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Een risico voor hacken en persoonsgerichte cyberdelicten?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden cybercrime, victimization, hacking, cyber stalking, cyber threats
Auteurs Jurjen Jansen MSc, Rutger Leukfeldt MSc, Dr. Johan van Wilsem e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The number of Internet users who reported they have come into contact with cybercrime is substantial. This article examines three forms of cybercrime, namely: hacking, cyber stalking and cyber threats. Because cybercrime is relatively extensive in the life of Dutch citizens, it is important to gain insight into factors that influence victimization. By means of a secondary analysis of data from the first Dutch national cybercrime victim survey (N=9,161), it is assessed to which extend online behaviours affect victimization. In particular, online behaviours involving the use of communication applications affect victimization of the three aforementioned cybercrimes. The article provides suggestions for further research into cybercrime victimization.


Jurjen Jansen MSc
J. Jansen, MSc is als promovendus verbonden aan het lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.

Rutger Leukfeldt MSc
E.R. Leukfeldt, MSc is als promovendus verbonden aan het lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.

Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J.A. van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Wouter Stol
Prof. dr. W.Ph. Stol is lector Cybersafety aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.
Artikel

Verschillen crackers van andere criminelen?

Een vergelijking op basis van Nederlandse verdachtenregistraties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden hackers, crackers, computer intrusion, suspects, The Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. Stijn Ruiter en Frank Bernaards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Scientific research on cybercrime has mainly focused on its technological aspects. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the human factor in cybercrime. In this article we focus on the human factor and address the question to what extent crackers (criminal hackers) are similar to other criminals. We analyse socio-demographic characteristics as well as criminal careers of crackers in comparison to those of other criminals. We employ Dutch police data on criminal suspects from 1996-2009. Our results show that hacking suspects are quite similar to other criminals with respect to both socio-demographic characteristics and their criminal careers.


Dr. Stijn Ruiter
Dr. S. Ruiter is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Frank Bernaards LLM
F. Bernaards, LLM is strategisch expert bij het Team High Tech Crime (THTC) van de politie.
Artikel

Cyberpesten vanuit een criminologisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden cybercrime, criminological challenges, cyberbullying, characteristics perpetrators, interrelation online-offline
Auteurs Drs. Joyce Kerstens en Sander Veenstra MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is assumed that the online world creates new possibilities for criminal behaviour. Only recently criminologists started the debate on the applicability of traditional criminological theories to cybercrime offending. Data retrieved from the national Dutch survey Youth & Cybersafety indicate that cyberbullying behaviour is not only strongly interwoven with traditional bullying behaviours, but is also affected by the distinct features of the online environment. The findings give support to the suggestion that the aetiological schema to explain cyberbullying should postulate the interaction between individual characteristics, distinct features of the online environment and the interaction between offline and online social realities.


Drs. Joyce Kerstens
J. Kerstens is projectleider Jeugd & Cybersafety bij het lectoraat Cybersafety, verbonden aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie. Zij is tevens promovenda aan de rechtenfaculteit van de Open Universiteit.

Sander Veenstra MSc
S. Veenstra is cum laude afgestudeerd aan de University of Leicester (Criminology, thesis over cyber bullying) en werkt als onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety, verbonden aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Virtuele ontmoetingsruimtes voor cybercriminelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden offender convergence settings, cyber crime, phishing, carding
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn en Eileen Monsma MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Felson introduced the concept of offender convergence settings in his articles on situational crime prevention. He refers to physical locations where criminals get together to relax, share information, fence stolen goods, plot new crimes, etc. Such places come in the form of restaurants and cafes that are in the hands of the ‘underworld’, but may equally well consist of deserted schoolyards where unruly adolescents gather. According to Felson, such settings facilitate the committing of crimes and enable the creation of structure and continuity in criminal networks.
    In this article the authors argue that virtual meeting places also exist that can be labeled as offender convergence settings. To demonstrate this, a case study regarding a so-called ‘carding’ forum is used. Carding is a term from the world of cybercrime and refers to the set of techniques by which personal financial information is acquired, traded and abused by criminals. Through a qualitative and a quantitative analysis of the carding forum, the possibilities for cyber criminals to come into contact with each other, co-offending, and the durability of the criminal network is analyzed.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de KLPD.

Eileen Monsma MSc
E. Monsma, MSc. is senior adviseur Team High Tech Crime bij de KLPD.
Artikel

Seks op afstand

Leefstijl, routine-internetactiviteiten en slachtofferschap onder meisjes van seksueel hinderlijk gedrag en seksuele dwang op internet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden internet, girls, lifestyle theory, routine activity theory
Auteurs drs. Carolien Swier MSc en mr. Miriam Wijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Lifestyle Theory and Routine Activity Theory are used to explain female adolescent victimization of sexual harassment on the internet. Girls completed a questionnaire on the internet about their experiences with these events. Girls’ lifestyle had a strong influence on risk of victimization of sexual harassment on the internet. A risky lifestyle outside the internet (especially having sexual intercourse with many partners) increased chances of victimization on the internet by almost 2.5 times for these girls. Routine activities on the internet did not have a significant influence.


drs. Carolien Swier MSc
Drs. C. Swier, MSc. is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), cswier@nscr.nl.

mr. Miriam Wijkman
Mr. M.D.S. Wijkman is docent-onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, m.wijkman@vu.nl.
Artikel

Digitale en traditionele bedreiging vergeleken

Een studie naar risicofactoren van slachtofferschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Bedreiging, Slachtofferschap, Cybercriminaliteit, Internet
Auteurs dr. Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Computers and the internet offer new ways to offenders for committing crimes. The present article uses routine activity theory and large-scale victimization survey data (N=6,896) to study digital threat victimization (i.e. threats people receive by email or chat rooms) in the general population. It assesses risk factors for digital threats and compares them with risk factors for receiving traditional threats and a mixture of digital and traditional threats. The results show that youngsters and offenders of digital crime run higher risks of all types of threat victimization. In extension, outdoor routine activities increase the risk not only of traditional threats but of digital threats as well, while the same holds for certain computer activities (e.g. having a profile on Hyves). These findings point towards the connection of social interactions between people in the physical and digital world. Finally, the results suggest that impulsive people are more vulnerable to threat victimization.


dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
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