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Artikel

40 jaar JV!

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2014
Auteurs Bert Berghuis, Marit Scheepmaker, Ben Rovers e.a.

Bert Berghuis

Marit Scheepmaker

Ben Rovers

Frans Leeuw

Albert Klijn

Frits Huls
Artikel

De rol van Europol in de strijd tegen voedselcriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food crime, counterfeit, Europol, counterfeit wine, international police cooperation
Auteurs Ch. Vansteenkiste en T. Schotte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud can be seen as a form of counterfeit, which has increased globally because of technological developments. The authors, both working for the European Union police agency Europol, give several examples of the involvement of organized crime groups in food fraud. They describe the cooperation between Europol in its coordinating role with various national police forces in tracing food crime and arresting the perpetrators. Also the involvement of the European Union agencies Eurojust and Frontex in special operations like OPSON to unmask illegal trade in counterfeit foodstuff are described.


Ch. Vansteenkiste
Chris Vansteenkiste is werkzaam als projectmanager bij de Dienst Namaak van het Serious and Organised Crime Department Europol. Europol (European Police Agency) is een EU-agentschap gevestigd in Den Haag.

T. Schotte
Tamara Schotte is projectmanager van het SOCTA 2013 en leidt de strategische-analyseafdeling van het Serious and Organised Crime Department, Europol.
Artikel

Naar een Europese aanpak van voedselfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food fraud, European Parliament, EP Resolution on food fraud, crisis in the food chain, horse meat
Auteurs J.A. van den Akker en E.M.R. de Lange
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Have recent food fraud cases, combined with a lack of priority and regulatory framework for combating food fraud and increased involvement of organized crime, caused a crisis of the European food chain? To what extent does this necessitate a European response? This article argues that the crisis in consumer confidence caused by cross-border fraud must be urgently addressed at national and EU level and that combating food fraud should be a priority next to the enforcement of food safety rules. Necessary changes of EU rules applicable to the sector and its controls should be made through the EU decision-making process. The European Parliament recommends an approach that should define food fraud to enable the development of EU policy, facilitate cross-border cooperation and information-sharing between member states and encourage sector initiatives, whereas its enforcement should focus on altering the type of controls by public authorities and installing tougher penalties.


J.A. van den Akker
Mr. Joost van den Akker, MA is beleidsmedewerker Europees Parlement voor de fractie van de Europese Volkspartij (EVP).

E.M.R. de Lange
Esther de Lange, MA is lid van het Europees Parlement. Zij maakt namens het CDA deel uit van de fractie van de Europese Volkspartij (EVP).
Artikel

De bestrijding van voedselfraude in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden NVWA-IOD, food fraud, food industry, food laundering, criminal cases
Auteurs K.E. Gussow en L.H. Kuiper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud has recently been recognized as a blind spot among regulators. In Europe, few organizations have experience with large cases of food fraud; also scientific knowledge into this type of crime is limited. This article aims to contribute experience to this gap. The NVWA-IOD is a specialist crime unit in the Netherlands, carrying out criminal investigations into, among other things, food fraud. This article gives insight into numbers of cases dealt with by the NVWA-IOD in the past fifteen years, for different types of food fraud. Nine criminal cases, concentrating on suspects within trade and industry, are analyzed in more detail from a basic criminological perspective. There is looked into, among other things, the motive, the opportunity and the product. The cases discussed relate to products such as meat, eggs, fish and dairy products. The main motive for committing food fraud is making money; the gain makes fraudulent activities attractive and financially beneficial. Opportunities refer mainly to ambiguous laws and regulations and little supervision. Also, evasive behavior was found. To combat food crime, specialist knowledge of tempting opportunities is essential.


K.E. Gussow
Dr. Karen Gussow is als senior inspecteur verbonden aan de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).

