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Artikel

Naar een vervanging van de unus-testisregel van artikel 342 lid 2 Sv

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden unus testis, bewijsmotivering, bewijsbeslissing, bewijsminimum
Auteurs Mr. dr. Joost S. Nan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rule that a conviction cannot be based on the statement of just one witness, is codified in article 342 of the Dutch Criminal Procedural Code. The Supreme Court has recently demanded that such a statement finds sufficient support in other evidence and that sometimes the trial judge needs to specify why that statement is corroborated enough by other evidence. However, the Supreme Court has always given a very marginal meaning to this rule, by allowing convictions which basically are substantiated by only that one statement. The evidence supporting the story of the witness does not have to prove that the crime actually took place, nor that is indeed the defendant who has committed it. In this article, I propose the replacement of the rule with a well-founded motivated ruling of the trial judge on this subject.


Mr. dr. Joost S. Nan
Mr. dr. Joost S. Nan is universitair docent Straf(proces)recht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en (cassatie)advocaat.
Artikel

De speelruimte van de strafrechter

Een pleidooi voor een meer open en transparante opstelling

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden strafrecht, onpartijdigheid, rechter, wraking
Auteurs Mr. Leonard de Weerd en Mr. Liza Stapel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A fair trial can only be guaranteed if a judge gives as much insight in his line of thinking as possible and if a judge is actively participating in finding the truth in a criminal case. According to statutes and case law a judge has a lot of freedom to show how he feels about certain things during criminal proceedings. A challenge to a judge shall not quickly be admissible. Still, a judge needs to be impartial and willing to review his preliminary decision/opinion.


Mr. Leonard de Weerd
Mr. Leonard de Weerd is senior rechter bij de Rechtbank Midden-Nederland, locatie Utrecht, afdeling strafrecht.

Mr. Liza Stapel
Mr. Liza Stapel is senior juridisch medewerkster Midden-Nederland, locatie Utrecht, afdeling strafrecht.
Artikel

Straffen in soorten en maten

De ontwikkeling van de straftoemeting door de rechter in de periode 1995-2012

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden straftoemeting rechter, decompositie strafpunten, omrekensleutel
Auteurs Dr. Ben van Velthoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper studies the development of the sentences that were imposed by criminal courts in the Netherlands over the period 1995-2012. Available data cover all principal sanctions: (unconditional) prison sentences, community service orders and fines. A decomposition is made to separate the gravity of sentencing (changes in the type and severity of the sanctions) from size effects (changes in the composition of the criminal cases dealt with). The gravity of sentencing is found to oscillate over the period 1995-2012. There is (as yet) no clear trend towards heavier sentencing, contrary to recent claims by Dutch judicial authorities.


Dr. Ben van Velthoven
Dr. Ben van Velthoven is universitair hoofddocent Rechtseconomie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Het tijdelijk verlaten van de gevangenis in België

Uitgaansvergunningen en penitentiair verlof voor veroordeelden tot een vrijheidsstraf

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden tijdelijk verlaten van de inrichting, België, uitgaansvergunning, penitentiair verlof
Auteurs Drs. Luc Robert en Dr. Benjamin Mine
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the Belgian system of temporary leave from prison is presented. The main modalities of temporary leave in Belgium are the prison furlough and home leave. Recently, new legislation has brought about a new regulatory framework for the release system, including these modalities. The definition of these modalities and the decision making process are presented.


Drs. Luc Robert
Drs. Luc Robert is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie (NICC) te Brussel, België.

Dr. Benjamin Mine
Dr. Benjamin Mine is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie (NICC) te Brussel, België.
Artikel

Over de bestrijding van politiële discriminatie

Kanttekeningen bij de beschuldiging van etnisch profileren

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden etnisch profileren, politie, discriminatie, preventief fouilleren
Auteurs Dr. Guus Meershoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Several reports and publications criticise the Dutch police for discriminating against minorities during stop-and-search actions. This article argues that discrimination can be found in the police but not to the extent that the critics suggest. Recent research on stop-and-search practices in a large Dutch city suggests that the police treat youth with a minority background differently but that they don’t treat them unequally. The article concludes with a warning against the use of the expression ethnic profiling, because it hinders correction of discrimination by the police.


