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Artikel

Straffen in soorten en maten

De ontwikkeling van de straftoemeting door de rechter in de periode 1995-2012

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden straftoemeting rechter, decompositie strafpunten, omrekensleutel
Auteurs Dr. Ben van Velthoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper studies the development of the sentences that were imposed by criminal courts in the Netherlands over the period 1995-2012. Available data cover all principal sanctions: (unconditional) prison sentences, community service orders and fines. A decomposition is made to separate the gravity of sentencing (changes in the type and severity of the sanctions) from size effects (changes in the composition of the criminal cases dealt with). The gravity of sentencing is found to oscillate over the period 1995-2012. There is (as yet) no clear trend towards heavier sentencing, contrary to recent claims by Dutch judicial authorities.


Dr. Ben van Velthoven
Dr. Ben van Velthoven is universitair hoofddocent Rechtseconomie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

    Victims of violent crime who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can request financial compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (VOCF). Problematic with this is that PTSD is amenable for malingering. Malingering involves the invention or exaggeration of psychological symptoms or the attribution of such symptoms to wrong causes. If malingered PTSD remains undetected, the VOCF will run the risk of compensating damages which do not exist. The literature suggests that malingering can be detected by focusing on extreme scores on symptom screeners. The results of the current study, however, seem to suggest that this may not be an adequate strategy.


Dr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. Maarten Kunst is universitair docent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

    Starting in 2015, Dutch municipalities will have complete administrative responsibility for all types of youth care on the continuum of preventive child education programs to youth probation and re-entry aftercare. In the process of this so called ‘youth care transition’, the use of available and valid scientific knowledge about effective reduction of juvenile crime (distilled from What Works, desistance focused studies and forensic pedagogy) seems to be suppressed by the administrative and procedural concerns that municipalities are now facing. In this article, these concerns are discussed and some solutions are presented.


Dr. Bas Vogelvang
Dr. Bas Vogelvang is lector Reclassering en Veiligheidsbeleid bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool en expertadviseur bij Van Montfoort.
Artikel

Behandelingsbereidheid onder gedetineerden in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden Behandelingsbereidheid, Deelname, Rehabilitatie, Gevangenis
Auteurs Anouk Bosma MSc, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager, Prof. Dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A survey of the literature suggested that low participation rates in prison-based rehabilitation programs in The Netherlands can be explained by a lack of treatment readiness amongst rehabilitation candidates and participants. The current contribution aims to examine treatment readiness amongst detainees that have been assigned a candidate for a prison-based rehabilitation program in the Netherlands. To address these aims, data were used from the fourth wave of a research project studying the effects of imprisonment on the life of detainees in the Netherlands. Results showed that about eighty percent of treatment candidates were not treatment ready. This lack of treatment readiness amongst potential participants will no doubt influence both treatment engagement numbers, which studies have shown to be low, and quite possible treatment effectiveness. Results imply that practitioners should be aware of the absence of treatment readiness amongst a large part of their clients. Assessment and (if necessary) interventions to increase treatment readiness amongst candidates and participants seems of the utmost importance.


Anouk Bosma MSc
Anouk Bosma MSc is promovenda Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. Anja Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.

Prof. Dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. Maarten Kunst is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Vluchtelingen, humanitaire hulp en conflict: de Karen National Union in Birma

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden Burma, Karen, Conflict, Refugees, Humanitarian aid
Auteurs Jelmer Brouwer MSc en Dr. Joris van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we describe how and why the Karen National Union (KNU) has profited from international refugee camps and humanitarian aid in Thailand after they had been largely defeated in Burma. By assuming leadership positions in the refugee and camp committees, they have been able to maintain their specific ideology in the camps. Because humanitarian aid to these refugee camps was much higher than to victims and organizations in Burma itself, international donors and NGOs have disproportionately supported the KNU.


Jelmer Brouwer MSc
Jelmer Brouwer MSc is promovendus Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Joris van Wijk
Dr. Joris van Wijk is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Tevredenheid met advocaten onder Nederlandse preventief gedetineerden: percepties van procedurele rechtvaardigheid

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden tevredenheid met advocaten, procedurele rechtvaardigheid, percepties van gedetineerden
Auteurs Ellen Raaijmakers MSc, Dr. Jan W. de Keijser, Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently, procedural justice theory is predominantly used to explain defendants’ satisfaction with the police, courts and prisons. It is unclear to what extent this theory applies to lawyers. This study investigates to what extent defendants are satisfied with their lawyers, and procedural fairness characteristics are related to defendants’ satisfaction with their lawyers. Data from the Prison Project were used: a large-scale research project on Dutch criminal defendants. Results suggest that generally, defendants are very satisfied with their lawyers. Variation in satisfaction with lawyers can be attributed for a substantial part to procedural fairness characteristics.


