Zoekresultaat: 22 artikelen

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Article

Access_open Legal Legitimacy of Tax Recommendations Delivered by the IMF in the Context of ‘Article IV Consultations’

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden legitimacy, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Article IV Consultations, tax recommendations, global tax governance
Auteurs Sophia Murillo López
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution examines the legal legitimacy of ‘Article IV Consultations’ performed by the IMF as part of its responsibility for surveillance under Article IV of its Articles of Agreement. The analysis focuses on tax recommendations given by the Fund to its member countries in the context of Consultations. This paper determines that these tax recommendations derive from a broad interpretation of the powers and obligations that have been agreed to in the Fund’s Articles of Agreement. Such an interpretation leads to a legitimacy deficit, as member countries of the Fund have not given their state consent to receive recommendations as to which should be the tax policies it should adopt.


Sophia Murillo López
Sophia Murillo López, LL.M, is an external PhD candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and a member of the ‘Fiscal Autonomy and its Boundaries’ research programme.
Article

Access_open The Questionable Legitimacy of the OECD/G20 BEPS Project

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden base erosion and profit shifting, OECD, G20, legitimacy, international tax reform
Auteurs Sissie Fung
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The global financial crisis of 2008 and the following public uproar over offshore tax evasion and corporate aggressive tax planning scandals gave rise to unprecedented international cooperation on tax information exchange and coordination on corporate tax reforms. At the behest of the G20, the OECD developed a comprehensive package of ‘consensus-based’ policy reform measures aimed to curb base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) by multinationals and to restore fairness and coherence to the international tax system. The legitimacy of the OECD/G20 BEPS Project, however, has been widely challenged. This paper explores the validity of the legitimacy concerns raised by the various stakeholders regarding the OECD/G20 BEPS Project.


Sissie Fung
Ph.D. Candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and independent tax policy consultant to international organisations, including the Asian Development Bank.
Article

Access_open The Peer Review Process of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes

A Critical Assessment on Authority and Legitimacy

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information, exercise of regulatory authority, due process requirements, peer review reports, legitimacy
Auteurs Leo E.C. Neve
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Global Forum on transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes has undertaken peer reviews on the implementation of the global standard of exchange of information on request, both from the perspective of formalities available and from the perspective of actual implementation. In the review reports Global Forum advises jurisdictions on required amendments of regulations and practices. With these advices, the Global Forum exercises regulatory authority. The article assesses the legitimacy of the exercise of such authority by the Global Forum and concludes that the exercise of such authority is not legitimate for the reason that the rule of law is abused by preventing jurisdictions to adhere to due process rules.


Leo E.C. Neve
Leo Neve is a doctoral student at the Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Legality of the World Bank’s Informal Decisions to Expand into the Tax Field, and Implications of These Decisions for Its Legitimacy

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden World Bank, legality, legitimacy, global tax governance, tax policy and tax administration reforms
Auteurs Uyanga Berkel-Dorlig
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The emergence of global tax governance was triggered by common tax problems, which are now still being faced by international society of nation-states. In the creation of this framework, international institutions have been playing a major role. One of these institutions is the World Bank (Bank). However, those who write about the virtues and vices of the main creators of the framework usually disregard the Bank. This article, therefore, argues that this disregard is not justified because the Bank has also been playing a prominent role. Since two informal decisions taken in the past have contributed to this position of the Bank, the article gives in addition to it answers to the following two related questions: whether these informal decisions of the Bank were legal and if so, what implications, if any, they have for the Bank’s legitimacy.


Uyanga Berkel-Dorlig
Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Tax Law, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Artikel

Digitale seksuele delicten in het straf- en strafprocesrecht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden Seksuele delicten, Internet, Strafbaarstelling, Opsporing
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Minister for Security and Justice recently announced a revision of the sexual offences in the Dutch Penal Code. Part of this revision could be the introduction of several sexual offences that are committed on the internet. The Minister mentioned sexchatting, sextortion and revenge porn. This article describes the present-day possibilities the Penal Code offers in tackling these crimes, and gives insight in the bottlenecks in current penal law. This article also provides a description of several relevant criminal investigative powers in existing and future Dutch procedural law.


Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. dr. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht. Hij is tevens als bijzonder hoogleraar Strafrechtsfilosofie, leerstoel Leo Polak, verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en redacteur van PROCES.
Article

Access_open The Right to Same-Sex Marriage: Assessing the European Court of Human Rights’ Consensus-Based Analysis in Recent Judgments Concerning Equal Marriage Rights

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden same-sex marriage, gay marriage, European consensus, margin of appreciation, consensus-based analysis by the ECtHR
Auteurs Masuma Shahid
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution assesses the consensus-based analysis and reasoning of the European Court of Human Rights in recent judgments concerning equal marriage rights and compares it to the Court’s past jurisprudence on European consensus and the margin of appreciation awarded to Member States regarding the issue of equal marriage rights. The contribution aims to analyse whether there is a parallel to be seen between the rapid global trend of legalisation of same-sex marriage and the development or evolution of the case law of the ECtHR on the same topic. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the Court’s consensus-based analysis is problematic for several reasons and provides possible alternative approaches to the balancing of the Court between, on the one hand, protecting rights of minorities (in this case same-sex couples invoking equal marriage rights) under the European Convention on Human Rights and, on the other hand, maintaining its credibility, authority and legitimacy towards Member States that might disapprove of the evolving case law in the context of same-sex relationships. It also offers insights as to the future of European consensus in the context of equal marriage rights and ends with some concluding remarks.


Masuma Shahid
Lecturer, Department of International and European Union Law, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Administering Justice and Serving the People

The Tension between the Objective of Judicial Efficiency and Informal Justice in Canadian Access to Justice Initiatives

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden access to justice, procedural law, courts, civil justice reform, comparative law
Auteurs Catherine Piché
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Canada has a complex system of courts that seek to serve Canadians in view of the traditional objectives of civil justice – principally accessibility, efficiency, fairness, efficacy, proportionality and equality. The Canadian court system is generally considered by its users to work well and to have legitimacy. Yet, researchers have found that ‘there is a tendency for people involved in a civil case to become disillusioned about the ability of the system to effect a fair and timely resolution to a civil justice problem’. This article will discuss the ways in which reforms of procedural law and civil justice have originated and continue to be made throughout Canada, both nationally and provincially, as well as the trends and influences in making these reforms. With hundreds of contemporary procedural reforms having been discussed, proposed and/or completed since the first days of Canadian colonisation on a national basis and in the Canadian provinces and territory, providing a detailed analysis will prove challenging. This article will nonetheless provide a review of civil justice and procedural reform issues in Canada, focusing principally, at the provincial level, on the systems of Ontario and Quebec. Importantly, I will seek to reconcile the increasing willingness to have an economically efficient civil justice and the increased power of judges in managing cases, with our court system’s invasion of ADR and its prioritisation of informal modes of adjudication.


Catherine Piché
Dr. Prof. Catherine Piché, Université de Montreal.
Artikel

Access_open Dworkin’s Rights Conception of the Rule of Law in Criminal Law

Should Criminal Law be Extensively Interpreted in Order to Protect Victims’ Rights?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Klaas Rozemond, Ronald M. Dworkin, Legality in criminal law, Rights conception of the rule of law, Legal certainty
Auteurs Briain Jansen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The extensive interpretation of criminal law to the detriment of the defendant in criminal law is often problematized in doctrinal theory. Extensive interpretation is then argued to be problematic in the light of important ideals such as democracy and legal certainty in criminal law. In the Dutch discussion of this issue, Klaas Rozemond has argued that sometimes extensive interpretation is mandated by the rule of law in order to protect the rights of victims. Rozemond grounds his argument on a reading of Dworkin’s distinction between the rule-book and the rights conception of the rule of law. In this article, I argue that Dworkin’s rights conception, properly considered, does not necessarily mandate the imposition of criminal law or its extensive interpretation in court in order to protect victims’ rights.


Briain Jansen
Briain Jansen is als promovendus rechtstheorie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    This paper discusses three approaches that can be helpful in the area of comparative rights jurisprudence, oriented in reference to three different kinds of studies that are possible in that area. To a large extent the methods for a comparative legal research depend on the research question and the goal of the researcher. First, a comparative law study may focus on the sociocultural context that led to the elaboration of differences or similarities in the protection of rights. Second, a comparative law approach can be a normative enterprise. It can focus on engaging in a philosophical analysis enlightened by the differences or similarities in the regulation of rights, in order to propose concrete solutions for the regulation of a right. Third, a comparative law approach can combine both elements of the two previously mentioned approaches. The paper discusses the challenges that the researcher faces in her attempt to use these methodologies and how these challenges can be overcome. The law as a normative discipline has its own constraints of justifiability. If what motivates a comparative law study is the search for principles of justice the researcher needs to persuade that her methodological approach serves her aim.


Ioanna Tourkochoriti
School of Law, NUI Galway, Ireland.