L.H. Kuiper
Loes Kuiper studeerde af aan de Hogeschool Van Hall Larenstein te Leeuwarden en loopt stage bij de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).
Artikel

Illegale pesticiden en voedselcriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden illegal pesticides, organized crime, counterfeit, parallel trading arrangements, food crime
Auteurs Ch.I. Sambrook
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Counterfeiting is a major worldwide crime problem and one with demonstrable links to organized criminality. The production and distribution of fake plant protection products is no exception, the proliferation of such products within the European Union owing much to the abuse of parallel trading arrangements and the high profit, low risk opportunity it presents to organized crime groups. It is also a particularly insidious crime; these chemicals are untested and unapproved for use and they pose a serious economic, environmental and human health threat. Of particular concern is the potential for residues from illegal pesticides to persist in harvested crops to then be found in foodstuffs. It is argued that this should be regarded as a food crime.


Ch.I. Sambrook
Christopher Ian Sambrook, MSc is ruraal criminoloog. Hij is als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Harper Adams University in Shropshire in het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Hij is tevens technisch adviseur van het Thames Valley Police Operation Silo Initiative, gericht op het vergaren van inlichtingen over deze specifieke vorm van fraude en met name de mogelijke banden met de georganiseerde misdaad. E-mail: csambrook@harper-adams.ac.uk.
Artikel

Zwarte kaviaar

Over criminele netwerken, illegale handel en de bedreiging van de steur

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden black caviar, Caspian Sea, sturgeon population, illegal fishing, illegal trading
Auteurs D. Siegel en D. van Uhm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The trade in caviar has a rich and colorful history, influenced over thousands of years by many cultures, societies and in the last decades by regulation. Based on qualitative research, including literature, media analysis and interviews, this article presents the first preliminary results of the authors’ ongoing research. The value of caviar is historically discovered in the context of social change, political relationships and environmental change and the role of organized crime is described, as the scarcity of caviar has offered the unique opportunity to fish illegally, smuggle and trade contraband to mainly European countries with millions in profits. Although due to overexploitation ‘wild caviar’ is increasingly difficult to obtain, the demand in the context of exclusivity and scarcity remains intact by the upper class society desire for edible gold.


D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.

D. van Uhm
Drs. Daan van Uhm is als promovendus en junior universitair docent werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Kwetsbaarheid voor voedselfraude in de vleessector

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food fraud, meat sector, melamine scandal, adulterants, food analysing techniques
Auteurs S. van Ruth en W. Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud is as old as mankind but has advanced in the last decades. Fraud regarding the gross composition of food has progressed in the direction of the addition of unconventional adulterants. Furthermore, consumers are more and more interested in how and where their foods are produced and pay price premiums for organic foods, fair trade, animal welfare considering, and sustainable food products. Since these products are very similar to their conventional counterparts in terms of composition, they provide an additional challenge. The knowledge regarding occurrence, type of meat fraud, causes and damage caused to the sector is limited. There is a need for extensive identification of the vulnerabilities and criminogenic factors. These insights offer leads for detection and prevention. The article deals with a first step into the inventory of these vulnerabilities and factors affecting meat fraud, by assessing fraud risks related to products, companies and the meat supply chain.


S. van Ruth
Prof. dr. ir. Saskia van Ruth is als hoogleraar Voedselauthenticiteit verbonden aan de Food Quality and Design Group en het Rikilt – Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid van de Universiteit Wageningen.

W. Huisman
Prof. dr. mr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Burgers in bezwaar en beroep

Over de toegankelijkheid van het bestuursrecht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden administrative law, appeal procedures, discretionary power, informality, conflict solving
Auteurs A.T. Marseille
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article contains an analysis of changes in the access to justice in administrative law disputes in the Netherlands. In analysing these changes, it is necessary to look not only at court procedures, but also at the objection procedure that precedes them. A large majority of administrative law disputes are resolved in such an informal objection procedure. The analysis shows that, more than the legislator and the administrative courts, administrative authorities are responsible for changes concerning (the interpretation and execution of the rules on) access to justice. They increasingly use their discretionary powers in the objection procedure to try to solve conflicts about their decisions by interpreting and using the rules of access in a flexible way.