Ellen Raaijmakers MSc
Ellen Raaijmakers MSc is promovendus Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Jan W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan W. de Keijser is universitair hoofddocent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. Anja Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Stilstaan of meebewegen?

Over de effectiviteit van het opsporingsproces binnen de politie, belicht vanuit de bestrijding van georganiseerde hennepteelt

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Criminele netwerken, Opsporing, Politie, Georganiseerde misdaad
Auteurs Drs. Paul Duijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various paradigms on the structures of organized crime have shaped the criminal investigational approach within the Dutch police towards criminal networks. The idea of pyramid-shaped mafia structures, as dominant in the 1970s, led to large-scale and long-term criminal investigations, trying to get to the ‘top’ of the network. In the 1990s, the image of separate criminal groups, working independently from each other, led to isolated criminal investigations on distinct criminal networks. Today, new insights that have arisen from scientific studies and police practices call again for a renewal of investigational strategies. As shown in this article, criminal networks are not limited by social, cultural or physical boundaries and show a rapid recovery after interventions by state actors. For these reasons, the efficiency of police practices depends on the extent to which the police is able to move along with these networks.


Drs. Paul Duijn
Drs. Paul Duijn is criminoloog, recherchekundige en als strategisch analist werkzaam bij de Nederlandse Politie Eenheid Den Haag.
Artikel

Uitsluiting van ex-gedetineerden door verzekeraars

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden selective exclusion, prisoners, actuarial justice, insurance
Auteurs Lucrecia Paulina MSc en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we address the question of whether former prisoners are excluded by insurance companies when they apply for insurance. We found that, in several cases, ex-prisoners had been denied insurance in the Netherlands. This so-called ‘actuarial justice’ is accompanied by a great deal of discretionary power in the hands of insurance companies. Moreover, the results emphasize that former prisoners are still in an extremely vulnerable position in society. The article concludes by emphasizing that this form of ‘selective exclusion’ happens to a variety of risk groups in society.


Lucrecia Paulina MSc
Lucrecia Paulina MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Tegenspraak bij de politie

Distantie, betrokkenheid en doorwerking

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden tunnel vision, critical review, criminal investigation, police
Auteurs Mr. drs. Renze Salet en Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After some serious failures in criminal justice procedures, in 2006 ‘critical review’ was introduced in the Dutch police as a measure to prevent tunnel vision in criminal investigation. An analysis of 26 review cases and interviews with representatives of the Dutch police forces shows that in practice reviewers are confronted with a fundamental dilemma of distance vs. involvement in their relation with criminal investigation team. Critical review proves to have concrete effects on the criminal investigation process, although their scope usually appears to be limited. Although these effects are modest and review takes scarce police resources, the authors recommend a continuation of critical review.


Mr. drs. Renze Salet
Mr. drs. Renze Salet is onderzoeker aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is hoogleraar aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Vreemdelingenbewaring in crimmigratieperspectief

Over de rol van strafrechtelijke antecedenten en het ultimum-remediumbeginsel voor de maatregel van bewaring in de rechtspraktijk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden immigration detention, legal practice, crimmigration, ultimum remedium
Auteurs LLB. Jo-Anne Nijland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The judge has a very important task in reviewing cases of immigration-related detention and guaranteeing the alien’s safeguards. This study examines the legal practice of reviewing detention orders from the theoretical perspective of crimmigration. Analyses of cases and interviews with judges show that the alien’s criminal background is not important for the review of grounds, but still of significance in the balancing of interests. In addition, the data reveal a protective gap in the reviewing mechanisms for aliens arrested on the basis of identification requirements. Moreover, the ultimum remedium principle proves to be a hollow notion, but the responsibility for its erosion lies largely outside the judicial practice.


LLB. Jo-Anne Nijland
Jo-Anne Nijland LLB. is student Legal Research aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Op het land in plaats van achter het raam

Aard en omvang van arbeidsuitbuiting in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Human trafficking, Labour exploitation, Illegal migration
Auteurs Daphne Postma MSc. en Dr. Joris van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2005 article 273 of the Dutch criminal code does not only qualify exploitation of prostitutes as a criminal act, but also exploitation taking place in other sectors. Seven years down the line not much is known about this type of human trafficking. Based on an analysis of files of the Dutch Social Security Investigation and Detection Service (ISZW-DO) this article describes in which sectors such exploitation takes place, the characteristics of both victims and (alleged) perpetrators and the modus operandi used. The article concludes and emphasizes that especially subtle means of coercion are used, but that these can transform into more serious types of coercion.