    The nexus between religion and law is an important subject of comparative law. This paper, however, finds that the majority of comparative theorists rely on the immanent frame; that legal legitimacy can and should be separated from any objective truth or moral norm. But the fact of the matter is many constitutional systems were founded based on a complicated mixture between the transcendent and immanent frame. Whereas in the immanent frame, human actions are considered self-constituting, in the transcendent frame, human actions were judged in light of their correspondence to higher, divine laws and purposes.
    This article argues that it is not sufficient for comparative theorists to offer a perspective from the immanent frame. Comparative theorists in law and religion should understand at least basic religious doctrines and know how to systematize those doctrines. In other words, comparative theorist of law and religion should work within the transcendent frame. By using a transcendent frame, comparative theorists will be able to excavate the underlying structure of religion, and so they will understand better how theological ideas influence law. Furthermore, this paper will also present a thought experiment in applying the transcendent frame in comparative constitutional studies.


Stefanus Hendrianto
Stefanus Hendrianto is a scholar at Boston College, School of Theology and Ministry. In recent years, he has been a visiting professor at Santa Clara University School of Law (2013-2015) and a guest scholar at the Kellogg Institute for International Studies at the University of Notre Dame (2015-2016). He holds a Ph.D. degree from the School of Law, University of Washington, Seattle and LLM degree from Utrecht University, Netherlands, in addition to his LLB degree from Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.
Artikel

Liquidatie van een Solid Soldier?

Het ‘niet-zeker-weten’ en de ‘realness’ rondom de dood van Sin

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2017
Trefwoorden violence, murder, gangs, street culture, ethnography
Auteurs Dr. R.A. Roks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During an ethnographic research on the Rollin 200 Crips, a Dutch ‘gang’, Sin – one of the author’s informants – was shot and killed in Amsterdam. In this article, the author focuses on the ways in which the Rollin 200 Crips interpreted and made sense of Sin’s death. Several narratives of interpretation could be discerned in the aftermath of his death. Firstly, speculations and rumors about the motives brought feelings of uncertainty and suspicion to the fore, contrasting the otherwise instrumental logic of violence the Rollin 200 Crips communicated during the author’s fieldwork and in the media. In addition, Sin’s death produced a number of narratives about the ‘realness’ of Dutch gang life. For these reasons, Sin’s death represents an impressive, important and meaningful moment during the author’s fieldwork and, more generally, in the history of the Rollin 200 Crips.


Dr. R.A. Roks
Dr. Robby Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open The Integrity of the Tax System after BEPS: A Shared Responsibility

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden flawed legislation, tax privileges, tax planning, corporate social responsibility, tax professionals
Auteurs Hans Gribnau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The international tax system is the result of the interaction of different actors who share the responsibility for its integrity. States and multinational corporations both enjoy to a certain extent freedom of choice with regard to their tax behaviour – which entails moral responsibility. Making, interpreting and using tax rules therefore is inevitably a matter of exercising responsibility. Both should abstain from viewing tax laws as a bunch of technical rules to be used as a tool without any intrinsic moral or legal value. States bear primary responsibility for the integrity of the international tax system. They should become more reticent in their use of tax as regulatory instrument – competing with one another for multinationals’ investment. They should also act more responsibly by cooperating to make better rules to prevent aggressive tax planning, which entails a shift in tax payments from very expert taxpayers to other taxpayers. Here, the distributive justice of the tax system and a level playing field should be guaranteed. Multinationals should abstain from putting pressure on states and lobbying for favourable tax rules that disproportionally affect other taxpayers – SMEs and individual taxpayers alike. Multinationals and their tax advisers should avoid irresponsible conduct by not aiming to pay a minimalist amount of (corporate income) taxes – merely staying within the boundaries of the letter of the law. Especially CSR-corporations should assume the responsibility for the integrity of the tax system.


Hans Gribnau
Professor of Tax Law, Fiscal Institute and the Center for Company Law, Tilburg University; Professor of Tax Law, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
Article

Access_open Corporate Taxation and BEPS: A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Fairness, international tax, legitimacy, BEPS, developing countries
Auteurs Irene Burgers en Irma Mosquera
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these differences. The article provides an introduction to the background of the OECD’s BEPS initiatives (Action Plan, Low Income Countries Report, Multilateral Framework, Inclusive Framework) and the concerns of developing countries about their ability to implement BEPS (Section 1); a non-exhaustive overview of the shortcomings of the BEPS Project and its Action Plan in respect of developing countries (Section 2); arguments on why developing countries might perceive fairness in relation to corporate income taxes differently from developed countries (Section 3); and recommendations for international organisations, governments and academic researchers on where fairness in respect of developing countries should be more properly addressed (Section 4).


