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Artikel

Naar een vervanging van de unus-testisregel van artikel 342 lid 2 Sv

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden unus testis, bewijsmotivering, bewijsbeslissing, bewijsminimum
Auteurs Mr. dr. Joost S. Nan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rule that a conviction cannot be based on the statement of just one witness, is codified in article 342 of the Dutch Criminal Procedural Code. The Supreme Court has recently demanded that such a statement finds sufficient support in other evidence and that sometimes the trial judge needs to specify why that statement is corroborated enough by other evidence. However, the Supreme Court has always given a very marginal meaning to this rule, by allowing convictions which basically are substantiated by only that one statement. The evidence supporting the story of the witness does not have to prove that the crime actually took place, nor that is indeed the defendant who has committed it. In this article, I propose the replacement of the rule with a well-founded motivated ruling of the trial judge on this subject.


Mr. dr. Joost S. Nan
Mr. dr. Joost S. Nan is universitair docent Straf(proces)recht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en (cassatie)advocaat.
Artikel

De speelruimte van de strafrechter

Een pleidooi voor een meer open en transparante opstelling

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden strafrecht, onpartijdigheid, rechter, wraking
Auteurs Mr. Leonard de Weerd en Mr. Liza Stapel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A fair trial can only be guaranteed if a judge gives as much insight in his line of thinking as possible and if a judge is actively participating in finding the truth in a criminal case. According to statutes and case law a judge has a lot of freedom to show how he feels about certain things during criminal proceedings. A challenge to a judge shall not quickly be admissible. Still, a judge needs to be impartial and willing to review his preliminary decision/opinion.


Mr. Leonard de Weerd
Mr. Leonard de Weerd is senior rechter bij de Rechtbank Midden-Nederland, locatie Utrecht, afdeling strafrecht.

Mr. Liza Stapel
Mr. Liza Stapel is senior juridisch medewerkster Midden-Nederland, locatie Utrecht, afdeling strafrecht.
Artikel

Internationale politiële openbareordehandhaving in Benelux-verband: relevante wetgeving en praktische toepassing

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Benelux-verdrag, Internationale samenwerking, Politie, Openbareordehandhaving
Auteurs Dr. Benjamin R. van Gelderen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police agencies in Europe operate outside their domestic territory more and more often. Within the European Union, special attention is focused on the exchange of information and on countering organized crime. However, international public order enforcement receives less attention. The present article highlights the relevant legislation and practical opportunities applicable to public order enforcement in the cooperation between the Dutch and Belgium police force. In addition, the use of force and the principle of sovereignty are debated. Finally, recommendations will be given in order to improve future cooperation within the field of international public order enforcement in the Benelux.


Dr. Benjamin R. van Gelderen
Dr. Benjamin R. van Gelderen CPO is als hoofdinspecteur van politie werkzaam bij de Politie Zeeland-West-Brabant.
Artikel

Het tijdelijk verlaten van de gevangenis in België

Uitgaansvergunningen en penitentiair verlof voor veroordeelden tot een vrijheidsstraf

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden tijdelijk verlaten van de inrichting, België, uitgaansvergunning, penitentiair verlof
Auteurs Drs. Luc Robert en Dr. Benjamin Mine
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the Belgian system of temporary leave from prison is presented. The main modalities of temporary leave in Belgium are the prison furlough and home leave. Recently, new legislation has brought about a new regulatory framework for the release system, including these modalities. The definition of these modalities and the decision making process are presented.


Drs. Luc Robert
Drs. Luc Robert is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie (NICC) te Brussel, België.

Dr. Benjamin Mine
Dr. Benjamin Mine is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie (NICC) te Brussel, België.
Artikel

Het onderscheidende karakter van profielen bij vreemdelingentoezicht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden etnisch profileren, vreemdelingentoezicht, discriminatie, crimmigratie
Auteurs Prof. mr. Peter Rodrigues
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The main question of this contribution is whether the use of ethnic profiling in migration control is an infringement of the prohibition of racial and religious discrimination. To answer this question, the regulation on migration control is analyzed and the trend of mixing criminal law with migration law is criticized. The influence of quota of irregular migrants who should be expelled and penalizing of illegal residence is studied. Taken into account the jurisprudence on the issue, the author argues that profiling based on race and religion is forbidden, which is also the case if nationality is used in profiles against EU-citizens.


