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Artikel

Bounding Border Checks

A Comparative Approach to Crimmigration, Race, and Policing at the US Internal Border

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Border checks, US International Border, US Border Patrol, Schengen area
Auteurs David Hamburger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crimmigration – the hybridization of criminal law and migration policy – is a transatlantic phenomenon. Despite this growing recognition, however, academic attention has thus far tended to focus more on discrete cases than on the similarities across regional contexts. In considering internal checkpoint stops conducted by US Border Patrol within the context of ongoing debates about racial profiling and policing of the internal border in the Schengen area, this article aims to provide a comparative lens by which to assess the questions at the heart of the current European discussion. An examination of both the jurisprudence and practice of the US internal border, this comparison suggests, offers a cautionary tale for European attempts to balance the fight against cross-border crime with the principles of human rights and the promise of a Europe free of internal frontiers.


David Hamburger
D.J. Hamburger LLM is a recent LLM graduate of the Europa Instituut at Leiden Law School, where he was an NAF-Fulbright fellow.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Internationale’ mensenhandel; zoeken naar een balans tussen vrijheids- en beschermingsbeginsel

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden mensenhandel, prostitutie, prostitutiebeleid, vrij verkeer, migratiecriminaliteit
Auteurs Luuk Esser
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Article 273f, paragraph 1, subparagraph 3, of the Dutch Penal Code criminalizes, as trafficking in human beings, the act of recruiting, removing or abducting another person with the intention of inducing this person to make himself available, in another country, for the performance of sexual acts with or for a third party for remuneration. This provision, deriving from an international convention established in 1933, has always been a bit of an oddity in the Dutch penal provision on trafficking in human beings since it is not necessary to prove that the prostitute involved was lured or otherwise forced into prostitution and prostitution is legalized in the Netherlands. The Supreme Court of the Netherlands ruled in a landmark case in 2016, that the act criminalized in subparagraph 3 can only be punishable in situations where it can be said that the recruiting, removing or abduction of the prostitute occurred under circumstances that can be qualified as exploitation. This contribution sheds light on the historical backgrounds of this remarkable penal provision, its particularities and the recent case law of the Supreme Court. It demonstrates that the development of this provision and the discussion it sparks, embody the more general quest, in criminal law, to strike a balance between protecting individual liberty on the one side and protecting vulnerable persons on the other.


Luuk Esser
Mr. dr. L.B. Esser is senior beleidsmedewerker (coördinerend) op het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid en tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger in de sector strafrecht van de rechtbank Rotterdam. In 2019 promoveerde hij aan de Universiteit Leiden op een proefschrift over de strafbaarstelling van mensenhandel in Nederland.
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