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Artikel

Circles of Support and Accountability

Een sociaal netwerk voor zedendelinquenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden COSA, sex offenders, re-entry, desistance, recidivism
Auteurs Dr. Mechtild Höing en Audrey Alards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (COSA) a group of trained and supervised volunteers support a medium to high-risk sex offender in his process of re-entry after detention. Sex offenders participate on a voluntary basis. Circles have a double aim: the prevention of new sexual offences and the rehabilitation of the sex offender. Circles offer social inclusion and support for behavior change, and monitor risk. They are embedded in the professional network of sex offender after care. Through a professional circle coordinator relevant information is circulated between the circle and professional agencies, to enable adequate support and interventions. Effect studies show that COSA contributes to a reduced risk of reoffending. The model was developed in Canada almost 25 years ago and has been picked up by a growing number of countries in Europe, the America’s, Asia, as well as Australia and New Zealand. Variations in the model become apparent and raise questions about the essentials of COSA.


Dr. Mechtild Höing
Dr. M. Höing is docent en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken van Avans Hogeschool in Breda. Zij is daar als operationeel projectleider verbonden aan het project Sterktegericht werken met COSA buiten justitieel kader.

Audrey Alards LLM
A. Alards LLM is extern kenniskringlid bij het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken van Avans Hogeschool in Breda. Ze is verbonden aan het lectoraat als senior cirkelcoördinator en onderzoeker.
Artikel

De rol van intermediairs in het Nederlandse prostitutiebeleid

Top-down toepassen of bottom-up aanpassen van regels?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden regulatory intermediaries, Social Working theory, Regulatory Intermediary Target model, prostitution policy
Auteurs Nicolle Zeegers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Similar to the more current Regulator Intermediary Target (RIT) model, Griffiths’ Social Working (SW) theory points to the relevance of intermediaries for explaining rule following behavior. In this article, the author applies both theories (RIT and SW) concerning the role of intermediaries in rule following to explain developments in Dutch prostitution policy: the non-implementation of the emancipatory, sex workers’ rights based approach, and its replacement by a more repressive policy of closing down sex facilities. The analysis shows that although both theories contain useful starting point for explaining these developments, the SW theory’s special value is its acknowledgement of how regulatory intermediaries operate in a social field with existing social rules and a specific balance of power. Such rules and power relations have put barriers to the implementation of the Dutch prostitution policy as formulated in 1999. As illustrated in the article, the SW- theory offers more tools than the RIT- model for an analysis of how legal rules work in practice.


Nicolle Zeegers
Nicolle Zeegers is universitair docent politicologie bij de vakgroep Transboundary Legal Studies (TLS), Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. In haar onderzoek richt zij zich op vraagstukken over invloed en macht in de totstandkoming en werking van wetgeving. In augustus 1998 werd zij lid van de vakgroep Rechtstheorie waarvan John Griffiths de voorzitter was. Zij heeft verschillende malen over de sociale-werkingstheorie gepubliceerd (zie Weyers & Stamhuis 2003 en Zeegers, Witteveen & Van Klink 2005).
Artikel

Veilige resocialisatie van zedendaders met inzet van vrijwilligers

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden COSA, Zedendelinquenten, Resocialisatie, Vrijwilligers
Auteurs Dr. Mechtild Höing en Audrey Alards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Circles of Support and Accountability (COSA) is a method in which volunteers support and monitor a convicted sex offender during his or her re-entry into society in order to prevent new sex offences. COSA was developed in Canada in 1994 as a grass roots approach to an acute crisis in a small town near Toronto, and since then has spread throughout Canada. In 2002, the COSA model was introduced and further developed in England, and from there the approach found its way to the Netherlands, where circle projects are provided by the Dutch Probation Organization since 2010. Until now, more than one hundred sex offenders (‘core members’ in a circle) have participated in a circle in the Netherlands. Although the COSA model predates the Good Lives Model, it’s basic principles align very well to the Good Lives Model. In COSA, a group of three to five volunteers form a surrogate social network, that offers social inclusion, practical and moral support in all kinds of daily challenges the core member faces, and that monitors risk and risk behavior. The volunteers are supervised by a professional circle-coordinator and supported by professionals who are involved in the core members’ after care arrangements. The COSA intervention model describes a number of conditions and strategies that support its effectiveness. Canadian, American and English case-control studies into the effectiveness of COSA shows a substantial reduction of offending behavior in core members compared to controls. Since the international proliferation of the COSA model is ever increasing, protecting the program integrity is a growing concern, and stresses the need for international cooperation between COSA providers.


Dr. Mechtild Höing
Dr. Mechtild Höing is socioloog aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool en projectleider en lid van de kenniskring lectoraat Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties.

Audrey Alards
Audrey Alards is werkzaam bij Reclassering Nederland; als cirkelcoördinator is zij sinds 2009 werkzaam voor COSA.
Artikel

Ontstaan en ontwikkeling van de reclassering in vogelvlucht: 1823-heden

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Probation service, History of social work, history of pprobation, Solitary confinement, professionalization, Volunteer work, state control, social casework, resocialization, Alternative sanctions, What Works-debate
Auteurs Dr. Maarten van der Linde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the last decade history of social work gained a growing interest among social professionals, teachers, students and policy makers. They want to know more about the contributions the social work professions made to social welfare, community building and public safety. A website was launched, which today in 2017 presents the history of fifteen fields of social work: www.canonsociaalwerk.eu/.
    Part of this is the history of Probation. In this article this history is told, following highlights as the inspiration from Great Britain, the start in 1823 and the first decades of volunteer work. Probation tried to compensate the negative effects of solitary confinement. Since the early twentieth century the role of the state was growing (Probationcharter 1910) leading to 100% financial support in 1965 and 100% control in the 1980s. The probation service was integrated in the juridicial system, but became not an stateservice. Performance was delegated to relative independant institutions, heirs of the private probation associations of the past, with strong traditions of work ethic. This history of probation shows the influence of social casework methods since the 1950s, the search for a balance between dependance and independance from the state, and the balance between punishment and resocializing. Since the 1990s the role of probation in alternative sanctions, the contribution of volunteer work to a highly professionalized probation service and the What Works-debate brought innovation and new inspiration to the field of probation service.


