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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2009 x Rubriek Artikel x

    In the nineteenth century in the Netherlands, tramps and beggars were sent to Veenhuizen to work there as a form of punishment and rehabilitation. To investigate the background of these banished men, the authors drew a systematic 5% sample out of 6.000 men who were banished between 1896-1901. Using information from the so-called ‘signalements’-cards that were compiled, the authors found that the Veenhuizen men were not uneducated, unskilled workers, but on the contrary, often had some kind of (semi-)skilled profession. Many did not have a permanent abode, and only a few had (ever) been married. At on average 45 years of age, the Veenhuizen convicts were old for the era they lived in. As such these men lacked and had probably at some point in their lives lost societal as well as social ties, and had gone adrift.
    Recidivism was high. While the Veenhuizen measure may have been effective in delivering society from the blemishes that these men represented, but in general it didn't turn these men into fully participating citizens.


M. Weevers
Drs. Marian Weevers is historica en is werkzaam als beleidsadviseur bij de afdeling sociaal en economisch beleid van de gemeente Leiden.

C. Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken van Criminologisch Onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving in Leiden.

    This article discusses the main features of the draft version of the new Criminal Code for the Netherlands Antilles, which was completely revised and updated in accordance with the latest case law and applicable international treaties. The draft legislation abolishes the dead penalty and minimum sentences. Also it introduces community services, a travel ban, an extension of self-defense in the direct vicinity of one's house and the obligatory review of life-long jail sentences after twenty years. Furthermore it adapts and modernizes the presently existing fines and criminal law for minors. The draft legislation is pending the recommendations of the Advice Council and will be presented to the Parliament thereafter.


M.F. Murray
Mr. Mirto Murray is advocaat en vennoot van Small Murray Scheper, Advocaten, te Willemstad, Curaçao. Hij is ouddeken van de Orde van Advocaten Curaçao en lid van de Commissie Herziening Wetboek van Strafrecht en de Gezamenlijke Commissie ter evaluatie van het Wetboek van Strafvordering.

    This article focuses on the current measure for persistent offenders (ISD-measure), by taking into account three equivalent penal sanctions that have been developed in the Netherlands from 1886 onwards. First, the penalty of a labour colony for vagrants and the like for three years at most. Second, the measure to keep the habitual offenders in additional, preventive custody for five to ten years. Finally, the measure of two-year detention for drug addicted offenders. In the article it is argued that in spite of the differences in (judicial) elaboration, all three former existing sanctions have the same legitimating fundamental principle as the ISD-measure. That is, the notion that certain offenders are a danger to society, due to their persistent criminality and nuisance causing lifestyle. The primary objective of all these penal sanctions is therefore a long term protection of society from this danger. In this sense, the ISD-measure makes clear that present state-policy is above all one of sheer deprivation of freedom.


S. Struijk
Mr. Sanne Struijk is wetenschappelijk docent strafrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij schrijft een proefschrift over de strafrechtelijke aanpak van veelplegers, bezien vanuit de (historische) mogelijkheden van het Nederlands wettelijk sanctiestelsel tot recidive- en overlastbestrijding.

    The notion that animal abuse and domestic violence are related has been existing for centuries. Recent studies in the United States, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands report evidence for this relation. In the western world, more than 50% of families have pets. They are often valued as members of the family. It is obvious that pets can be victims of family violence as well. The relation between animal abuse and domestic violence has many manifestations. Abused women reported violence against their pets, reported that their children abused the pets. Abused children, especially severely abused and/or sexually abused children, are more often than other children animal abusers. Animal abuse is often related to other violent behaviour or severe criminal acts later in life. Besides, animal abuse is an early diagnostic marker for psychopathology. Animal abuse is always a signal of a problematic situation. A greater awareness of the possible link between animal abuse and domestic violence could contribute to saving men, women, children and animals from violent situations.


M.J. Enders-Slegers
Dr. Marie-José Enders-Slegers is verbonden aan het departement Klinische en Gezondheidspsychologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    In March 2008 the Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality put forward a bill on animal welfare and animal health to the Dutch Parliament. In this bill five acts on kept animals are integrated. The authors discuss whether the integration is a goal in itself or means to an end. In their view the choice of legislation involved in the integration is not a logical one, and it is questionable whether this integration is necessary at all. Furthermore, the bill in its present form is not an adequate instrument to attain the policy goals in the field of animal welfare and animal health.


I.E. Boissevain
Mr. ing. Iaira Boissevain is als junior universitair docent verbonden aan de Leerstoel Dier en Recht en tevens docent Gerechtelijke Diergeneeskunde bij de faculteit Diergeneeskunde van de Universiteit Utrecht.

A.A. Freriks
Prof. mr. Annelies Freriks is hoogleraar Dier en Recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en tevens advocaat/partner bij AKD Prinsen Van Wijmen NV in Breda.
Artikel

‘There is no justice, just us’

Hoe de overheid dierenextremisme in de hand werkt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2009
Auteurs E. Eskens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years the Dutch radical animal movement has manifested itself through arson, threats and destruction of property. This article describes the rise of the radical movement and its tendency towards violence. While the animal movement has its roots in nineteenth century romanticism, the anarchism of the sixties and the squatting movement of the eighties gave way to a more radical animal movement. The anti-establishment movement of the sixties turned against intensive farming. When the punk movement of the eighties freed itself from an overwhelming sense of doom, it gave rise to a new attitude, which rejected drugs, alcohol, and meat. The so-called Straight Edge Movement developed into one of the driving forces behind the recent animal related violence. Hiding behind the facade of the Animal Liberation Front the activists are strongly convinced that they have morality on their side while targeting farms, cattle trucks, and animal test facilities. Many animal activists feel that Dutch law as it is, does not protect animals in a sufficient way. Another problem is that animal laws are hardly being upheld. Inspections of farms, slaughterhouses and transportation vehicles are rare, prosecutors usually give no priority to animal cases, and judges and the rare judicial sentences are usually extremely mild. This leads radical activists to a conclusion that one of them wrote on a wall: ‘There is no justice, just us’.


E. Eskens
Drs. Erno Eskens studeerde filosofie en politicologie en is uitgever en bestuurslid van stichting Dier en Recht Nederland. Hij publiceerde onlangs het boek Democratie voor dieren (uitg. Contact).
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