A.T. Marseille
Prof. mr. dr. Bert Marseille is als bijzonder hoogleraar empirische bestudering van het bestuursrecht verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Tilburg. Daarnaast is hij werkzaam bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

De rol van de advocaat tijdens detentie en verhoor op het politiebureau

Een vergelijkende studie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden defence lawyers, interrogation, Salduz, procedural safeguards, comparative
Auteurs J. Hodgson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on the findings of a recent empirical study conducted across four jurisdictions, this article considers the ways in which legal assistance is provided to suspects who are held in police custody for formal questioning. It sets out, very briefly, the legal framework developed by the European Court of Human Rights and now the EU, and the legal provisions in place in the four jurisdictions post Salduz. It then goes on to consider the kinds of factors that, in practice, promote or constrain the provision of effective legal assistance. These include the occupational cultures of police and lawyers and the availability of human and financial resources. Whilst the criminal processes of the four jurisdictions are different, there are many similarities in the working practices of police and lawyers and a lack of agreement among police and lawyers, as to the value of legal assistance to suspects before and during police interrogation.


J. Hodgson
Prof. Jacqueline Hodgson is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit van Warwick.
Artikel

Stroomverleggingen in de Nederlandse geschilbeslechtingsdelta

Terugblikken en vooruitkijken met twee gesprekspartners

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden history legal aid, sixties, lawyer collectives, cutbacks, modernization
Auteurs A. Klijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What do citizens do when they think they have a problem that involves the law? Just like 40 years ago the main bottleneck in such a situation is where to find good advice on which steps to take. However, the difference compared to 40 years ago is the existence of more and a greater variety of organisations offering legal advice. This article describes the evolution of legal aid in the Netherlands, supplemented by comments of two people who have been personally involved in this development, Peter van den Biggelaar and Maurits Barendrecht. Mr Van den Biggelaar is director of the Dutch Board for Legal Aid, while Mr Barendrecht is research director of Hiil Innovating Justice and law professor at the University of Tilburg.


A. Klijn
Dr. Albert Klijn is parttime wetenschappelijk adviseur bij SSR, Studiecentrum Rechtspleging. Hij was voorheen o.a. werkzaam bij het WODC en de Raad voor de rechtspraak.
Artikel

De toegang tot de rechter in een moderne rechtsstaat

IJkpunten voor een concrete vormgeving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden access to justice, rule of law, ADR, law enforcement, checks and balances
Auteurs G. Corstens en R. Kuiper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As a core element of the ‘rechtsstaat’ (a country under the rule of law) the importance of the principle of access to justice is widely agreed upon. Nevertheless it is complicated to reach an agreement on subjects that are pivotal to the implementation of this principle in practice. The needs of society change over time and the factors that influence the concrete accessibility are many (costs, length, complexity of procedures, etc.). Furthermore, as a result of the coming into being of ADR and new forms of law enforcement the use of the civil and criminal trial has declined. To evaluate the current state of access to justice against the backdrop of these factors and developments the central question should be whether the judge is still able to fulfil his function in a rechtsstaat of providing legal protection, whilst functioning as a counterbalance to the executive and law-making powers of the state.


G. Corstens
Mr. dr. Geert Corstens is president van de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden.

R. Kuiper
Mr. Reindert Kuiper is gerechtsauditeur bij de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden.
Artikel

Toegang tot recht in beweging

Over burgers en hun oplossingsstrategieën

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden access to justice, civil justice, administrative law, dispute resolution, legal assistance
Auteurs M. ter Voert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both in public policy and in scientific research, the concept of access to justice has been subject to change. In the seventies access to justice was mainly understood as access to a lawyer and a judge. In the nineties the perspective widens to alternative forms of dispute resolution, self-help and juridification of problems. The present article focuses on access to justice for citizens who experienced civil and administrative problems. Firstly, it illustrates the change in public policy with respect to dispute resolution. Secondly, it describes the shifting views on access to justice in empirical research. Furthermore it presents the results of socio-legal research into the dispute resolution of citizens and discusses what these results tell us about access to justice.


