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Artikel

Crimmigratie en de morele economie van illegale vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden illegal immigrants, crimmigration, moral economy, exploitation
Auteurs Prof. dr. Richard Staring
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Illegal stay in the Netherlands is increasingly criminalized through new measurements and adaptations of the Aliens Law. In order to understand the incorporation of illegal immigrants in this restrictive political context, the ‘moral economy’ is introduced as a concept referring to the norms and expectations regarding justice and reciprocity that serve as guidelines for daily illegal live. This process of crimmigration minimalizes the opportunities of illegal immigrants and as an unintended consequence will push the illegal immigrants further towards charity, informal labour or crime. Paradoxically, illegal immigrants will become more vulnerable for exploitation instead of returning home as was intended.


Prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is hoogleraar Mobiliteit, Toezicht en Criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Immigratie, (des)integratie?

Over het immigratiedebat in Nederland en de Verenigde Staten

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Crimmigration, immigration debate, election debate, Arizona
Auteurs LLM. Michiel Glas, Rolf van Wegberg MSc. en BSc. Marten Zoetbrood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The attitude towards ‘the immigrant’ is changing. Where they used to be seen as a necessity, they are now looked upon with distrust. A consequence of this new attitude is the ‘merging’ of immigration law policy and criminal law. Examples of this in the Netherlands are a law proposal to criminalize illegal stay and a mandatory quorum of illegals that have to be deported each year. In our research we have compared the ‘crimmigration’ discourse in both Arizona and the Netherlands.
    Arizona’s law SB1070 has been the main legal focus in the research. The enactment of the law has been cause of many protests. The public’s fear was focused mainly on civil rights violations; the legal discussion was focused on the federalism issue, brought to Courts by the Obama administration. However, with the Supreme Court handing down its landmark decision in Arizona vs. United States, the legal focus will shift towards the civil rights spectrum.
    In the most recent elections in the Netherlands, the immigration question seems to have been pushed to the background. However, it remains a vital issue when placed in the context of ‘Euro-skepticism’, which has played a major role , as much of the immigration policy making is done by the supra national European legislator.
    We have seen that in the American context the federal government has been a ‘mitigating factor’ in the crimmigration debate to counterbalance draconian immigration policy. We hope that despite recent Euro-skepticism the EU will have a similar mitigating effect.


LLM. Michiel Glas
Michiel Glas LLM. studeerde Rechtsgeleerdheid, specialisatie Straf- en Strafprocesrecht, aan de Universiteit Leiden en is thans advocaat te Gouda.

Rolf van Wegberg MSc.
Rolf van Wegberg MSc. studeerde Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden. Nu werkt hij als onderzoeker/docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en is tevens redactiesecretaris van PROCES.

BSc. Marten Zoetbrood
Marten Zoetbrood BSc. studeert Criminologie, specialisatie Veiligheidsbeleid & Rechtshandhaving, aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Wel de lasten, niet de lusten

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden migration law, detention law, human rights, crimmigration
Auteurs LLB. Anne Beckers, Lonneke Bontje MSc., LLB. Silvia Gardini e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper reviews the status quo of immigration law in the Netherlands in regard to the human rights of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). Based on a thorough reading of the literature, Dutch detention law and policies aimed at immigrants are reviewed in relation to articles 3, 5 and 6 ECHR and 9 ICCPR to see whether they are compatible and whether a breach of human rights takes place in Dutch detention centres. Even though the ECHR has not yet ruled that Dutch immigration detention breaches drawn conclusions as to a potential breach of human rights, the writers of this paper argue that Dutch policy does potentially violate some of them.


LLB. Anne Beckers
Anne Beckers LLB. is student straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Lonneke Bontje MSc.
Lonneke Bontje MSc. studeerde forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

LLB. Silvia Gardini
Silvia Gardini LLB. is student straf- en strafprocesrecht en civiel recht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

David Pinchasik
David Pinchasik is student rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Vreemdelingenbewaring in crimmigratieperspectief

Over de rol van strafrechtelijke antecedenten en het ultimum-remediumbeginsel voor de maatregel van bewaring in de rechtspraktijk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden immigration detention, legal practice, crimmigration, ultimum remedium
Auteurs LLB. Jo-Anne Nijland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The judge has a very important task in reviewing cases of immigration-related detention and guaranteeing the alien’s safeguards. This study examines the legal practice of reviewing detention orders from the theoretical perspective of crimmigration. Analyses of cases and interviews with judges show that the alien’s criminal background is not important for the review of grounds, but still of significance in the balancing of interests. In addition, the data reveal a protective gap in the reviewing mechanisms for aliens arrested on the basis of identification requirements. Moreover, the ultimum remedium principle proves to be a hollow notion, but the responsibility for its erosion lies largely outside the judicial practice.


LLB. Jo-Anne Nijland
Jo-Anne Nijland LLB. is student Legal Research aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Intelligencegestuurd politie(mensen)werk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden Intelligence Led Policing, information, communication, safety analysis
Auteurs Drs. Paul Duijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to control problems of public safety the police have to respond proactively on potential threats. Analyzed information and knowledge (intelligence) is therefore needed to give direction to police work on strategic, operational and tactical police management levels. This principle is called Intelligence Led Policing (ILP), with its main goal to become a more effective police organization. Critics point at bureaucratization processes that go along with the implementation of ILP. In this paper the importance human interaction in relation to ILP is discussed as a key factor in preventing these bureaucratization processes. Direct interaction between information collectors, intelligence analysts and decision makers is a necessary ingredient in order to become an effective intelligence led police organization.


Drs. Paul Duijn
Drs. Paul Duijn is criminoloog en als strategisch analist werkzaam bij Bureau Regionale Informatie van Politie Haaglanden.
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