Prof. mr. Peter Rodrigues
Prof. mr. Peter Rodrigues is hoogleraar Immigratierecht aan de Universiteit Leiden en directeur van het Instituut voor Immigratierecht.
Artikel

Gezocht: rol voor de advocatuur bij ZSM

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden ZSM, advocatuur, ketenpartners, rechtsbescherming
Auteurs Mr. Ineke van den Brûle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ASAP: As Soon (or Selective, Smart) As Possible is meant to be a form of summary justice, in March 2011 introduced by the Dutch Public Prosecution Service (PPS). ASAP is meant to handle common criminality more rapidly and more effectively. So far, so good. However, the PPS seems to direct all efforts to velocity instead of quality. ASAP was established without interference of defense lawyers. Lawyers, criminal law scientists and National Ombudsman have been criticizing ASAP since its introduction. Values of legal protection, accuracy and sustainability are ignored by velocity. Nowadays, the PPS desires cooperation with defense lawyers in the ASAP method. First of all: it is not easy to climb aboard a driving train. Suspects must be advised and acquainted by lawyers, not by prosecutors or police officers. Equality of arms must be guaranteed. A quick access to the criminal file is one of the demands for a serious and active role of lawyers in the ASAP approach.


Mr. Ineke van den Brûle
Mr. Ineke van den Brûle is als advocaat verbonden aan advocatenkantoor Prinsegracht te Den Haag.
Artikel

‘Staring at the felony forest’

De complexiteit van risicoprofilering nader in kaart gebracht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden profileren, discretionaire bevoegdheden, etniciteit, selectie
Auteurs Tim Dekkers MSc en Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the debate around police profiling has been rather low key – until recently. Now it has turned into a heated discussion with a clear focus on ethnic profiling. This extensive international literature review aims to show that there is more to profiling than just ethnicity. Factors such as behavior and the vehicle someone is driving can be just as important as a person’s looks. The results of this study put profiling in perspective and level the playing field of the debate, in which the side of the organizations using profiling has not gotten enough attention until now.


Tim Dekkers MSc
Tim Dekkers MSc is junior onderzoeker bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude ishoofddocent Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie te Leiden. Zij is tevens redactielid van PROCES.

    Starting in 2015, Dutch municipalities will have complete administrative responsibility for all types of youth care on the continuum of preventive child education programs to youth probation and re-entry aftercare. In the process of this so called ‘youth care transition’, the use of available and valid scientific knowledge about effective reduction of juvenile crime (distilled from What Works, desistance focused studies and forensic pedagogy) seems to be suppressed by the administrative and procedural concerns that municipalities are now facing. In this article, these concerns are discussed and some solutions are presented.


Dr. Bas Vogelvang
Dr. Bas Vogelvang is lector Reclassering en Veiligheidsbeleid bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool en expertadviseur bij Van Montfoort.
Artikel

Een herstelgerichte benadering van delinquenten met een psychische stoornis

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden resocialisatie, psychisch gestoorde delinquenten, herstelrecht, actieve verantwoordelijkheid
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt en Mr. dr. Renée Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Today’s risk based criminal justice policy leaves but little room to tune sentencing decisions to the individual offender’s mental capacities. As a result, sanctioning has become one-sided, being directed towards retribution. However, in the long run such a non-reciprocal concept of sanctioning, implying a denial of the need to facilitate rehabilitation, weakens the social fabric. Moreover, it holds a denial of citizenship towards (mentally ill) offenders. For the past decades, restorative justice has offered alternative solutions to deal with delinquency. Using informal procedures, taking into account peculiarities of the case, including the offender’s mental capacities, offenders are invited to take accountability for wrongful acts. A similar approach has been introduced within the field of mental health services, including the sector of the forensic mental health care. In response to the popular social biological model, a model of restorative treatment has been introduced, implying treatment to be directed towards reintegration, requiring active participation of the patient/offender. Bearing in mind the communalities between both models, we explore the potential of such a restorative citizenship based approach to better the integration of mentally disturbed offenders.


Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt
Prof. dr. Frans Koenraadt is hoogleraar Forensische psychologie en psychiatrie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en wetenschappelijk adviseur in het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de FPK te Assen.

Mr. dr. Renée Kool
Mr. dr. Renée Kool is universitair hoofddocent bij het Willem Pompe Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Het slachtoffer centraal?

Opinie ten aanzien van slachtofferrechten in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden opinie over slachtofferrechten, slachtofferrechten in Nederland, attitudes, willingness to pay
Auteurs Dr. Karlijn F. Kuijpers, Sanne van Parera en Lieke Popelier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the current study is to provide insight in the support for victim rights among Dutch citizens. Although it is generally assumed that the Dutch public supports these rights, empirical research into this topic appears to be scarce. The opinion with regard to four victim rights was established in two ways. Firstly, respondents were asked about their attitudes and, secondly, about their willingness to pay extra taxes for those rights. Respondents’ attitudes concerning the victim rights in this study appear to be positive; their willingness to pay, however, is low. Findings indicate the importance of combining conventional attitude questions with alternative methods (such as questions about willingness to pay) when studying public preferences and opinions.


Dr. Karlijn F. Kuijpers
Dr. Karlijn Kuijpers is universitair docent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden

Sanne van Parera
Sanne van Parera was ten tijde van het onderzoek bachelorstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Lieke Popelier
Lieke Popelier was ten tijde van het onderzoek bachelorstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Tevredenheid met advocaten onder Nederlandse preventief gedetineerden: percepties van procedurele rechtvaardigheid

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden tevredenheid met advocaten, procedurele rechtvaardigheid, percepties van gedetineerden
Auteurs Ellen Raaijmakers MSc, Dr. Jan W. de Keijser, Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently, procedural justice theory is predominantly used to explain defendants’ satisfaction with the police, courts and prisons. It is unclear to what extent this theory applies to lawyers. This study investigates to what extent defendants are satisfied with their lawyers, and procedural fairness characteristics are related to defendants’ satisfaction with their lawyers. Data from the Prison Project were used: a large-scale research project on Dutch criminal defendants. Results suggest that generally, defendants are very satisfied with their lawyers. Variation in satisfaction with lawyers can be attributed for a substantial part to procedural fairness characteristics.


Ellen Raaijmakers MSc
Ellen Raaijmakers MSc is promovendus Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Jan W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan W. de Keijser is universitair hoofddocent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. Anja Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Stilstaan of meebewegen?

Over de effectiviteit van het opsporingsproces binnen de politie, belicht vanuit de bestrijding van georganiseerde hennepteelt

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Criminele netwerken, Opsporing, Politie, Georganiseerde misdaad
Auteurs Drs. Paul Duijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various paradigms on the structures of organized crime have shaped the criminal investigational approach within the Dutch police towards criminal networks. The idea of pyramid-shaped mafia structures, as dominant in the 1970s, led to large-scale and long-term criminal investigations, trying to get to the ‘top’ of the network. In the 1990s, the image of separate criminal groups, working independently from each other, led to isolated criminal investigations on distinct criminal networks. Today, new insights that have arisen from scientific studies and police practices call again for a renewal of investigational strategies. As shown in this article, criminal networks are not limited by social, cultural or physical boundaries and show a rapid recovery after interventions by state actors. For these reasons, the efficiency of police practices depends on the extent to which the police is able to move along with these networks.


Drs. Paul Duijn
Drs. Paul Duijn is criminoloog, recherchekundige en als strategisch analist werkzaam bij de Nederlandse Politie Eenheid Den Haag.
Artikel

One size does not fit all

Maatwerk voor opsporingsonderzoeken in CSV-beschrijvingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden OCG-mapping, organized crime, qualitative research, Organizational Network Analysis
Auteurs Alexandra Jones
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Current mapping of organized crime groups (OCG’s) serves two opposing needs simultaneously: firstly, researching OCG’s should be done as judiciously as possible, due to the consequential nature of ensuing police investigations. Secondly, police analysts experience severe constraints on their OCG-reports, because of the demand by police management for ‘objectified’ reports, describing crime groups as briefly as possible in terms which allow for comparison of groups. This drive towards streamlining OCG-mapping comes at a cost: not all groups fit into the prescribed formats. We need to re-think the way in which we map OCG’s so as to better support police investigations.