Dr. Guus Meershoek
Dr. Guus Meershoek is lector Politiegeschiedenis aan de Politieacademie en universitair docent Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Kleurenblind de criminaliteit te lijf?

Een bredere blik op selectief criminaliteitsbeleid dan etnisch profileren alleen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden selectiviteit, etnisch profileren, veiligheidsbeleid, migratie
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joanne P. van der Leun en Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By rephrasing and reshaping specific criminal justice and security policies, the Dutch government has been struggling for a while in trying to find its course on how to address crime problems in its multicultural society in a politically correct – non discriminatory – way. In this article we focus on government selectivity by examining the development of criminal justice policy in the Netherlands. To what extent does the government take a stand in favor of or against special – and therefore selective – attention for people with a minority background?


Prof. dr. Joanne P. van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne P. van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie te Leiden.

Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude is hoofddocent Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie te Leiden. Zij is tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

Het politiewerk en gendergerelateerde selectiviteit

Processen van waarnemen, interpreteren, beoordelen en toeschrijven van gender

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden politie, gender, selectiviteit, criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the ways in which the work of the police is influenced by ideas about gender. Even though there is a long tradition of doing research about selectivity of the control agencies of criminal law, criminology has hardly had any attention for this topic. The main purpose of this article is to find out the meaning of the theoretical concept of gender for the social control of crime by the police and to give some examples for illustration. First of all, the article takes into consideration any crucial aspects of the process of selectivity.


Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Gezocht: rol voor de advocatuur bij ZSM

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden ZSM, advocatuur, ketenpartners, rechtsbescherming
Auteurs Mr. Ineke van den Brûle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ASAP: As Soon (or Selective, Smart) As Possible is meant to be a form of summary justice, in March 2011 introduced by the Dutch Public Prosecution Service (PPS). ASAP is meant to handle common criminality more rapidly and more effectively. So far, so good. However, the PPS seems to direct all efforts to velocity instead of quality. ASAP was established without interference of defense lawyers. Lawyers, criminal law scientists and National Ombudsman have been criticizing ASAP since its introduction. Values of legal protection, accuracy and sustainability are ignored by velocity. Nowadays, the PPS desires cooperation with defense lawyers in the ASAP method. First of all: it is not easy to climb aboard a driving train. Suspects must be advised and acquainted by lawyers, not by prosecutors or police officers. Equality of arms must be guaranteed. A quick access to the criminal file is one of the demands for a serious and active role of lawyers in the ASAP approach.


Mr. Ineke van den Brûle
Mr. Ineke van den Brûle is als advocaat verbonden aan advocatenkantoor Prinsegracht te Den Haag.
Artikel

ZSM, Zo Selectief Mogelijk…

Triage in de strafrechtsketen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden ZSM, selectiviteit, Openbaar Ministerie, ketensamenwerking
Auteurs Mr. dr. Johan Bac en Mr. Machiel Vink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch abbreviation ‘ZSM’ literally means ASAP. In the Dutch criminal justice system, it stands for a response to a crime ‘as speedy, selective, smart and supportive for victims as possible’. The project was initiated by the Public Prosecution Service and the Police, and it also involves the Dutch Probation Services, Victim Support Netherlands and the Child Care and Protection Board. The goal of ZSM is to assure meaningful and fast interventions, based on quality and effectiveness for society, including suspects and victims. To reach this goal, the Public Prosecutor is situated at the front of the criminal justice chain and triages the high volume crimes to determine the best procedure for a case, in cooperation with the partners.


Mr. dr. Johan Bac
Mr. dr. Johan Bac is hoofdofficier van justitie van het Parket Midden-Nederland en programmaleider van het Landelijk Programma ZSM.