M. ter Voert
Dr. Marijke ter Voert is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Het stelsel van gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand in roerige tijden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden legal aid, certificate, Legal Services Counters, Roadmap to Justice, cutbacks
Auteurs S.L. Peters en L. Combrink-Kuiters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For years it has been stated that the Dutch legal aid system is balanced and performs well. Supply and demand seem to be matched and the quality of the system is judged as good. Serious problems seem to be lacking, although there is a constant increase in the number of certificates issued. The most important threat to the system are the ever shrinking government budgets together with the increasing use of the system. To date, the Dutch legal aid system has utilised open-end-financing. The Ministry of Security and Justice is in search of measures in order to contain the number of certificates, and thereby also the ever increasing costs. At the moment it is discussed if vital system changes are necessary. Will the system as we know still exist in the near future? Or will major changes need to be made? However, changes can also lead to improvement of the system.


S.L. Peters
Mr. Susanne Peters is verbonden aan de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand.

L. Combrink-Kuiters
Mr. Lia Combrink-Kuiters is verbonden aan de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand.
Artikel

De technologie van toegang tot het recht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden dispute resolution technology, acces to justice, ODR, justice innovation, e-Justice
Auteurs J.H. Verdonschot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Current trends in the delivery of legal services create the opportunity to develop a new generation of access to justice platforms. On the basis of two examples, the author illustrates how this can work. M-Sheria is a technology-based access to justice service that serves the poor in Kenya. It combines state of the art information technology (USSD, SMS, internet) and human technology (community paralegals and pro bono advocates) to help slum dwellers solve their legal problems. Rechtwijzer 2.0 is an internet-based platform that provides online human and technology-facilitated support to people with a legal problem in the Netherlands. These examples show how processes and professionals can be innovated to facilitate dispute resolution in delivering information and interventions just in time.


J.H. Verdonschot
Mr. dr. Jin Ho Verdonschot is werkzaam als dispute resolution technology advisor bij HiiL Innovating Justice.

    Since the mid-1980s American recipes for the fight against crime and nuisance are very popular amongst Dutch policymakers. The question posed in this article is why they rather look at the United States than at European countries far more comparable to the Netherlands. The authors answers this question by pointing at the popularity of neo-liberal recipes in general, an emotional historical bond marked by the time that New York was still called New Amsterdam and the liberation from Nazism in 1945, the (sometimes reluctant) acceptance of the US’ role as ‘the world’s policeman’ and a (mostly unspoken) belief that ‘bigger is better’. Next, the author draws some lessons from research on ‘how policy travels’: 1) crime policies are always in much wider social policies and idea(l)s; 2) if something ‘works’ in country A it doesn’t mean it also ‘works’ in country B; 3) policies are always adopted to national circumstances; 4) policymakers are particularly fond of simple messages and dislike nuances and criticism; 5) you can also look at the US in order to find out where ‘we’ don’t want to go; and 6) you most of all learn more about yourself if you look at other countries. The author concludes with a plea for critical cosmopolitanism and a decolonisation of criminology from national biases.


R. van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, wetenschappelijk directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

The product of design

Veiligheidsbeleid op Amerikaanse leest geschoeid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs V. Lub
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In policy development and academic research on urban problems such as poverty, disorder and crime, the United States has served as a model country for the Netherlands for years. This article analyses two Dutch policies in the field of neighbourhood safety that are strongly influenced by American policy. It specifically focuses on the efficacy and applicability of social interventions, i.e. approaches that appeal to residents’ active involvement in the improvement of public safety and quality of life: resident representation comities (I) and neighbourhood watch schemes (II). Available research into the two policy cases illustrates that the ‘hard’ science from the United States can often be complemented with more qualitative information from the Netherlands. American research can thus be used to support Dutch policy designs, provided that knowledge is fine-tuned and contextualised.