Alexandra Jones
Alexandra Jones is taalkundige en als strategisch analist werkzaam bij de politie, Bureau Regionale Informatie van de Eenheid Den Haag. alexandra.jones@haaglanden.politie.nl.
Artikel

Gratie uit de gratie?

Ontwikkelingen in gratiewetgeving, -verzoeken en -beslissingen (1990-2011)

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Gratie, tenuitvoerlegging van straffen, Straftoemeting, Strafdoel
Auteurs Mw. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden en Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Under Dutch law, convicted criminals have the opportunity to request a pardon to cancel, reduce or alter their punishment. Pardoning is an important institute to guarantee fair and reasonable execution of sentences. However, little is known about the everyday practice of pardoning in the Netherlands. The current study sets out the legal framework of the institute of pardoning, as well as changes in pardoning law and policy. We demonstrate that over the period 1990-2011 both the amount of pardoning requests and decisions have decreased dramatically, and that the period 1995-2004 is characterized by an upsurge of conditional pardons at the expense of both unconditional pardons and pardon denials. We try to explain these developments in the light of changes in pardoning law and policy, prison overcrowding, increases in life sentences and of royal celebrations. We conclude that we cannot fully explain the developments in the pardoning practice and that better registration of the pardoning requests and grants are needed for a better understanding of the pardoning practice.


Mw. mr. Sigrid van Wingerden
Mw. mr. S.G.C. van Wingerden is promovenda aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden, en tevens redactielid van PROCES.

Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
Mr. dr. G.K. Schoep is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden, en tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger aan de Rechtbank Haarlem en plaatsvervangend officier van justitie.
Artikel

Wraak de wraking

Een oproep tot herziening van de wrakingsprocedure in het Nederlandse strafprocesrecht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Wraking, Strafprocesrecht, Rechtsvergelijking, Art. 6 EVRM
Auteurs Mr. Eva Borg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to article 512 of the Dutch Criminal Procedure Code judges can be removed from a case due to facts or circumstances that (might) damage their impartiality. By analyzing how this procedure of challenge is used in practice, this research shows that it could and should be organised in a different way. Both with regards to the applicants, the challenged actors and the assessors of the procedure there are gaps and points of improvement in the current Dutch legislation. Suggestions for revision are gained from a comparative investigation of the challenge procedure in the Belgian criminal law system.


Mr. Eva Borg
Mr. Eva Borg is juridisch medewerker in de Rechtbank Midden-Nederland, afdeling Strafrecht.
Artikel

Crimmigratie en de morele economie van illegale vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden illegal immigrants, crimmigration, moral economy, exploitation
Auteurs Prof. dr. Richard Staring
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Illegal stay in the Netherlands is increasingly criminalized through new measurements and adaptations of the Aliens Law. In order to understand the incorporation of illegal immigrants in this restrictive political context, the ‘moral economy’ is introduced as a concept referring to the norms and expectations regarding justice and reciprocity that serve as guidelines for daily illegal live. This process of crimmigration minimalizes the opportunities of illegal immigrants and as an unintended consequence will push the illegal immigrants further towards charity, informal labour or crime. Paradoxically, illegal immigrants will become more vulnerable for exploitation instead of returning home as was intended.


Prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is hoogleraar Mobiliteit, Toezicht en Criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Uitsluiting voor insluiting: selectie aan de poort?

Een bijdrage over crimmigratie in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden crimmigration, citizenship, article 1F Refugee Convention, pre-sentencing
Auteurs Gera de Grauw MSc., Marit Janssen MSc. en Avalon Leupen MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the past few years attention is placed on the influence of immigrants and asylum seekers on the security of the state. Due to this development the Dutch Criminal Law and Immigration Law are ‘merging’. Immigration and safety policies are applied to exclude certain groups of people from society, generally immigrants and (ex)offenders. This article will reflect upon this process by showing the exclusion of people from Dutch society on the basis of article 1F of the Refugee Convention. This legal ground is used as a condition for exclusion and therefore it can be considered as pre-sentencing.


Gera de Grauw MSc.
Gera de Grauw MSc. studeerde Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Marit Janssen MSc.
Marit Janssen MSc. studeerde Forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en werkt nu als projectsecretaris op het Ministerie van Veiligheid & Justitie.