Daphne Postma MSc.
Daphne Postma MSc. is in 2011 afgestudeerd als criminoloog aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Joris van Wijk
Dr. Joris van Wijk is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, j.van.wijk@vu.nl.
Artikel

Geweld tegen mensen en dieren

Denken over correlatie, causatie en de angst voor valse positieven

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden (domestic) violence, animals, research methodology, prevention
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is an impressive body of literature dealing with the so-called ‘cruelty link’. Two directions can be distinguished: animal abuse as a part of domestic violence and cruelty against animals as a predictor of a penchant for violence in later life. Related to these topics are a lot of methodological problems, for example regarding research designs, definitions of (domestic) violence and animal abuse, practices of cultural bias and prejudice regarding the position of animals in society and problems regarding the recognition of abuse. This contribution deals further more with the problematic claims of correlation and causation between violence against humans and animals. What is the risk of identifying ‘false positives’, that is making uncritical assumptions and accusations of (a penchant for) violent behaviour based on the (mis)interpretation of certain behaviour against animals?


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld voor de Nederlandse politie en universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De leeftijdsgrenzen in het jeugdstrafrecht en het jongvolwassenenstrafrecht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden juvenile justice, adolescent justice, age limits, neurobiological and psychological development
Auteurs Mr. Marjolein Herweijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent scientific studies have shown that a major part of juvenile delinquency is due to the incomplete development of adolescents and will stop before the age of 23. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the accompanying General Comment Children’s rights in juvenile justice give detailed guidelines about juvenile justice. This article focuses on an advice of the Council for the Administration of Criminal Justice and Protection of Juveniles, according to which both of these developments require adjustment of the lower and upper age limit of criminal responsibility for juvenile offenders and justify a special criminal law for adolescents.


Mr. Marjolein Herweijer
Mr. Marjolein Herweijer is adviseur en secretaris van de sectie Jeugd van de Raad voor Strafrechtstoepassing en Jeugdbescherming.
Artikel

Is het Nederlandse terrorismebeleid écht zo degelijk vormgegeven?

Een bespreking van recent uitgevoerd evaluatieonderzoek

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden legislation evaluation, counterterrorism legislation, evaluative research, security culture
Auteurs Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Almost ten years after the catastrophic attacks in New York and Washington, Dutch counterterrorism legislation has been evaluated. Since (the drafting of) this body of legislation has been highly criticized over the past years, there was a great need for a thorough and objective evaluation, covering the questions that were risen over years concerning the legitimacy, necessity and effectiveness of the counterterrorism legislation. This article aims to show that the political nature of counterterrorism seems to impede on such an evaluation by systematically discussing the flaws and weaknesses of the evaluative study carried out by the Ministry of Security and Justice.


Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden en tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

De strafrechtelijke aanpak van eergerelateerd geweld nader beschouwd

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden eergerelateerd geweld, aanwijzing, politie
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen en Mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Combatting honour related violence forms an important topic of criminal justice policy in the Netherlands. This article analyzes this policy, in particular the prosecution guideline on honour related violence, thereby focusing on victims and perpetrators, and the difficulties of dealing with the cultural background of honour related violence in criminal justice policy.


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd wetenschappelijk onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG), dat is ondergebracht bij de politie Haaglanden. Daarnaast is zij redactielid van PROCES.

Mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Mr. Jeroen ten Voorde is universitair docent straf- en strafprocesrecht bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en rechter-plaatsvervanger in de Rechtbank Haarlem.
Artikel

Zal ik het even uitleggen?

Over de begrijpelijkheid van politierechterzittingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden procedurele rechtvaardigheid, begrijpelijkheid, legitimiteit, observatie
Auteurs Roos de Jager, Sara Jonker, Desirée Röschard e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research on comprehensibility of the criminal process has focused on the verdict. However, much less studies have examined the comprehensibility of what is going on during court proceedings, in the eye of the laity. The focus of this article is on the comprehensibility of the linguistic usage of legal terms in court. Based on observations in the magistrates’ court, both quantitative and qualitative data was collected. Analysis shows an increase of comprehensibility when judges strictly follow the judicial procedure in court. Defendants do not always understand the legal terms and there appears to be a gap between the legal profession and the laity.