Mr. Machiel Vink
Mr. Machiel Vink is landelijk ZSM-officier van justitie en lid van het landelijk programmateam ZSM.
Artikel

Behandelingsbereidheid onder gedetineerden in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden Behandelingsbereidheid, Deelname, Rehabilitatie, Gevangenis
Auteurs Anouk Bosma MSc, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager, Prof. Dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A survey of the literature suggested that low participation rates in prison-based rehabilitation programs in The Netherlands can be explained by a lack of treatment readiness amongst rehabilitation candidates and participants. The current contribution aims to examine treatment readiness amongst detainees that have been assigned a candidate for a prison-based rehabilitation program in the Netherlands. To address these aims, data were used from the fourth wave of a research project studying the effects of imprisonment on the life of detainees in the Netherlands. Results showed that about eighty percent of treatment candidates were not treatment ready. This lack of treatment readiness amongst potential participants will no doubt influence both treatment engagement numbers, which studies have shown to be low, and quite possible treatment effectiveness. Results imply that practitioners should be aware of the absence of treatment readiness amongst a large part of their clients. Assessment and (if necessary) interventions to increase treatment readiness amongst candidates and participants seems of the utmost importance.


Anouk Bosma MSc
Anouk Bosma MSc is promovenda Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. Anja Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.

Prof. Dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. Maarten Kunst is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De hybride positie van de inrichtingsarts: gevangen tussen patiënt en directie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden Inrichtingsarts, Detentie, Medische zorg, Dwangmaatregelen
Auteurs Mr. Drs. Marjan Groenouwe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the complicated position of Dutch prison doctors. They not only act as a patient’s personal doctor, but they also have to verify that a prisoner is fit to undergo punishment and they can even be asked by the authorities to carry out involuntary body searches. This can raise serious ethical concerns and cause harm to the doctor-patient relationship. I have tried to determine in what situations the duty to care for their patients conflicts with considerations of prison management.


Mr. Drs. Marjan Groenouwe
Mr. drs. Marjan Groenouwe is junior universitair docent Strafrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Van je familie moet je het hebben

Een onderzoek naar de werking van preventief beleid in de derde pijler van de Top 600-aanpak van de gemeente Amsterdam

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden Top 600-aanpak, Amsterdam, derde pijler, preventiefuik
Auteurs Drs. Hugo Aalders, Drs. Bas Kurvers, Mr. Monique Mos e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Prevention is very difficult to evaluate. If the situation you are trying to avoid, does not occur, it is likely to continue with prevention. If the situation does occur, it is logical to continue with the already taken preventive measures or even intensify these. This is what we call the ‘prevention trap’. In the first part of the article, a framework is presented for a methodological way to test policy on signals of the presence of a ‘prevention trap’. In the second part this framework is applied on the way the city of Amsterdam is dealing with the brothers and sisters of the top 600 criminal offenders, in the so called ‘Top 600 approach’. Some conclusions are drawn.


Drs. Hugo Aalders
Drs. Hugo Aalders is manager van de Dienst Werk en Inkomen van de gemeente Amsterdam.

Drs. Bas Kurvers
Drs. Bas Kurvers is strategisch adviseur van de Dienst Werk en Inkomen van de gemeente Rotterdam.

Mr. Monique Mos
Mr. Monique Mos is senior officier van justitie en afdelingshoofd van het parket Den Haag.

Mr. Gert Veurink
Mr. Gert Veurink is senior officier van justitie en sectiehoofd van het Landelijk Parket.
Artikel

Het slachtoffer centraal?

