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Artikel

Principes van klokkenluiden: de benadering van de Raad van Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden Council of Europe, whistleblowing, legal improvements, Recommendation Council of Europe, basic principles of whistleblowing
Auteurs P. Stephenson en M. Levi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National governments have adopted a variety of approaches to the protection of whistleblowers. This article refers to examples in Slovenia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and ongoing work in Ireland, the Netherlands and Serbia. It is not always clear what would count as success, but none of the existing laws appears to have wholly achieved its aims. The Council of Europe aims to establish some common ground in Europe by drafting a Recommendation which will establish principles on which Member States should draft laws and establish systems. This article considers the work done so far on the draft Recommendation, discusses some of the most important and problematic aspects, and suggests improvements.


P. Stephenson
Paul Stephenson is oud-functionaris van het ministerie van Justitie (Verenigd Koninkrijk) en deskundige op het gebied van anticorruptie.

M. Levi
Prof. Michael Levi is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit van Cardiff.
Artikel

Waarom komen minder vrouwelijke dan mannelijke arbeidsmigranten naar Nederland?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden labour migration, female labour migrants, gender patterns, labour migration policy, social network theory
Auteurs L.J.J. Wijkhuijs en R.P.W. Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1995 the influx of labour migrants in the Netherlands has increased steadily from over 10.000 in 1995 to around 47.000 in 2011. As a consequence, from 2007, searching a job is the main migration motive of non-Dutch immigrants to migrate to the Netherlands. On average, one third of all labour migrants were women. Explanations for the fact that a minority of the labour migrants coming to the Netherlands are women can be derived from the literature. Possible reasons are gender patterns (in the Netherlands and/or the countries of origin) and differences in the personal networks of men and women. In addition, the Dutch labour migration policy, and in particular the conditions applying to labour migrants (in terms of education and employment sector) as well as the restriction on the right of family members of labour migrants to work in the Netherlands, may limit the influx of female labour migrants.


L.J.J. Wijkhuijs
Dr. Vina Wijkhuijs is als senior onderzoeker/adviseur werkzaam bij het Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid.

R.P.W. Jennissen
Dr. Roel Jennissen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Langdurig extramuraal toezicht op zedendelinquenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden community supervision, sex offenders, supervision legislation, electronic supervision, re-integration
Auteurs H.J.M. Schönberger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice intends to change legislation enabling long-term community supervision. Since it initially focused on sex offenders, the main focus of this article is on effectiveness of supervision programs and legislation for this group. Supervision programs that combine elements of control and treatment, guidance or social support are found to be the most effective in reducing reoffending. In addition, possible underlying mechanisms of effective supervision, such as social support, electronic supervision and treatment, are elaborated upon. Dutch initiatives are partially shaped by these elements, although up to this date their effects on reoffending have not yet been determined. The effects of legislation that enables supervision are more differentiated than expected, and their practical applicability is found to be crucial. In conclusion, aspects concerning (dynamic) risk assessment, balancing community and offender interests, and tailoring supervision to subgroups are discussed. Study results could be of use to further shape and refine upcoming legislation on long-term supervision.


H.J.M. Schönberger
Drs. Hanneke Schönberger was tot medio februari 2013 werkzaam bij het WODC als junior onderzoeker.
Artikel

Zeven jaar na de Commissie Visser: een nieuw evenwicht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden TBS order, mentally disordered offenders, Parliamentary Inquiry Commission, leave permit, forensic care institutions
Auteurs M.J.F. van der Wolf en L. Noyon
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1988 the Dutch entrustment order for dangerous mentally disordered offenders (TBS) is organised around three basic principles: treatment, legal protection and social security. In 2006 the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission ‘Visser’ reviewed the TBS order and made seventeen recommendations. This article seeks to investigate to what extent the implementation of these recommendations contributed to developments like the increasing restraints on leave permits and a lengthened average stay. Since 2006 there has been a strong emphasis on security. For a balanced execution of the TBS order more attention is needed for treatment and legal protection.


M.J.F. van der Wolf
Mr. dr. Michiel van der Wolf is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling strafrecht van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

L. Noyon
Lucas Noyon is als onderzoeksassistent verbonden aan de afdeling strafrecht van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Verkorten van de tbs-verblijfsduur: een weg uit de crisis?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden forensic care budget cuts, TBS order, treatment time, risk society, risk analysis
Auteurs M.H. Nagtegaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The economic crisis in the Netherlands forces the Ministry of Security and Justice to cut expenses. In the forensic psychiatric sector, the main savings are expected from reducing the length of stay of forensic psychiatric patients (TBS-patients) in high security hospitals. Currently, over 70% of all TBS-patients do not reach the now set goal of successfully terminating their treatment program within eight years. The present article questions whether it is plausible that this goal will be reached. Research has shown that there are several possible measures that can be undertaken to reduce the length of stay. Examples of these are identifying subgroups of patients who take particularly long to complete their treatment and setting up interventions for those patients, reducing the focus on risks in society and in forensic practice, and the inclusion of protective factors in risk assessment. These factors may help in finding a way out of the crisis.