Roos de Jager
Roos de Jager is student Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Sara Jonker
Sara Jonker is student Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Desirée Röschard
Desirée Röschard is student Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Olga Scherrenburg
Olga Scherrenburg is student Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Huibert-Jan Zijderveld
Huibert-Jan Zijderveld is student Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Verstandelijke beperking in de forensische psychiatrie

Overzicht en presentatie van een onderzoek naar het effect van langdurende klinische behandelingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2011
Trefwoorden learning disabilitie, clinical treatment, evaluation, Routine Outcome Monitoring
Auteurs Dr. Klaus Drieschner, Isabel Marrozos en Drs. Brenda Hesper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The first part of the article provides a review of the literature concerning the prevalence of people with learning disabilities in forensic settings, the treatment programs for this population, and the evidence for the effectiveness of these programs. In the second part, a large prospective study into the effectiveness of long-term inpatient treatment in a Dutch treatment center is reported. Preliminary results indicate that the percentage of improved patients in terms of reduction of criminogenic needs increases steadily, and that about half of the patients significantly improve within the first two years of the treatment. In addition, patients are released to settings which are less restrictive than the pre-treatment settings.


Dr. Klaus Drieschner
Klaus Drieschner werkt als senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker voor het Trajectum Kenniscentrum en is projectleider van het multicenter effectevaluatieonderzoek van het SGLVG expertisecentrum De Borg.

Isabel Marrozos
Isabel Marrozos is werkzaam als onderzoekscoördinator bij het Trajectum Kenniscentrum.

Drs. Brenda Hesper
Brenda Hesper is als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker verbonden aan het Trajectum Kenniscentrum.
Artikel

De relatie tussen subtypen relationeel geweldplegers en de adviezen van de reclassering

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2010
Trefwoorden Relationeel geweld, Subtypen, B-SAFER, Reclassering
Auteurs Drs. Jill Thijssen en Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the present study, the B-SAFER was coded for 146 files of spousal assault cases from the Dutch probation service. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) identifying subtypes of spousal assaulters and (2) examine the relationship between the subtypes found and the advice the probation officers gave to court. Four subtypes of assaulters were identified: family-only, generally violent/antisocial, low-level antisocial, and psychopathology. There was only a significant relationship between the subtypes and the advice on two of the ten advices. The type of advice showed a strong relationship with the region of the probation offices where the batterer was examined.


Drs. Jill Thijssen
Jill Thijssen is als promovenda verbonden aan de afdeling Clinical Psychological Science van de Universiteit van Maastricht.

Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
Corine de Ruiter is als hoogleraar Forensische psychologie verbonden aan de Universiteit van Maastricht.

    How can the social environment of a prison be accurately assessed? Why is it important to measure? How should the prison experience be represented in empirical research? How do we capture distinctions between prisons, which can be good or bad in so many different ways? There is considerable consensus about the inadequacy of narrow and selective performance measures, such as hours spent in purposeful activity or serious assaults, in representing prison quality. The difficulties are both methodological and conceptual. This paper will outline one attempt to address these questions in England and Wales. Based on a series of studies aimed at identifying and measuring aspects of prison life that ‘matter most’, prisoners describe stark differences in the moral and emotional climates of prisons serving apparently similar functions. The ‘differences that matter’ are in the domain of interpersonal relationships and treatment. A developmental programme of empirical research on the quality of life in prison suggests that (a) some prisons are more survivable than others and (b) important differences in identifiable aspects of prison quality exist and may be related to outcomes. These findings have implications for our understanding of the meaning of terms like ‘inhuman and degrading’ treatment as well as for our uses and expectations of the prison.


Alison Liebling
Alison Liebling is hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit van Cambridge en is directeur van het Prison Research Centre.
Artikel

De evidence base van zorgprogramma’s in de tbs: een visie op therapie-effectonderzoek

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2010
Trefwoorden zorgprogramma, evidence base, evaluatie, tbs
Auteurs Edwin de Beurs en Marko Barendregt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Voor zorgprogramma’s in de tbs-sector ontbreekt vooralsnog de evidence base, een empirische onderbouwing van wat werkt bij wie onder welke omstandigheden. Doel van dit artikel is te schetsen hoe zo’n evidence base tot stand kan komen.Ten eerste kunnen in een quasi-experimenteel design interventies worden geëvalueerd met behulp van Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). Daarnaast zijn studies met een waarlijk experimenteel design (Randomised Clinical Trials of RCT’s en single case-studies) een noodzakelijke aanvulling. Ten slotte wordt responsiviteitsonderzoek aanbevolen, dat zich richt op interne (behandelinggerelateerde) en externe (patiëntgerelateerde) factoren die samenhangen met een gunstige behandeluitkomst.


Edwin de Beurs
Edwin de Beurs is hoofd van het Bureau Onderzoek en Ontwikkeling, Nederlands Instituut voor Forensische Psychiatrie en Psychologie (NIFP), en inhoudelijk directeur van het Kenniscentrum Zorg Nederland (KZN).

Marko Barendregt
Marko Barendregt is senior onderzoeker bij het Kenniscentrum Zorg Nederland (KZN).
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