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Artikel

Misdaad of heldendaad: humanitaire mensensmokkel bezien vanuit de crimmigratietrend

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden asiel, crimmigratie, mensensmokkel, humanitaire hulp, vervoerdersaansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Mr. Anna Chatelion Counet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the penalization of human smuggling has become broader and more severe. This development is part of a crimmigration trend that describes an increase of immigration-related criminal offenses. Currently, the provision does not include a financial component, nor does it exclude acts with a humanitarian motive. The validity of such severe prohibitions, especially those including acts that are not morally reprehensible, is questioned through the concept of ‘humanitarian smuggling’. Moral reprehensibility is one of the criteria for criminalization that provide a framework for the reflection on the Dutch prohibition of human smuggling that is conducted in this article.


Mr. Anna Chatelion Counet
Mr. A. Chatelion Counet is Consulent Asielprocedure bij VluchtelingenWerk Nederland. Zij is recentelijk afgestudeerd in het strafrecht op het onderwerp ‘humanitaire mensensmokkel’, haar afstudeerscriptie ligt ten grondslag aan dit artikel.
Artikel

From the securitisation of migration to the criminalisation of solidarity towards migrants

The shrinking space for NGOs and volunteers in the Mediterranean Sea

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden migration, securitisation, solidarity, growing pattern of criminalisation
Auteurs Fleur Boixiere
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, migration has been at the centre of European debates and the number of migrants trying to cross the Mediterranean remains alarming. To this day, hundreds of people continue to risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean on small boats in order to flee conflict zones, persecution or extreme poverty. However, due to the lack of legal alternatives, migrants engage in dangerous journeys and find themselves helpless in the hands of smugglers. This article will address the growing pattern of criminalisation of migration and humanitarian assistance throughout Europe and consider the extent to which national, European and international anti-smuggling laws affect the work of civil society actors.


Fleur Boixiere
Fleur Boixiere is a former student of Public International Law at Leiden University and this contribution is based on her Master thesis. While writing her article, she did an internship at the ICC.
Artikel

Access_open Migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean

An excludable act under article 1F(b) Refugee Convention?

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden article 1F, Refugee Convention, exclusion clauses, migrant smuggling, serious non-political crimes
Auteurs Anne Aagten LLL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015, deadly incidents of migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean were daily covered by everyday newspapers. Empirical research has shown that migrants themselves may be involved in these smuggling operations. If they apply for refugee protection, they may be excluded from refugee status under Article 1F of the Refugee Convention. Article 1F(b) excludes asylum seekers from international protection if serious reasons exist to consider that they have committed serious non-political crimes. This contribution discusses whether migrant smuggling can be considered as such and whether various forms of participation in smuggling operations give rise to individual responsibility and trigger application of article 1F(b).


Anne Aagten LLL.M.
A.E.M. Aagten LLL.M. is onderwijs- en onderzoeksmedewerker bij het Instituut voor Immigratierecht (Universiteit Leiden).
Artikel

Access_open Criminal law sanctions and the Return Directive: the position of illegally staying third-country nationals in the European Union

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Crimmigration, Return Directive, Entry ban, Sanctions, Criminal law
Auteurs Aniel Pahladsingh LL.M. en Jim Waasdorp LL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    At EU level, the use of substantive criminal law as a response to illegal migration is materialised by both the EU legislator and the Member States individually. EU involvement in criminalizing illegal migration takes place in a twofold manner: directly, through harmonization of national legislations, and indirectly, through the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). An example of the latter is the case law of the CJEU regarding criminal law sanctions for breaching an entry ban. In this article, we will analyse judgments of the CJEU in the light of crimmigration law and make a distinction between the Member States’ power to classify a breach of an entry ban as an offence and to lay down criminal law sanctions in national legislation, and their power to impose such sanctions.


Aniel Pahladsingh LL.M.
Mr. A. Pahladsingh is jurist bij de Raad van State en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Rotterdam. Hij is tevens lid van de redactie van Crimmigratie & Recht.

Jim Waasdorp LL.M.
Mr. J.R.K.A.M. Waasdorp LL.M. works as a lawyer at the Administrative Jurisdiction Division of the Dutch Council of State (as of the 1st of June 2017, Jim is seconded to the Directorate General of Library, Research and Documentation of the Court of Justice of the European Union) and is a researcher at the University of Utrecht.
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