift of focus in fear of crime studies is urgently needed.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
M.W.B. Eysink Smeets is lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en hoofd van de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Inholland. Hij is tevens directeur van de Landelijke Expertisegroep Veiligheidspercepties (LEV), een platform voor onderzoek naar veiligheid, veiligheidsbeleid en veiligheidsbeleving. De auteur legt momenteel de laatste hand aan zijn dissertatie Public reactions to crime and insecurity, onder supervisie van prof. Martin Innes en prof. Trevor Jones, beiden verbonden aan Cardiff University.
Artikel

Criminele geldstromen en ICT: over innovatieve werkwijzen, oude zekerheden en nieuwe flessenhalzen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, organized crime, money laundering, bitcoin, financial crime
Auteurs Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen, Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt, Prof.dr. Edward Kleemans e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we analyze how organized crime offenders use IT to handle their money flows. How and to what extent do offenders use IT-facilitated possibilities, such as bitcoin, to launder their money? The empirical data consist of thirty large-scale police investigations. These thirty cases are part of the Organized Crime Monitor, an ongoing research project into the nature of organized crime in the Netherlands. One of the most striking findings is the fact that cash is still king – even for online drug dealers who get paid in digital currencies.


Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
Dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.

Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt
Dr. R. Leukfeldt is senior-onderzoeker cybercrime bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving en lector Cybersecurity in het mkb bij de Haagse Hogeschool.

Prof.dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is hoogleraar zware criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R. Roks is universitair docent aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Georganiseerde kinderpornonetwerken op het darkweb

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden child pornography, Dark Web, organized crime
Auteurs Madeleine van der Bruggen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The emergence of Dark Web child pornography forums and their availability to large offender communities has enabled a professional form of child pornography distribution as well as an increased exchange of criminal and social capital. Offenders have access to a new platform in which strong ties and long-lasting relationships with co-offenders are formed. Moreover they could be classified as organized crime, because child pornography Dark Web forums are characterized by a hierarchical order, a clear role division and illegal power structures that regulate the illegal activities. The implications from a law enforcement as well as from scientific perspective are discussed.


Madeleine van der Bruggen MSc
M. van der Bruggen MSc MA is als promovendus verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden en werkzaam bij de Dienst Landelijke Recherche van de Nationale Politie.
Artikel

De ‘non-human (f)actor’ in cybercrime

Cybercriminele netwerken beschouwd vanuit het ‘cyborg crime’-perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cyborg crime, cybercrime, cybercriminal networks, botnet, actor-network theory
Auteurs Dr. Wytske van der Wagen en Frank Bernaards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Botnets, banking malware and other high-tech crimes are increasingly analyzed by criminological scholars. Their distributed and automated nature poses however various theoretical challenges. This article presents an alternative approach, denoted as the ‘cyborg crime’ perspective, which adopts a more hybrid view of networks and also assigns an active role to technology. The value of this approach is demonstrated by reflecting on findings from earlier empirical work that analyzes conversations between cybercriminals involved in botnets and related activities. The research shows that technological nodes can take an important position in the organizational structure of cybercriminal networks and do not merely have a functional role. Viewing technology as an actor within a criminal network might offer new criminological insights in both the composition of these networks and how to disrupt them.


Dr. Wytske van der Wagen
Dr. W. van der Wagen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Law (sectie Criminologie). In juni 2018 promoveerde zij aan de Rijkuniversiteit Groningen op het proefschrift From cybercrime to cyborg crime: An exploration of high-tech cybercrime, offenders and victims through the lens of actor-network theory.

Frank Bernaards LLM
F. Bernaards LLM is werkzaam als operationeel specialist bij Team High Tech Crime van de Dienst Landelijke Recherche.
Artikel

Facebookvrienden worden met de verdachte

Over undercoverbevoegdheden op internet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden undercover operations, investigative powers, infiltration, Internet, jurisdiction
Auteurs Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates which online undercover investigative methods are applied in practice and how they fit in the Dutch legal framework. In particular, the three special investigative powers of a pseudo purchase, systematic information gathering and infiltration are examined. Investigative powers cannot be applied unilaterally (across state borders). When law enforcement officials cannot reasonably determine the location of the suspect, the online unilateral application of undercover investigative powers is allowed. However, there is still a risk that diplomatic tensions arise with the involved state. States should agree in treaties under which circumstances cross-border online undercover operations are allowed.


Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans is als onderzoeker verbonden aan eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Nieuwe online opsporingsbevoegdheden en het recht op privacy

Een analyse van de Wet computercriminaliteit III

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, Dutch Cybercrime Act, hacking, investigative powers, privacy
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2018 the Dutch parliament accepted new cybercrime legislation (the Cybercrime III Act) that creates several new online criminal offences and gives law enforcement agencies new investigative powers on the Internet. This article describes the background of Dutch cybercrime legislation and the contents of the Cybercrime III Act. The newly introduced cybercrimes are discussed as well as the new investigative competences. Particularly the legitimacy and the necessity of the investigative power of the police to hack computer systems of suspects may significantly interfere with the right to privacy.


Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers
Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers is associate professor en onderzoeksdirecteur bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open De aard en aanpak van georganiseerde cybercrime

Bevindingen uit een internationale empirische studie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, traditional organized crime, organization structure of cybercrime groups, policing cybercrime
Auteurs Dr. Geralda Odinot, Dr. Christianne de Poot en Dr. Maite Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Worldwide, the digitalization of society is proceeding rapidly and this brings new forms of crime. The threats arising from different types of cybercrime are real and constantly evolving, as the internet with its anonymity and borderless reach, provides new opportunities for criminal activities. This article describes some results from an international empirical study aimed to gather more insight on the link between cybercrime and organized crime as well as on the question whether cybercrime is organized. It shows how cybercriminals cooperate with each other and what this organization structure looks like.


Dr. Geralda Odinot
Dr. G. Odinot is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker en trainer forensisch interviewen How2Ask. Ten tijde van de uitvoering van het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, was zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC. Zij is tevens hoogleraar Criminalistiek aan de Vrije Universiteit en lector Forensisch onderzoek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie.

Dr. Maite Verhoeven
Dr. M.A. Verhoeven is als beleidsmedewerker Rechtshandhaving & Ketensamenwerking Cariben verbonden aan het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid. Ten tijde van de uitvoering van het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, was zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

Uit de schaduw

Perspectieven voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar dark markets

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden Dark markets, Hansa, Silk Road, Bayonet, scientific research
Auteurs Thijmen Verburgh MSc, Eefje Smits MSc en Rolf van Wegberg MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors present the lessons learned from previous research efforts into dark markets. First the important features of dark markets are discussed, i.e. anonymity and trust, as well as the question how data on dark markets can be collected. Next, the authors illustrate how this data can be used to study the phenomenon of dark markets itself as well as the impact of police interventions on dark markets.


Thijmen Verburgh MSc
T. Verburgh MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Eefje Smits MSc
E. Smits MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij TNO.

Rolf van Wegberg MSc
R. van Wegberg MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO en de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

De afnemende rol van de rechtspraak: is vervanging van de rechter mogelijk en wenselijk?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden judges, marginalization, administrative bodies, truth finding, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The last decades have shown a tendency in which tasks are transferred from the judge to other authorities, such as the police and public prosecutor, administrative bodies, administrative procedures, or private parties. The central question in this article is whether these authorities can really replace the court. A comparison is made between legal proceedings and procedures for other authorities on the following aspects: truth finding, openness and legal protection of the (vulnerable) citizen. The author also discusses a recent legislative proposal for an own budget for the Judiciary, which aims to strengthen the independence of the judge towards the two other state powers. It is argued that the courts should be also accessible in the case of relatively small offenses and for vulnerable citizens.


Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. M. Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), raadsheer-plaatsvervanger in het Hof ’s-Hertogenbosch en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Het zwaard van Damocles: burgemeesters wil is wet

Over het punitieve karakter van een bestuursrechtelijke herstelsanctie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Mayor’s powers, house eviction, public order, hemp nursery, administrative sanction
Auteurs Mr. Maartje Schaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Under Article 13b (1) of the Dutch Opium Act, the mayor is authorized to impose an order under administrative coercion when drugs are sold, delivered, supplied or present in houses or premises This much-discussed article, also cited as the ‘Damocles Law’, gives the mayor the power to close drug shelters even before the suspect’s guilt has been established in legal proceedings. It is not necessary to show that the interests of public policy are at stake. Moreover, the means of defense against the closure are very limited. The author argues that the current application of Article 13b is exclusively punitive in nature, whereby in case of criminal prosecution, there is also a violation of the ne bis in idem principle.


Mr. Maartje Schaap
Mr. M.R.M. Schaap is werkzaam als strafrechtadvocaat bij De Haan Strafrechtadvocaten te Groningen.

Lucas Bolsius
L.M.M. Bolsius is burgemeester van Amersfoort.
Artikel

Jongerenrechtbanken: oplossingsgerichte lekenrechtspraak voor en door leerlingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden youth courts, restorative justice, active citizenship, schools, community
Auteurs Drs. Gert Jan Slump en Prof. dr. Jessica Asscher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the backgrounds, the development and first findings on youth courts in the Netherlands. A Dutch version of the USA youth courts was developed and piloted in 4 Amsterdam schools. Cases referred are small (partly illegal) incidents committed in the school environment. The Dutch youth court practice is described against the background of transformational change in society and the development of restorative justice and (peer oriented) development of citizenship. Although the model is still in development and schools are somewhat reluctant to deliver and refer cases, practice is growing.


Drs. Gert Jan Slump
Drs. G.J. Slump is criminoloog en landelijk projectleider voor de Stichting Jongerenrechtbanken Nederland. Hij heeft een eigen adviespraktijk voor projecten op strafrechtelijk gebied en geeft trainingen op het terrein van herstelrecht en herstelgericht werken.

