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Artikel

40 jaar JV!

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2014
Auteurs Bert Berghuis, Marit Scheepmaker, Ben Rovers e.a.

Bert Berghuis

Marit Scheepmaker

Ben Rovers

Frans Leeuw

Albert Klijn

Frits Huls
Artikel

Undercoveroperaties: een noodzakelijk kwaad?

Heden, verleden en toekomst van een omstreden opsporingsmiddel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en D. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An important part of the scientific literature looks upon undercover policing from a normative, critical point of view. These studies frequently problematize undercover operations as a necessary evil. Yet what do we actually know about the practice of the execution of undercover operations and about the results they yield for criminal investigations? Not much. Little empirical research has been done on this subject. This article analyses the implementation and results of undercover operations in the Netherlands. The empirical data consist of all covert policing operations in the Netherlands in 2004. The authors address the following questions: how often is this method of investigation deployed; what different types of undercover operations exist; and what results have these operations produced? Furthermore, they examine the history of undercover policing and look into the legislative debate. Finally, they explore some possible future developments in the use of undercover operations.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.

D. de Jong
Deborah de Jong, MSc werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.

    This paper analyses the association between rural youth violence, drinking alcohol in the weekend and going to the pub, as compared to their peers in more urbanized areas. In addition, the paper analyses whether the gender gap in the use of violence is larger for rural youth. Based on self-report data of 5,062 youngsters aged 14-22 years old, two forms of violence were analysed. The first concerns physical violence: fighting, hitting someone resulting in medical treatment and wounding someone with a weapon. The second comprises behaviour that prepares for the use of violence: threatening and carrying a weapon. These two forms of violence were related to two types of rural areas on the basis of population density. It turned out that youngsters living in the least densely populated areas were not less likely to have engaged in physical violence whereas their peers in more densely populated rural areas had somewhat lower chances to do so. Concerning behaviour that prepares for violence, the analyses showed that in both rural areas, youth were slightly less likely to have engaged in such behaviour. Furthermore, the association between drinking alcohol and the use of physical violence was stronger for youth living in both rural areas. The results also indicate that the gender gap in youth violence is not larger for rural youth. The paper concludes that future research should inquire the specific meanings of alcohol and violence in rural youth culture. Such research should take the diversity of rural areas into account, rather than relying on measures of population density only.


D. Weenink
Dr. Don Weenink is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de Rural Sociology Group van de Universiteit Wageningen. Dit artikel is onderdeel van een onderzoek naar geweld onder jongeren, ondersteund door een NWO Venibeurs.
Artikel

Ontzetting uit beroep of ambt

Herleving van een weinig gebruikte straf?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs M. Malsch, W.C. Alberts, J.W. de Keijser e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Offenders can be deprived from their profession or office by a court. The Dutch legislator has recently increased possibilities for the judge to disqualify offenders who committed certain crimes within their professional occupation. This article discusses a study on the penalty of expulsion from a profession or an office. It appears that this penalty is not often imposed. Most cases concern sex crime cases and fraud cases. Although it is a penalty, the prosecutors and judges general aim at preventing new crimes when considering a disqualification. It is not known whether convicted persons comply to this penalty. The prosecution does not actively supervise observance. Respondents in this study fear that relapse into new crime within a profession happens, but figures are lacking on this point. Positive and negative sides of the disqualification are discussed in the article.


M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is zij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Haarlem en in het Hof Den Bosch.

W.C. Alberts
Drs. Wendy Alberts MSc was verbonden aan het NSCR voor het onderzoek naar ontzetting uit beroep of ambt en werkt thans bij de Reclassering.

J.W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan de Keijser werkte eerder bij het NSCR en is nu als universitair hoofddocent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

J.F. Nijboer
Prof. mr. dr. Hans Nijboer is hoogleraar Bewijs en Bewijsrecht bij dezelfde faculteit en tevens als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.

    ‘Informal economy’ is a controversial concept defined in many different ways. This is reflected in the amount of synonyms, such as shadow economy, parallel economy, hidden economy, black economy etcetera. On the international level the concept of the informal sector was first used in 1972 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in its report on a mission to Kenya. The popular view of informal sector activities was that they are primarily those of petty traders, street hawkers, shoeshine boys and other groups ‘underemployed’ on the streets of the big towns. The evidence presented in the report suggested that the bulk of employment in the informal sector, far from being only marginally productive, is economically efficient and profit-making, though small in scale. The informal sector is formed by the coping behaviour of individuals and families in economic environment where earning opportunities are scarce, or where regulation is too complex. The informal sector can also be a product of rational behaviour of entrepreneurs wishing to escape state regulations. There is a relation between welfare (GDP per capita) and relative size of the informal sector. Richer countries have relatively a smaller informal sector. However, government policies and attitudes are important as well. The relative size of the informal sector depends, among other factors, on the ‘regulatory capacity’ and ‘regulatory intent’ of governments. There is little known about the relation between informal and criminal activities. The informal economy seems to be a permanent feature of both high, middle and low income countries. Due to the actual economic crisis, people are pushed from the formal to informal economy. Rapid urbanisation is a factor as well. While the problem of size measuring is not insignificant, most observers agree that the informal economy is large and growing and will be an enduring feature of the economy of mega-cities.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is als beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.

    This article deals with chapter 13 of the CEPEJ report European judicial systems on the execution of court decisions. Unfortunately the report doesn't answer the question how far court decisions are being executed. The report does give information on organisations and agents involved in the enforcement of court decisions. The author gives an impression of the big differences existing between European countries in this field. Most important is the distinction between states where the responsibility for enforcement lies with public authorities and those where this responsibility is left to private agencies. The CEPEJ report seems to suggest that various European countries do a lot more than the Netherlands to guarantee that the law actually takes its course. In the Netherlands state responsibility is limited to the maintenance of means which can be used by parties - for their own cost and risk - in order to compel the execution of a court decision.


R.J.J. Eshuis
Dr. Roland Eshuis is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC. Hij was wetenschappelijk adviseur bij de eerste CEPEJ-studie en verzorgde daarvan de analyse en rapportage.
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