M.H. Nagtegaal
Dr. Marleen Nagtegaal is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

    Policies within forensic psychiatry can be characterized by the on-going search for balance between the interests of stakeholders. These interests vary in a lot of cases. The interest of society, the patient and the professional differs within a complex framework of political, ethical and juridical guidelines and scientific evidence. These differences are illustrated from a management’s point of view by describing the treatment issues in regard to forensic psychiatric inpatients with substance abuse disorders. Treatment policies on drug use during treatment balance between treatment guidelines and restrictive measures. These restrictions have to be adjusted to the necessary treatment programmes for developing new pro social lifestyles. The treatment policy on relapse and leave should balance between patient needs and the needs of society. The result of this interesting but also challenging and complex quest depends on the sensitivity of stakeholders for the interests of the others.


E. Bulten
Dr. Erik Bulten is als hoofd Diagnostiek, onderzoek en opleiding verbonden aan de FPC Pompestichting te Nijmegen.

J. Groeneweg
Ir. Joke Groeneweg is algemeen directeur van de FPC Pompestichting te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Forensische zorg anno 2013 en de plek van de tbs daarbinnen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden forensic care system, TBS order, forensic care budget, treatment capacity, extramural forensic care
Auteurs A.A. van Gemmert en N.H. Tenneij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The organization and execution of forensic care in the Netherlands has changed considerably over the last six years. In this paper the authors define forensic care as all mental health care for adults under the criminal law, including care for the intellectual disabled, and addiction care. Before 2007 the Ministry of Security and Justice sole responsibility was the financing and execution of the measure detention under a hospital order (the so-called TBS-measure). All other forms of forensic care were then provided under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. Nowadays, the Ministry of Security and Justice is responsible for all forensic care. The main reasons for this change were the increase observed in the number of patients detained under a hospital order and an increase in the length of stay necessary for the successful completion of the treatment, which resulted in an overload of the TBS-system, an observed lack of care possibilities for the detained, and a lack of transition between forensic and regular care.


A.A. van Gemmert
Nol van Gemmert is verbonden aan de afdeling Informatieanalyse en Documentatie van de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen (DJI) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

N.H. Tenneij
Dr. Nienke Tenneij is als beleidsadviseur werkzaam bij de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen (DJI) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

De politiefunctionaris en het risico op PTSS

Een terechte zorg of medicalisering van een beroepsgroep?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden police officers, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), psychosocial problems, medicalization
Auteurs M.J.J. Kunst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Several policy measures have recently been undertaken to enhance resilience in Dutch police officers. The author of this article argues that these initiatives rely on false beliefs about the stressful nature of police work. Police officers are often exposed to traumatic or otherwise stressful events, but this does not necessarily render them at an increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other (trauma-related) psychosocial problems. After a discussion of empirical studies which support his view, he speculates that these false beliefs are grounded in the Western tendency to qualify stressful events as (potentially) traumatic. This tendency to medicalize stressful events is reflected both in the history of the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the empirical literature. The author concludes with pointing out a potential negative by-effect of this medicalization tendency: simulating PTSD (symptoms) for external motives, such as financial gain.


M.J.J. Kunst
Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De rol van Falck in de Deense brandbestrijding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden firefighting Denmark, history of Falck, private fire brigade, public private partnership, regional crisis management
Auteurs P. Kruize
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Denmark fire fighting is a responsibility of the local authorities, but since nearly a century communities have the possibility to outsource these duties to private companies. Falck is the dominant player on this private market. The same goes for other emergency services. The author describes the story of its founder Sophus Falck, the historical roots of Falck and how the company achieved the status of a reliable partner for the authorities. The legal basis for private firms in fire fighting is discussed as well as costs and quality of the services in an international perspective. The author concludes that Falck is a typical Danish phenomenon and the Danish model cannot be copied by other countries without restriction. At the same time the Danish experience learns that market competition may have a positive effect on the cost efficiency of fire fighting.