Opinie ten aanzien van slachtofferrechten in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden opinie over slachtofferrechten, slachtofferrechten in Nederland, attitudes, willingness to pay
Auteurs Dr. Karlijn F. Kuijpers, Sanne van Parera en Lieke Popelier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the current study is to provide insight in the support for victim rights among Dutch citizens. Although it is generally assumed that the Dutch public supports these rights, empirical research into this topic appears to be scarce. The opinion with regard to four victim rights was established in two ways. Firstly, respondents were asked about their attitudes and, secondly, about their willingness to pay extra taxes for those rights. Respondents’ attitudes concerning the victim rights in this study appear to be positive; their willingness to pay, however, is low. Findings indicate the importance of combining conventional attitude questions with alternative methods (such as questions about willingness to pay) when studying public preferences and opinions.


Dr. Karlijn F. Kuijpers
Dr. Karlijn Kuijpers is universitair docent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden

Sanne van Parera
Sanne van Parera was ten tijde van het onderzoek bachelorstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Lieke Popelier
Lieke Popelier was ten tijde van het onderzoek bachelorstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Tevredenheid met advocaten onder Nederlandse preventief gedetineerden: percepties van procedurele rechtvaardigheid

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden tevredenheid met advocaten, procedurele rechtvaardigheid, percepties van gedetineerden
Auteurs Ellen Raaijmakers MSc, Dr. Jan W. de Keijser, Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently, procedural justice theory is predominantly used to explain defendants’ satisfaction with the police, courts and prisons. It is unclear to what extent this theory applies to lawyers. This study investigates to what extent defendants are satisfied with their lawyers, and procedural fairness characteristics are related to defendants’ satisfaction with their lawyers. Data from the Prison Project were used: a large-scale research project on Dutch criminal defendants. Results suggest that generally, defendants are very satisfied with their lawyers. Variation in satisfaction with lawyers can be attributed for a substantial part to procedural fairness characteristics.


Ellen Raaijmakers MSc
Ellen Raaijmakers MSc is promovendus Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Jan W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan W. de Keijser is universitair hoofddocent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. Anja Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Ik zie, ik zie, wat jij niet ziet

Het gebruik van paragnosten door de Nederlandse politie

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Paragnosten, Opsporing, Politie, Regelgeving
Auteurs Priscilla van Hal MSc en Drs. Jasper van der Kemp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In many police investigations, a psychic turns up to help the investigation with his ‘extraordinary knowledge’ of the crime and the crime scene. Little is known about how the Dutch police deals with psychics and their information. We conducted research into this phenomenon through interviews with experts, a review of the legal literature and an online questionnaire for police practitioners. Although a guideline by the public prosecutor’s office states that psychics are not to be consulted without permission, most police practitioners are not aware of this guideline. At the moment, little is known about the actual use of information of psychics in police investigations.


Priscilla van Hal MSc
Priscilla van Hal MSc is afgestudeerd criminoloog en werkzoekend.

Drs. Jasper van der Kemp
Drs. Jasper van der Kemp is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

One size does not fit all

Maatwerk voor opsporingsonderzoeken in CSV-beschrijvingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden OCG-mapping, organized crime, qualitative research, Organizational Network Analysis
Auteurs Alexandra Jones
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Current mapping of organized crime groups (OCG’s) serves two opposing needs simultaneously: firstly, researching OCG’s should be done as judiciously as possible, due to the consequential nature of ensuing police investigations. Secondly, police analysts experience severe constraints on their OCG-reports, because of the demand by police management for ‘objectified’ reports, describing crime groups as briefly as possible in terms which allow for comparison of groups. This drive towards streamlining OCG-mapping comes at a cost: not all groups fit into the prescribed formats. We need to re-think the way in which we map OCG’s so as to better support police investigations.


Alexandra Jones
Alexandra Jones is taalkundige en als strategisch analist werkzaam bij de politie, Bureau Regionale Informatie van de Eenheid Den Haag. alexandra.jones@haaglanden.politie.nl.
Artikel

Gratie uit de gratie?

