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Artikel

Bij dreiging ingrijpen

De Wet tijdelijk huisverbod in de praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs K.B.M. de Vaan en A. Schreijenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As from January 2009, mayors in The Netherlands can impose a temporary restraining order on (potential) perpetrators of domestic violence in situations in which there is an immediate threat to victims and/or children. This restrains these (potential) perpetrators from entering their own house or contacting their partner and/or children for a period of 10 to 28 days. In this article, the law regarding these temporary restraining orders is explained and an overview of the first experiences with the actual implementation is given. The temporary restraining orders are an addition to the existing measures regarding domestic violence because they enable intervention before the violence has actually taken place or the situation escalates. In practice, however, the orders are frequently imposed after escalation of the situation, parallel to the arrest and possible persecution of the suspected perpetrator. Apparently, the orders provide a break from explosive situations, and the intensive form of professional help that those involved receive is a welcome addition, even in situations for which the order was not primarily designed. The first experiences show that aid is given quickly. They also show that more attention needs to be given to the content of this aid, to regional differences in the enforcement of the law and to the follow-up aid after the temporary restraining order has ended.


K.B.M. de Vaan
Drs. Katrien de Vaan is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek en momenteel betrokken bij de landelijke proces evaluatie van de Wet tijdelijk huisverbod in opdracht van het WODC. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op openbaar beschikbare bronnen en evaluaties. Recent is een aantal onderzoeken afgerond dat op een gestructureerde manier nadere informatie zal bieden over de toepassing van het huisverbod: een onderzoek naar de hulpverlening in het kader van het huisverbod, een partiële kwaliteitsbepaling van het Risicotaxatie-instrument Huiselijk Geweld, een landelijke procesevaluatie van het huisverbod en een onderzoek naar de rechtsbescherming van de uithuisgeplaatste. Deze onderzoeken zijn deels in het najaar van 2010 openbaar geworden, de rest wordt in het voorjaar van 2011 openbaar.

A. Schreijenberg
Mr. drs. Ad Schreijenberg is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek en momenteel betrokken bij de landelijke proces evaluatie van de Wet tijdelijk huisverbod in opdracht van het WODC. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op openbaar beschikbare bronnen en evaluaties. Recent is een aantal onderzoeken afgerond dat op een gestructureerde manier nadere informatie zal bieden over de toepassing van het huisverbod: een onderzoek naar de hulpverlening in het kader van het huisverbod, een partiële kwaliteitsbepaling van het Risicotaxatie-instrument Huiselijk Geweld, een landelijke procesevaluatie van het huisverbod en een onderzoek naar de rechtsbescherming van de uithuisgeplaatste. Deze onderzoeken zijn deels in het najaar van 2010 openbaar geworden, de rest wordt in het voorjaar van 2011 openbaar.

    There are two conflicting viewpoints about partner violence: either that it involves a considerable degree of mutual combat or that it generally involves male perpetrators and female victims. In general, results supporting the former viewpoint are usually reported in studies of general population samples, while data that supports the latter viewpoint is usually collected in samples that were recruited in shelters, through victim support, or that was studied through police and court data. This article describes results from a Dutch study that investigated two different research groups: a sample of respondents from the general population and a group of offenders who had been in contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. In line with the literature on this topic, one of the most striking differences between the research groups from the general population and the judicial population is the fact that the former group consisted of more women than men (57.8% versus 42.2%), whereas the second group consisted nearly only of men (93.1% were men). This article explores a number of possible explanations for the strongly divergent proportion of men and women in the two research groups. The most probable explanation seems to be that, although both men and women commit domestic violence, the more serious types of injury are caused more often by men, as a result of which predominantly men come into contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. Moreover, there are some indications in the literature that male victims are less likely to report domestic violence to the police.


L.M. van der Knaap
Dr. Leontien van der Knaap is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute van de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

S. Bogaerts
Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychologie en Victimologie eveneens verbonden aan dit instituut.

    Many public prosecutors see a link between domestic violence and violence in the public sphere. In the beginning of this century the fight against domestic violence was integrated into the national security policy of The Netherlands. The growing attention for domestic violence combined with better registration has led to an enormous grow of criminal justice cases of domestic violence. The article analyses the public prosecution policy towards domestic violence. Nowadays even without a report suspects can be brought to trial if the charges can be proved. On the one hand the public prosecution aims to lay down a standard, on the other hand perpetrators are confronted with a set of conditions forcing them to accept professional help in order to bring about a change in their behaviour and prevent recidivism. In this way an effective use of criminal justice could contribute to a reduction of domestic violence and crime in general.


