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Artikel

Access_open Regelovertreding als voorspeller van incidenten in de chemische industrie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Compliance, Accidents, process safety, predicting, safety indicators
Auteurs Ellen Wiering, Arjan Blokland, Marieke Kluin e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both major disasters and smaller incidents at chemical companies impact the environment. Seveso regulations aim to limit the impact of the chemical industry on man and the environment. This leads to the expectation that violation of these rules is predictive of incidents. In the current study, incidents at chemical companies are predicted from the company’s history of rule violation, previously reported incidents and corporate characteristics. Analysis of three years of inspection data and of six years of reported incidents, shows that the company’s branch and previous reported incidents predict the occurrence of an incident. The company’s history of rule violation, however, does not. Future research is needed to examine the different possible explanations for these contra intuitive results.


Ellen Wiering
Ellen Wiering is als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Arjan Blokland
Arjan Blokland is als bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Marieke Kluin
Marieke Kluin is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Wim Huisman
Wim Huisman is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Marlijn Peeters
Marlijn Peeters is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De inzet van privaat gewapend maritiem beveiligingspersoneel of Privately Contracted Armed Security Personnel (PCASP) aan boord van Belgische en Nederlandse koopvaardijschepen

Een rechtsvergelijkende analyse van de wetgeving van Europese vlaggenstaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Maritime piracy, private maritime security company, PMSC, vessel protection detachment, privately contracted armed security personnel
Auteurs Ilja Van Hespen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Until recently, Dutch merchant ships could not rely on privately contracted maritime security staff to protect themselves against pirates. On the one hand, the argument prevailed that the State had to retain the monopoly on the use of force and, on the other hand, one also feared for the escalation of violence or international incidents. Nowadays, however, more and more European countries allow for the use of privately contracted armed security personnel on board merchant ships. As a result, the Dutch Parliament has adopted a bill containing rules for the use of armed private security guards on board Dutch maritime merchant ships (Law to Protect Merchant Shipping 2019 (published in the Dutch official Gazette on June 7th, 2019)).
    The author addresses the question whether because of the new law a level playing field will emerge with the Merchant Navies from the neighboring Flag States of Belgium, the United Kingdom, Spain and Denmark, presenting a comparative analysis of their domestic legislation.
    The Dutch law clearly regulates the use of force and the master has the final responsibility for everything that happens under his authority. In principle, the security guards may only apply violence as the master has determined that it is necessary. Innovative is that there is a reporting obligation whereby every incident should be reported with images and sound recordings. It seems, however, that the law is especially made to protect and secure and not necessarily to provide a solution for situations in which pirates come on board.
    It is clear that the intention of the legislator is to leave the monopoly on the use of force in the hands of the State. However, the adoption of this law to protect merchant shipping could constitute a first step in enabling the use of force by other actors than the State, which in itself is groundbreaking. Before being able to go on this road, there are still countless political (mainly related to the sovereignty of a State) and legal challenges (mainly concerning the use of force and respect for human rights) to be addressed.


Ilja Van Hespen
Ilja Van Hespen is luitenant-ter-zee eerste klasse bij de Belgische Marinecomponent, hoofd van de Sectie Governance van de Naval Policy Staff van het Operationeel Commando van de Marine, doctorandus in de Sociale en Militaire Wetenschappen aan de Koninklijke Militaire School, doctorandus in de Rechten aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en Universiteit Gent, master Handelsingenieur en doctoral researcher aan het Rolin-Jaequemyns International Law Institute Ghent.
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