Prof. dr. Jessica Asscher
Prof. dr. J. Asscher is hoogleraar Forensische Orthopedagogiek aan de Universiteit Utrecht en hoofddocent aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij is lid van de Raad van Advies van de stichting Jongerenrechtbanken.
Artikel

De ontwikkeling van het aantal door bestuursorganen behandelde overtredingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden administrative sanctions, trend, minor offences, restorative sanctions, punitive sanctions
Auteurs Dr. Debora Moolenaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper looks at the number of administrative sanctions for minor offences since 2005. Administrative sanction can be divided into two categories: restorative sanctions and punitive sanctions. Information is limited and dispersed. The number of offences handled by welfare agencies has decreased with 21% in the period 2005-2016. In the same period the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by the police/public prosecutor have decreased with 14% (mainly originating from automated traffic cameras). Also administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory financial agencies have decreased with 58%. For some organisations the observation period is a shorter. In the period 2011-2016 the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by municipalities has increased with 41% and the number of administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory non-financial agencies have decreased with 47%. There is no information available on administrative sanctions for tax fraud.


Dr. Debora Moolenaar
Dr. D.E.G. Moolenaar is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Het Nader rapport bestuurlijke boetestelsels: een stap terug in duidelijkheid?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden administrative penal law, administrative fines, serious conduct, system of sanctions, harmonisation
Auteurs Mr. dr. Arnt Mein en Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently the Dutch Government has responded to an advise from the advisory body Raad van State concerning the relationship between the administrative and the penal system of sanctions.
    Nowadays administrative sanctions are imposed in the Netherlands for serious offenses, whereas the original intention was to only use these procedures for minor felonies. It is unclear why some offenses are subject to a judicial judgment, while others are dealt with in administrative proceedings. Moreover, it appears that the administrative fines are often significantly higher than fines imposed by a judge. The government feels that harmonisation between the maximum of the administrative and penal fine should be realized. With regard to the choice between administrative and penal law, the government hasn’t found a criterion for deciding which offenses should be subject to a judicial judgment and which can be dealt with in administrative proceedings. The authors argue that the government could have offered more clarity by using the criterion of ‘serious criminal conduct’ as defined in criminal law. Criminal law has to be chosen when there is serious criminal conduct. In other cases it is possible to choose the administrative procedure.


Mr. dr. Arnt Mein
Mr. dr. A.G. Mein is lector bij de faculteit Maatschappij en Recht van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam.

Mr. dr. drs. Benny van der Vorm
Mr. dr. drs. B. van der Vorm is universitair docent Straf(proces)recht en is verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut en het Montaigne Centrum voor Rechtsstaat en Rechtspleging van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Buiten de rechter om?’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden sanctions, Judiciary, penal law, administrative law, rule of law
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Tulder en Mr. Saskia Sicking
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Judiciary has only a very limited role in the imposition of sanctions with traffic offenses. With other minor offenses its role is rather limited and has decreased. There has been a striking shift from the imposition of penal sanctions to sanctions based on administrative law in this area. With major offenses (crimes) the role of the judiciary is still significant and has not diminished over the last 20 years. This despite policy efforts to boost out of court sanctioning.
    The Judiciary is a fundamental pillar of the rule of law. It offers legal protection, by judging and, if necessary, penalizing violations of norms in a fair trial. In this way not only justice is done with individual cases. Case law has wider implications: confirmation and development of norms and thus general prevention. To fulfil this aim a certain volume of cases and openness of the judgment process is necessary.


Dr. Frank van Tulder
Dr. F. van Tulder is onderzoeker/adviseur bij de afdeling Strategie van de Raad voor de rechtspraak, verantwoordelijk voor het economisch en statistisch onderzoek bij de Rechtspraak.

Mr. Saskia Sicking
Mr. S. Sicking is hoofd van de afdeling Strategie van de Raad voor de rechtspraak en tevens rechter.
Artikel

Politie, krijgsmacht en ordehandhaving

Een historisch perspectief (1850-2000)

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Dutch police, Dutch army, militarization, expertise
Auteurs Dr. Jos Smeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For a century and a half, the Dutch police and the army cooperated in combating civil disturbances. It was common practice that soldiers were called from their barracks to assist in maintaining public order. However, to deploy the army against civilians raised fundamental questions about its legitimacy. As a result some Dutch police forces began implementing military tactics and using military equipment to do the job themselves. The high watermark of this development lies in the years between the two world wars, when revolution and civic unrest always seemed imminent. The post-war years were marked by the Cold War and fear of communist insurrection. Militarized units were always kept in reserve. Nowadays, the army still renders assistance, usually not ‘manu militari’, but on matters that require special expertise.


Dr. Jos Smeets
Dr. J.P.E.G. Smeets is historicus en als onderzoeker verbonden aan het lectoraat Politiegeschiedenis van de Nederlandse Politieacademie.
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