Avalon Leupen MSc.
Avalon Leupen MSc. studeerde Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden. Nu werkt zij als docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Immigratie, (des)integratie?

Over het immigratiedebat in Nederland en de Verenigde Staten

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Crimmigration, immigration debate, election debate, Arizona
Auteurs LLM. Michiel Glas, Rolf van Wegberg MSc. en BSc. Marten Zoetbrood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The attitude towards ‘the immigrant’ is changing. Where they used to be seen as a necessity, they are now looked upon with distrust. A consequence of this new attitude is the ‘merging’ of immigration law policy and criminal law. Examples of this in the Netherlands are a law proposal to criminalize illegal stay and a mandatory quorum of illegals that have to be deported each year. In our research we have compared the ‘crimmigration’ discourse in both Arizona and the Netherlands.
    Arizona’s law SB1070 has been the main legal focus in the research. The enactment of the law has been cause of many protests. The public’s fear was focused mainly on civil rights violations; the legal discussion was focused on the federalism issue, brought to Courts by the Obama administration. However, with the Supreme Court handing down its landmark decision in Arizona vs. United States, the legal focus will shift towards the civil rights spectrum.
    In the most recent elections in the Netherlands, the immigration question seems to have been pushed to the background. However, it remains a vital issue when placed in the context of ‘Euro-skepticism’, which has played a major role , as much of the immigration policy making is done by the supra national European legislator.
    We have seen that in the American context the federal government has been a ‘mitigating factor’ in the crimmigration debate to counterbalance draconian immigration policy. We hope that despite recent Euro-skepticism the EU will have a similar mitigating effect.


LLM. Michiel Glas
Michiel Glas LLM. studeerde Rechtsgeleerdheid, specialisatie Straf- en Strafprocesrecht, aan de Universiteit Leiden en is thans advocaat te Gouda.

Rolf van Wegberg MSc.
Rolf van Wegberg MSc. studeerde Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden. Nu werkt hij als onderzoeker/docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en is tevens redactiesecretaris van PROCES.

BSc. Marten Zoetbrood
Marten Zoetbrood BSc. studeert Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Wel de lasten, niet de lusten

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden migration law, detention law, human rights, crimmigration
Auteurs LLB. Anne Beckers, Lonneke Bontje MSc., LLB. Silvia Gardini e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper reviews the status quo of immigration law in the Netherlands in regard to the human rights of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). Based on a thorough reading of the literature, Dutch detention law and policies aimed at immigrants are reviewed in relation to articles 3, 5 and 6 ECHR and 9 ICCPR to see whether they are compatible and whether a breach of human rights takes place in Dutch detention centres. Even though the ECHR has not yet ruled that Dutch immigration detention breaches drawn conclusions as to a potential breach of human rights, the writers of this paper argue that Dutch policy does potentially violate some of them.


LLB. Anne Beckers
Anne Beckers LLB. is student straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Lonneke Bontje MSc.
Lonneke Bontje MSc. studeerde forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

LLB. Silvia Gardini
Silvia Gardini LLB. is student straf- en strafprocesrecht en civiel recht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

David Pinchasik
David Pinchasik is student rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Vreemdelingenbewaring in crimmigratieperspectief

Over de rol van strafrechtelijke antecedenten en het ultimum-remediumbeginsel voor de maatregel van bewaring in de rechtspraktijk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden immigration detention, legal practice, crimmigration, ultimum remedium
Auteurs LLB. Jo-Anne Nijland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The judge has a very important task in reviewing cases of immigration-related detention and guaranteeing the alien’s safeguards. This study examines the legal practice of reviewing detention orders from the theoretical perspective of crimmigration. Analyses of cases and interviews with judges show that the alien’s criminal background is not important for the review of grounds, but still of significance in the balancing of interests. In addition, the data reveal a protective gap in the reviewing mechanisms for aliens arrested on the basis of identification requirements. Moreover, the ultimum remedium principle proves to be a hollow notion, but the responsibility for its erosion lies largely outside the judicial practice.


LLB. Jo-Anne Nijland
Jo-Anne Nijland LLB. is student Legal Research aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
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