Irene Burgers
Irene Burgers is Professor of International and European Tax Law, Faculty of Law, and Professor of Economics of Taxation, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Groningen.

Irma Mosquera
Irma Mosquera, Ph.D. is Senior Research Associate at the International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation IBFD and Tax Adviser Hamelink & Van den Tooren.

Maarten Floris de Wilde
PhD, LLM, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Loyens & Loeff.
Artikel

De uitdagingen voor gebiedsgebonden politiezorg

Ambigue ontwikkelingen, platgetreden paden en nieuwe wegen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Auteurs T. Meurs MSc en B.J. Kreulen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the challenges facing Community Oriented Policing (COP) in an increasingly complex society. The authors describe how the Dutch police adresses this context through a new police organisation on a national basis, specified job protocols, intelligence led policing and higher educated specialists. Seeking for alternatives the authors argue that COP should be based on a problem centered approach which profits from the insights of local policemen and operational specialists. Adressing ambiguous problems will fail when only applying system logic. Instead, moral involvement and sensemaking are indispensable.


T. Meurs MSc
Teun Meurs MSc werkt aan een promotieonderzoek over kennisintensivering en de ontwikkeling van onderzoekende politieprofessionaliteit. Het onderzoek is onderdeel van de Strategische Onderzoeksagenda 2015-2019 en wordt gefaciliteerd door de Hogeschool Arnhem Nijmegen, Universiteit Utrecht, de Politieacademie en de Nationale Politie.

B.J. Kreulen MSc
Bert Jan Kreulen MSc is werkzaam binnen de dienst Politieprofessie in de Eenheid Amsterdam en houdt zich bezig met de ontwikkeling van Gebiedsgebonden Politiezorg, met een focus op de rol van de wijkagent. De auteurs bedanken Wouter Landman voor zijn constructieve commentaar op een eerdere versie van dit artikel.
Artikel

Europese Betere Regelgeving: ‘denkrichtingen’ voor meer transparantie en participatie in het Nederlandse wetgevingsproces?

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Betere Regelgeving, Europees privaatrecht, raadplegingen, internetconsultaties, democratische legitimiteit, Europees recht
Auteurs E.A.G. van Schagen LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De initiatiefnota Lobby in het daglicht noemt Europese consultaties middels groenboeken en witboeken, conform de Richtsnoeren voor Betere Regelgeving, als een mogelijke denkrichting voor het Nederlandse wetgevingsproces. Aan de hand van ervaringen met publieke consultaties in het Europees privaatrecht schetst deze bijdrage in hoeverre deze consultaties de democratische legitimatie en de effectiviteit van het Europees recht zouden moeten versterken, en welke pijnpunten zichtbaar worden in consultaties en de Richtsnoeren. Ondanks deze pijnpunten bieden de Richtsnoeren een voorbeeld van goed ontwikkelde regels die in toenemende mate eisen stellen aan de openheid en transparantie van het Europese wetgevingsproces. De problemen in Europese consultaties maken tevens duidelijk dat op sommige punten scherpere regels wenselijk zijn. Daarnaast blijkt de uit gebrekkige naleving van de Richtsnoeren dat, als de Nederlandse wetgever ervoor kiest om regels te ontwikkelen, aandacht moet worden besteed aan de gevolgen van niet-naleving van toekomstige regels.


E.A.G. van Schagen LLM
E.A.G. (Esther) van Schagen, LLM is Newton International Fellow bij het Institute for European and Comparative Law, University of Oxford.
Artikel

Een kijkje in de kaarten van de wetgever: de moeizame ontwikkeling naar een werkelijk transparant en toegankelijk wetgevingsproces

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden transparantie wetgevingsproces, participatie, legitimiteit
Auteurs Prof. dr. W.J.M. Voermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het kabinet heeft, blijkens een recente brief over de transparantie van wetgeving, transparantie van het wetgevingsproces hoog in het vaandel. In dit artikel loop ik een aantal ontwikkelingen in eigen land en in andere landen langs die het verhogen van de transparantie van het wetgevingsproces tot doel hebben. De bijdrage laat zien dat transparantie van het wetgevingsproces geen doel op zich is, het is slechts een middel om de toegankelijkheid van het wetgevingsproces – en dat dan in termen van de mogelijkheden om goed geïnformeerd te kunnen meeweten, meedenken en wellicht zelfs op enigerlei wijze deel te kunnen nemen aan de beslissingen (participatie) – te borgen of te verhogen. Voor het draagvlak – de legitimiteit – van wettelijke regels zijn transparantie en de daardoor mogelijk gemaakte participatie van burgers (rechtstreeks of via hun vertegenwoordigers) van groot belang. Het artikel concludeert met de vaststelling dat het Nederlandse wetgevingsproces niet erg transparant is in de zin dat het buitenstaanders buiten de kring van de wetgevingsactoren zelf actief uitnodigt tot het deelnemen aan het debat over de beleidsvorming via wetgeving. De voornemens uit de brief van het kabinet veranderen daar niet veel aan.


