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Het internationaal recht en de gesloten jeugdzorg

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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden closed youth care, International Child Rights Convention, freedom of expression, standard of living, education
Auteurs S.J. Höfte, G.H.P. van der Helm en G.J.J.M. Stams
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During childhood, a child is entitled to receive special care and assistance. The child’s best interest should be a primary objective. The Dutch government has an obligation to guarantee the children rights. But do the closed youth care accommodations meet the requirements as stated in the International Child Rights Convention, as far as deprivation of liberty and treatment under coercion are concerned? The study concluded that some closed youth care institutions do not meet the requirements as stated in the above mentioned Convention. There is often no possibility of free expression, physical complaints may not be taken seriously, an adequate standard of living is not always provided and the level of education is often too low. Most of the minors indicate that they are bored during their stay in the accommodations. On this basis, limiting the fundamental rights of these youngsters is currently surrounded with inadequate guarantees.


S.J. Höfte
Mr. Susanne Höfte is jurist. Zij studeerde recent af aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen met een scriptie over de gesloten jeugdzorg.

G.H.P. van der Helm
Dr. Peer van der Helm is werkzaam bij het lectoraat Jeugdzorg en Jeugdbeleid van de Hogeschool Leiden.

G.J.J.M. Stams
Prof. dr. Geert Jan Stams is hoogleraar Forensische Orthopedagogiek aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    Because of the special characteristics of the Internet, cybercrime inherently crosses national borders and has fewer natural barriers than classic cross-border crime. This triggers the question whether criminal law with its traditional national focus is able to combat cybercrime. Can legislatures respond to technological change with sufficient speed in an internationally aligned approach? This article tries to answer this question by mapping the dynamics of cybercrime law, focusing particularly on the interplay between European and Dutch legislative initiatives. It shows that the dynamics consist of a European framework of minimum standards on major issues, with much room for national legislatures to interpret the standards and to add initiatives of their own where the European framework remains silent. Although this has worked well so far, if cybercrime continues to transform into large-scale organised crime, a step-change in the dynamics towards more steering European approaches may be necessary.


B.J. Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    There is a strange contradiction in the history of Dutch criminal justice. On the one hand, until well into the 20th Century, it was peculiarly backward in terms of criminal procedure that remained based on principles deriving essentially from the era of the first Dutch republic (17th and 18th Century) or even earlier. On the other, The Netherlands was one of the first countries in Europe to lastingly abolish capital punishment without the intermediate phase of continuing executions out of public view. In this, Dutch criminal justice was decidedly ahead of its times. This contribution examines this apparent contradiction that cannot be entirely explained by existing theories on (the abolition of) capital punishment. It must also be seen in the light of the historical role of publicity/transparency for the legitimacy of criminal justice in the Netherlands, its link to a legal culture of public confidence in the criminal justice authorities and the relatively late reception of Enlightenment ideals.


C.H. Brants
Prof. dr. Chrisje Brants is als hoogleraar straf- en strafprocesrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
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