Dr. Maarten van der Linde
Dr. Maarten van der Linde is emeritus lector Geschiedenis van sociaal werk aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Professionaliteit als norm in het reclasseringswerk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Professionaliteit, praktijkgericht onderzoek, master Forensisch sociale professional, beroepsregister reclasseringswerkers
Auteurs Drs. Anneke Menger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    New demands require probation to invest in high standards of professionalism. Probation officers can nowadays build their professionalism on common values, scientific knowledge, professional discretion and public accountability. Collaboration with universities of applied sciences results in a common research agenda, new degree programs and well-structured post-initial training. Questions yet to answer are how to guarantee professionalism in a context of large professional discretion. Probation seeks answers in facilitating their professionals to do the master degree program forensic social professional, in developing peer audits based on new quality standards and in initiating a professional register.


Drs. Anneke Menger
Drs. Anneke Menger is lector bij het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel Kader van Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Samen voor de jeugd: hoe wetenschap, onderwijs en praktijk samenwerken aan de preventie van seksueel misbruik in de residentiële jeugdzorg

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden Seksualiteit, Jeugdzorg, Preventie, Implementatie, co-creatie
Auteurs Drs. Michelle Wismans, Drs. Anne Boer, Dr. Mechtild Höing e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Young people in residential health care are experimenting with sexual behavior and sexual boundaries just like other young people do. But unlike youth in ‘normal’ circumstances, they often face an increased risk of becoming victims or perpetrators of sexual problematic behavior. Professionals often find it difficult to deal adequately with sexual behavior. The ‘Flag system’ is a method that helps them to assess sexual behavior adequately by applying six criteria, and rate satiation with four different ‘flags’ (green = normal behavior, yellow = risky behavior, red = mildly sexual abusive behavior, black = severely sexual abusive behavior). It provides guidelines to react in a way that supports normal behavior and addresses problematic behavior. A set of drawings illustrate situations that range from normal sexual behavior to severely abusive behavior, which can be used to discuss with young people or with colleagues. The original Flag system was developed by Sensoa, a Belgian experts center on sexuality. The original version was developed for use with children from 0 to 18, and therefore an adaptation was necessary to fit the needs of adolescents in residential youth care.
    In a 4-year project, a partnership of researchers, program developers and professional educators, all experts in sexual health, develops an adapted version of the Flag system. The project provided a theoretical underpinning for the method, and a conceptual framework of goals and activities for the training program that is mandatory for those who want to work with the Flag system in a professional context. Also, drawings and guidelines were adapted to the context of residential youth care. This version is currently piloted in twelve institutions for residential youth care. Also, schools for higher professional education in social work are involved in a number of project activities to enhance their training programs in order to improve knowledge, skills and comfort of future youth workers to discuss sexual matters with young people.


Drs. Michelle Wismans
Drs. Michelle Wismans is ontwikkelingspsycholoog aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool en lid van de kenniskring lectoraat Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties.

Drs. Anne Boer
Drs. Anne Boer is sociaal geograaf aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool en lid van de kenniskring lectoraat Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties.

Dr. Mechtild Höing
Dr. Mechtild Höing is socioloog aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool en projectleider en lid van de kenniskring lectoraat Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties.

Drs. Remy Vink
Drs. Remy Vink is als socioloog werkzaam bij TNO en is onderzoeker Child Health.
Artikel

Begrip, rust, recht en regie: naar een verklaringsmodel voor de werking van herstelbemiddeling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Verklaringsmodel, Effecten, Recidivevermindering, procedure, attributie
Auteurs Bas Vogelvang en Gert Jan Slump
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on a literature research and program evaluation of the practice of Victim in Focus (Slachtoffer in Beeld) in 2013, two issues are addressed: What are the possible effects of victim offender mediation? Which active mechanisms will cause or contribute to these effects? The authors describe the current context and developments in The Netherlands concerning restorative justice and then describe the effects and possible active mechanisms such as satisfaction, diminishing fear, anger and shame, information and consent, procedural justice, reduction of recidivism, compliance. In a synthesis of active mechanisms they present four domains or mediating factors: from incomprehension to comprehension (cognitive restoration); from unease to ease (emotional restoration); from injustice to justice (moral restoration); from powerless to powerful feelings (restoration of control). The victim offender mediation as a ritual has an impact or is supposed to have an impact on these four domains for both victims and offenders. Within the four domains four activities or interactions within victim offender mediation are presented: creating understanding through inter-subjectivity; expression of fear, trauma and shame; doing justice by excuses/apologies and restorative actions; regaining self control. Further research is needed to validate the model and to get more insight in essential or primary and secondary aspects in the explanation of the impacts of victim offender mediation.


Bas Vogelvang
Bas Vogelvang is lector Reclassering en Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Gert Jan Slump
Gert Jan Slump is criminoloog, sociaal-maatschappelijk ondernemer en consultant, adviseur en trainer. In 2010 was hij medeoprichter van de Stichting Restorative Justice Nederland en sindsdien ontwikkelt hij samen met organisaties en professionals binnen het netwerk rond herstelrecht en herstelgericht werken in Nederland allerlei projecten op dit terrein. Hij is een veelgevraagd spreker op dit terrein. Gert Jan is ook actief op het terrein van professionaliseringsvraagstukken, onder meer binnen de jeugdzorg.
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