V. Lub
Drs. Vasco Lub is oprichter en directeur van het Bureau voor Sociale Argumentatie en tevens promovendus bij de capaciteitsgroep Sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De criminaliteitsdaling in New York

Over de zin en onzin van veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs M.B. Schuilenburg en M.B. Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the long decline of crime rates in New York, as analysed by Franklin Zimring in his book The city that became safe (2012). The author discusses and analyses the processes involved in ‘lesson drawing’ and the ‘policy transfer’ from New York to the Netherlands. Issues that are further addressed include the opportunities of prevention and the enforcement of ‘hot crimes’.


M.B. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

M.B. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Pot, crack en Obama’s ‘third way’

Liberalisering van drugsbeleid in de Verenigde Staten?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs I. Haen Marshall
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay describes the most important recent events in the field of American drugs legislation covering the liberalization of cannabis policies in several states as well as the reduction of penalties for the possession of crack at the federal level. These developments are situated in a broader context of a complicated and big country with plenty of room for extreme moral views and a very punitive justice policy that targets Blacks and Latino’s much more than the white middle class. The disproportionate impact of the punitive drugs legislation is an important driving force behind the trend towards liberalization, next to the high costs of maintaining an overcrowded prison system.


I. Haen Marshall
Ineke Haen Marshall, PhD is Professor bij het Department of Sociology & Anthropology and School of Criminology and Criminal Justice van de Northeastern University in Boston.
Artikel

Een ommekeer in de Amerikaanse strafrechtpleging?

De inzet van alternatieve rechtspraakprogramma’s ter bestrijding van overbevolkte gevangenissen in Texas

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs M. Bachmann, P. Kinkade en B. Smith-Bachmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article introduces and evaluates three different specialty court programs that are being enacted in a large Texas county to locally fight the growing tide of unsustainably high incarceration rates that is sweeping the United States. The study provides a brief description of the general dilemma of the American criminal justice system that, as a result of the widespread fear of crime and a mainstream news arena that favors grossly simplistic sound-byte-compatible get-tough policies, has become so immensely punitive and overburdening on public budgets that it is de facto no longer sustainable and in desperate need of immediate change. Faced with a situation of political stalemate on state and federal levels, county judges in Texas and other states are taking it upon themselves to bring about change in their local jurisdictions. Through newly designed specialty courts models, they seek to divert special-needs offenders away from the default incarceration track. The article evaluates the overall effectiveness of these new sentencing alternatives and identifies specific areas that need further improvement.


M. Bachmann
Michael Bachmann, PhD is als assistant professor verbonden aan het Department of Criminal Justice van de Texas Christian University.

P. Kinkade
Patrick Kinkade, PhD is associate professor aan het Department of Criminal Justice van de Texas Christian University.

B. Smith-Bachmann
Brittany Smith-Bachmann is als lecturer verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht van de Texas Christian University.
Artikel

Blik naar het Noorden?

Een kenschets van het justitiële beleid in Scandinavië

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs P. Kruize
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the question whether Dutch policy makers and researchers ought to look more often to Scandinavia for inspiration and less to the West (UK and USA). Scandinavian countries are also influenced by Anglo-American ideas about crime and justice, but at the same time the number of incarcerated persons has not changed dramatically while recidivism rates are low. Dutch policy makers and researcher do sometimes look at initiatives and practices in Scandinavian countries, most often Sweden. Dutch society shares many similarities with the Scandinavian welfare states and therefore it should be natural – according to the author – to benefit more often from Scandinavian experiences. Some suggestions are discussed in the article.


P. Kruize
Dr. Peter Kruize is associate professor bij de Juridische Faculteit van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen. Daarnaast is hij partner bij Ateno – bureau voor criminaliteitsanalyse – in Amsterdam.
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