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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid x Jaar 2015 x Rubriek Article x
Artikel

Vessel protection, van zorgplicht naar zelfverdediging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Security, Piracy, public vs. private responsibilities, policy making, paradigm changes
Auteurs Henk Warnar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article demonstrates the influence of intellectual debate in policy paradigm changes. In response to piracy around the Horn of Africa, Dutch naval forces have participated in NATO and EU counter piracy operations since 2008. Although successful, also self protection measures by the merchant ships are required to provide security to individual ships. Since 2008 Dutch ship owners have advocated to amend legislation to allow private armed security teams (PAST) for individual protection, similar to policies by most foreign countries. Because of sensitivities concerning the private use of arms, policymakers, politicians, stakeholders and advisors have circumvented the issue. Instead of addressing the question of self defense, the paradigm of state monopoly for violence and the state’s obligation to provide security, made individual protection by embarked military teams to develop as a governmental service at levels that turned out to be unachievable for the armed forces. This policy caused several types of friction. Currently, the only acceptable solution seems to be to allow PAST and legislation is being prepared accordingly. A successful paradigm change however can only be achieved if an adequate new paradigm is constructed by intellectual debate. (Hall, Visser & Hemerijck) So far this debate has been too limited in scope. Debate has been state centric and focused on legal views and regulation. To resolve friction, additional analysis of differing roles by the state and individual entrepreneurs is required. Such analysis argues that the state severely reduces individual protection and politicians decide on the fundamental question of self defense by ships at the high seas.


Henk Warnar
Henk Warnar is senior adviseur bij het Ministerie van Defensie.
Artikel

Positieve veiligheid. Een theoretische analyse van een omstreden begrip

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Positieve veiligheid, geschiedenis, begripsanalyse, kritiek, ethiek
Auteurs Gerben Bakker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The concept of positive security appears more and more often in academic and public discussions. It presents a normative agenda for a non-repressive approach of security. In the article, it is claimed that the concept and its implications lack fundamental clarity. First of all, it is illustrated that the meaning of positive security primarily develops on the renouncement of negative security. Second, a historical comparison between the discipline of international relations and criminology discloses that different meanings have been assigned to positive security that seem at times at odds with each other. These frictions substantiate the view that it is problematic to accept positive security as an unequivocal recipe for change. Finally, the consequences of the disseminated structure of meaning are discussed in relation to the ambition of reform that positive security represents. For example, advocates of positive security do not seem eager to commit themselves to very clear normative views. This makes it difficult to really pin down what the suggested changes underlying positive security, are truly implying. Moreover, positive security invites us to extend the horizon of security politics to include various kinds of positive needs and values. But doesn’t this take us back to the initial criticism that the reach of the security concept has extended too much, covering virtually every aspect of life?


Gerben Bakker
Gerben Bakker is docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde aan de Haagse Hogeschool en promovendus aan de Erasmus Universiteit (vakgroep Filosofie van Mens en Cultuur).
Artikel

Over crimmigratie en discretionair beslissen binnen het Mobiel Toezicht Veiligheid … of Vreemdelingen … of Veiligheid?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Mobiel Toezicht Veiligheid, Crimmigratie, Discretionaire bevoegdheid, Koninklijke Marechaussee
Auteurs Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude, Tim Dekkers BBA MSc en Jelmer Brouwer MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article aims to explore the driving factors behind the process of crimmigration, the merger of crime control and migration control. By analysing the legal and policy framework governing the so-called ‘Mobile Security Monitor’ – the discretionary immigration checks carried out by the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee in the borderlands with Belgium and Germany, the research explores the extent to which the framework might leave room for crimmigration-based decisions on the street level. As the article shows, the dual nature of the Mobile Security Monitor as both an instrument for immigration control and crime control combined with an important name-change and the ongoing securitization of migration in Europe seem to create a favourable environment for crimmigration.


Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Maartje van der Woude is Universitair Hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit Leiden en verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van dezelfde universiteit.

Tim Dekkers BBA MSc
Tim Dekkers is promovendus Criminologie en verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Jelmer Brouwer MSc
Jelmer Brouwer is promovendus Criminologie en verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
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