P. van der Valk
Mr. drs. Patricia van der Valk is officier van justitie bij het parket Almelo.
Artikel

De bestrijding van arbeidsuitbuiting

Werkwijzen en bevindingen van de SIOD

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs A. Bogaerts, P. Plooij en R. Zoetekouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the strategies and investigation results of the Social Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD) concerning labour exploitation are discussed. The results from reactive criminal investigation confirm current ideas in the literature about labour exploitation in relation to vulnerable (victim) groups. However, an increase in reports did not lead to more investigations. This is partly caused by bad or incomplete reports. Therefore the SIOD is in addition developing a new approach: the labour exploitation risk model. This method fits into the idea of Intelligence-Led Policing and tackles the problem that many exploitation cases are not reported to the police. In a risk model enterprises and employers with a (high) risk of violations are selected for control or investigation on the basis of particular characteristics generated from various information databases of various (government) agencies. The authors discuss the further development of the risk model and conclude with a look ahead.


A. Bogaerts
Anne Bogaerts MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt haar collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

P. Plooij
Drs. Peter Plooij is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

R. Zoetekouw
René Zoetekouw is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.
Artikel

Mensenhandel en arbeidsuitbuiting

Recente ontwikkelingen in de jurisprudentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs L. van Krimpen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in jurisprudence on human trafficking in sectors other than the sex industry. In October 2009, the Supreme Court for the first time ruled in a case about human trafficking outside the sex industry. Whereas the number of cases before the Supreme Court ruling was limited, with only a few convictions for this type of exploitation, and with differences in the way courts interpreted the legal definition, this has changed tremendously after this ruling. The Supreme Court, in the case about exploitation in a Chinese restaurant, gave a very clear interpretation on the elements ‘intention of exploitation’ and the means ‘abuse of a vulnerable position’. Following the Supreme Court ruling, the number of cases has increased, as well as the number of convictions for this type of exploitation. Among these cases are also cases of criminal exploitation. It is not completely clear yet what type of behaviour falls within the scope of criminal exploitation.


L. van Krimpen
Mr. Linda van Krimpen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel in Den Haag.
Artikel

Bedrijfsverbetergebieden

Een verkennend onderzoek naar de veiligheidszorg in winkelcentrum Alexandrium

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs P. Van Calster, M.B. Schuilenburg en R. Guitjens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Where formerly the government had the monopoly on the governing of security, it seems that there has been a shift taking place towards a more horizontal security care. The government has stopped being the only organizer and executor of issues of security. Private companies increasingly take over the government's responsibilities. This is also the case in the Dutch shopping centre Alexandrium. Alexandrium is one of the first examples in the Netherlands of a Business Improvement District. Nowadays entrepreneurs decide which activities are organized and which projects are being set up in order to keep the area ‘clean and safe’. On the basis of 43 in-depth interviews the authors show that not all parties involved are optimistic about this development. Main point of attention is the lack of cooperation between the entrepreneurs and the police. Moreover, they express the feeling that the shopping area has become less safe in the past years.


P. Van Calster
Dr. Patrick Van Calster doceert aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en de Universiteit Leiden.

M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

R. Guitjens
Renate Guitjens MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    Ownership, sustainability and capacity building are the buzz words of development cooperation; that is not different in the legal field. Five years of experience in legal development cooperation in Rwanda, both on the side of the northern and the southern partner, shows that this is not a merely southern responsibility. The fact that a project is demand-driven instead of donor-driven is only the start. The northern partner has the responsibility to seduce the southern partner each and every day again, and keep him at the steering wheel. This implies that the northern partner shows personal involvement, and leaves the southern partner deciding about what is happening and when. This implies certain flexibility in the execution of a project, both time and content wise. And it means that the northern partner recognizes that the southern partner does not exist merely for the northern project. Otherwise it will lead to a southern partner that says ‘yes’ and picks the best cherries, but for the rest does ‘no’ and obstructs where possible.


R.H. Haveman
Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman is Field Programme Manager voor de IDLO in Juba, Zuid-Soedan.
Artikel

De opbouw van de rechtsstaat in Afghanistan

Een bezinning op tien jaar buitenlandse hulp

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2010
Auteurs V.L. Taylor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this essay the author looks back at ten years of rule of law foreign assistance in Afghanistan. She first surveys the elements that make Afghanistan particularly challenging as a development. This is followed by a brief outline of foreign donor-assisted efforts at rule of law reform in the last decade. The features of law and legal systems in Afghanistan that are salient for would-be foreign reformers are analyzed. The concept of judicial independence serves as example of well-intentioned rule of law interventions that have not fared well in this complex environment. The author argues that better prepared international advisors with a better grasp of legal history and comparative law may have produced stronger outcomes. Ultimately, however, a pre-post-conflict setting constrains conventional rule of law programs in important ways and calls for more realism about what can be achieved, within what time frame and with what degree of sustainability.


V.L. Taylor
Prof. Veronica Taylor is als hoogleraar en directeur verbonden aan de School of Regulation, Justice and Diplomacy van de Australian National University. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de Van Vollenhoven Lezing die zij op 20 mei 2010 uitsprak ter gelegenheid van haar benoeming als The Hague Visiting Professor of Rule of Law aan de Universiteit Leiden.
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