Prof. dr. W.J.M. Voermans
Prof. dr. W.J.M. (Wim) Voermans is hoogleraar staats- en bestuursrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden en Wetenschappelijk directeur van het Instituut voor Publiekrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van diezelfde universiteit.
Artikel

‘Ik ben slecht in het legen van mijn brievenbus en heb een telefoonfobie’

Het belang van een match in het soort contact tussen uitkeringsgerechtigden en uitkeringsinstanties

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Satisfaction, Digital contact, Matching, Public Assistance
Auteurs Dr. Willem Bantema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, contacts between citizens and the government have increasingly become digital. Most people believe that the development toward more digital and thus more impersonal contact could be negative in terms of procedural justice and policy effectiveness. Higher educated and younger citizens embrace contact through the internet more than lower educated and older citizens. This study questions the call for more personal contact. Based on a panel survey, two different kinds of recipients of public assistance are compared: recipients of municipal social services (N=596) and recipients of unemployment benefits (N=709). Because of the social-demographic characteristics mentioned earlier, the recipients of the former are expected to be more negative about digital contact than the latter. This study identifies how these types of recipients of public assistance prefer to have contact with their municipality or agency, and how that works in practice. It shows that neither personal contact preferences, nor the way contact works in practice are decisive for satisfaction with the contact, but the way those two elements are matched. A match of impersonal contact leads to similar satisfaction as a match of personal contact.


Dr. Willem Bantema
Dr. Willem Bantema is senior onderzoeker binnen de interdisciplinaire onderzoeksgroep ‘Handhaving van onderop’ aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en is werkzaam als docent-onderzoeker aan het lectoraat Cybersafety aan de Noorderlijke Hoge School Leeuwarden (NHL). Hij is gespecialiseerd in kwantitatieve en kwalitatieve onderzoeksmethoden en geïnteresseerd in de wijze waarop mensen in hun dagelijks leven met wetgeving omgaan.
Artikel

Het effect van de politierespons in een specifieke zaak op de bereidheid tot medewerking onder slachtoffers van criminaliteit

Een vignettenexperiment

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden mock victims, vignettenexperiment, police response, police legitimacy, cooperation
Auteurs Nathalie Koster MSc, Dr. Michèlle Bal, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current vignette experiment among 414 students in the Netherlands explores the effect of the police response on willingness to cooperate and examines whether this relationship is mediated by perceptions of the legitimacy of the police. This is done based on Tyler’s procedural justice theory and previous research among crime victims. The police response in the vignette was manipulated in two ways: the police offered a fair/unfair treatment and had/had not performed investigative actions. There was no police contact in a control group. The results suggest a positive effect of the police response on willingness to cooperate and imply that this relationship is mediated by perceived trust in the police.


Nathalie Koster MSc
N.N. Koster MSc is promovenda aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Michèlle Bal
Dr. M. Bal is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. van der Leun is hoogleraar aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. mr. M.J.J. Kunst is universitair hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Onherstelbaar onrecht

Een verkenning van de verhouding tussen recht en onrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden victims, justice, injustice (experiences), intimacy, restoration
Auteurs Antony Pemberton en Nanda Oudejans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors reflect upon Judith Shklar’s classic book The Faces of Injustice. They maintain that injustice is wrongly confined to the absence or counterpart of justice. The authors discuss the relationship between and the difference between injustice and justice. According to the authors, injustice has more intensity than justice. Legal rules have only limited power to fight extreme forms of injustice. They argue that there is an asymmetry between justice and injustice, also because the law introduces values as predictability and regularity that, in concrete situations, are badly equipped to eliminate injustice. They claim that injustice is rooted in the idiosyncratic perspectives of those who suffered harm and argue that injustice has a ‘playful’ character, while the law has the character of a game. Finally, they argue that injustice is at the core an intimate experience, whereas justice is primarily about relationships between people. The authors outline the implications of these points for thinking about restoration and the relationship between restoration processes and the law.


Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is hoogleraar victimologie aan Tilburg University en directeur van het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT).

Nanda Oudejans
Nanda Oudejans is universitair docent rechtsfilosofie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en research fellow van INTERVICT.
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