Ontwikkelingen in gratiewetgeving, -verzoeken en -beslissingen (1990-2011)

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Gratie, tenuitvoerlegging van straffen, Straftoemeting, Strafdoel
Auteurs Mw. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden en Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Under Dutch law, convicted criminals have the opportunity to request a pardon to cancel, reduce or alter their punishment. Pardoning is an important institute to guarantee fair and reasonable execution of sentences. However, little is known about the everyday practice of pardoning in the Netherlands. The current study sets out the legal framework of the institute of pardoning, as well as changes in pardoning law and policy. We demonstrate that over the period 1990-2011 both the amount of pardoning requests and decisions have decreased dramatically, and that the period 1995-2004 is characterized by an upsurge of conditional pardons at the expense of both unconditional pardons and pardon denials. We try to explain these developments in the light of changes in pardoning law and policy, prison overcrowding, increases in life sentences and of royal celebrations. We conclude that we cannot fully explain the developments in the pardoning practice and that better registration of the pardoning requests and grants are needed for a better understanding of the pardoning practice.


Mw. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden
Mw. mr. S.G.C. van Wingerden is promovenda aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden, en tevens redactielid van PROCES.

Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
Mr. dr. G.K. Schoep is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden, en tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger aan de Rechtbank Haarlem en plaatsvervangend officier van justitie.
Artikel

Tegenspraak bij de politie

Distantie, betrokkenheid en doorwerking

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden tunnel vision, critical review, criminal investigation, police
Auteurs Mr. drs. Renze Salet en Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After some serious failures in criminal justice procedures, in 2006 ‘critical review’ was introduced in the Dutch police as a measure to prevent tunnel vision in criminal investigation. An analysis of 26 review cases and interviews with representatives of the Dutch police forces shows that in practice reviewers are confronted with a fundamental dilemma of distance vs. involvement in their relation with criminal investigation team. Critical review proves to have concrete effects on the criminal investigation process, although their scope usually appears to be limited. Although these effects are modest and review takes scarce police resources, the authors recommend a continuation of critical review.


Mr. drs. Renze Salet
Mr. drs. Renze Salet is onderzoeker aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is hoogleraar aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Registratie bij staandehouding en preventief fouilleren in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden racial profiling, stop and search forms, police powers, stigmatization
Auteurs BSc. Yannick van Eijk, BSc. Roel Holman en BSc. Linde Lamboo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the desirability of implementing a registration system as a means of control on the discretionary space in police powers of stop and search. Firstly, the legal background concerning these powers is sketched, and the discretionary space therein is highlighted. This is then placed within the current social context in the Netherlands. Finally, the desirability of implementing a registration system in the Netherlands will be discussed by analyzing a similar system that has been implemented in the UK. We conclude that implementing a registration system is an essential step in coming closer to a solution for ethnic profiling.


BSc. Yannick van Eijk
Yannick van Eijk BSc. is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

BSc. Roel Holman
Roel Holman BSc. studeerde Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

BSc. Linde Lamboo
Linde Lamboo studeert Culturele Antropologie & Ontwikkelingssociologie aan de Universiteit Leiden
Artikel

Uitsluiting voor insluiting: selectie aan de poort?

Een bijdrage over crimmigratie in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden crimmigration, citizenship, article 1F Refugee Convention, pre-sentencing
Auteurs Gera de Grauw MSc., Marit Janssen MSc. en Avalon Leupen MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the past few years attention is placed on the influence of immigrants and asylum seekers on the security of the state. Due to this development the Dutch Criminal Law and Immigration Law are ‘merging’. Immigration and safety policies are applied to exclude certain groups of people from society, generally immigrants and (ex)offenders. This article will reflect upon this process by showing the exclusion of people from Dutch society on the basis of article 1F of the Refugee Convention. This legal ground is used as a condition for exclusion and therefore it can be considered as pre-sentencing.


Gera de Grauw MSc.
Gera de Grauw MSc. studeerde Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Marit Janssen MSc.
Marit Janssen MSc. studeerde Forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en werkt nu als projectsecretaris op het Ministerie van Veiligheid & Justitie.

Avalon Leupen MSc.
Avalon Leupen MSc. studeerde Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden. Nu werkt zij als docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
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