P. Kruize
Dr. Peter Kruize is lector bij de juridische faculteit van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen. Daarnaast is hij partner bij Ateno – bureau voor criminaliteitsanalyse in Amsterdam.
Artikel

De privatisering van politietaken in Engeland en Wales

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden police in England and Wales, budget cuts, privatisation, back office work, new localism
Auteurs B. Loveday
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The period of austerity which most of Europe is now experiencing is for the first time impacting on law and orders services, particularly the police service. This article gives an overview of the debate in England and Wales on the decision of the Coalition government to cut 20% to police spending and police numbers. An important instrument to reach this goal is the private outsourcing of tasks performed in the back office. The author discusses the public views on the performance and reliability of private security companies. Also the high rise of public police expenses are discussed against the background of declining crime levels.


B. Loveday
Barry Loveday is als reader in criminal justice administration verbonden aan het Institute of Criminal Justice Studies van de University of Portsmouth.
Artikel

Het internationaal recht en de gesloten jeugdzorg

Adviezen voor de praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden closed youth care, International Child Rights Convention, freedom of expression, standard of living, education
Auteurs S.J. Höfte, G.H.P. van der Helm en G.J.J.M. Stams
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During childhood, a child is entitled to receive special care and assistance. The child’s best interest should be a primary objective. The Dutch government has an obligation to guarantee the children rights. But do the closed youth care accommodations meet the requirements as stated in the International Child Rights Convention, as far as deprivation of liberty and treatment under coercion are concerned? The study concluded that some closed youth care institutions do not meet the requirements as stated in the above mentioned Convention. There is often no possibility of free expression, physical complaints may not be taken seriously, an adequate standard of living is not always provided and the level of education is often too low. Most of the minors indicate that they are bored during their stay in the accommodations. On this basis, limiting the fundamental rights of these youngsters is currently surrounded with inadequate guarantees.


S.J. Höfte
Mr. Susanne Höfte is jurist. Zij studeerde recent af aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen met een scriptie over de gesloten jeugdzorg.

G.H.P. van der Helm
Dr. Peer van der Helm is werkzaam bij het lectoraat Jeugdzorg en Jeugdbeleid van de Hogeschool Leiden.

G.J.J.M. Stams
Prof. dr. Geert Jan Stams is hoogleraar Forensische Orthopedagogiek aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Het Nederlandse detentierecht naar internationale maatstaven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Dutch detention law, human rights, prison conditions, female prisoners, prison staff
Auteurs G. de Jonge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch detention law seems to meet all standards of the normative European Prison Rules. There is however no reason for self-satisfaction, because other relevant international standards have so far received little attention. The author discusses the Bangkok Rules, the Istanbul Protocol, the Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikers and the European Code of Ethics for Prison Staff. All of these documents give rise to adaptations or additions of existing Dutch penitentiary law. The author suggests that it would be best to develop a new general detention law containing basic norms for the treatment of everyone deprived of his freedom, irrespective of the detention’s legal title.


G. de Jonge
Prof. dr. Gerard de Jonge is emeritus bijzonder hoogleraar Detentierecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

De relevantie van het Kinderrechtenverdrag voor minderjarige vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Convention on the Rights of the Child, immigration, Dutch immigration law, family reunification, asylum
Auteurs C. van Os
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    All rights in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) apply to all children, therefore they also apply to minor foreigners in the Netherlands. Nevertheless precisely for this group a continuous fight needs to be battled to make sure they receive the protection provided by the CRC. This article provides an overview of the most important articles of the CRC where minor asylum seekers and migrants can appeal to. The article also stresses the fact that children who reside unlawfully in the country may not be discriminated against their access to socio-economic rights. Furthermore, the question whether fully integrated children should have the right to a residency permit is dealt with. Subsequently the Dutch policy with regard to family reunification is assessed alongside the CRC. At last the article elaborates on the tension between the ‘ultimum remedium’ principle (article 37 CRC) on the one hand and the policy concerning children in alien detention on the other.


C. van Os
Mr. Carla van Os is jurist kinderrechten & migratie bij Defence for Children in Leiden.
Artikel

Drieënvijftig tinten grijs

Afnemende verantwoording van en controle op hybride politiewerk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Policing, hybrid police complex, private policing, governance of security, democratic control
Auteurs A.J.J. Meershoek en A.B. Hoogenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fifty three shades of grey refers to the radical transformation of policing and security in society from a traditional public – and foremost ‘blue’ – police system into a hybrid(semi)public and private policing system which is losing its dominant – and visible – blue character. Using the criminological concepts ‘police as an institute’ and ‘policing as a process’ the ongoing blurring of boundaries between different public and private organisations is discussed in the context of the proliferation of different forms of multi-agency cooperation. Whereas in the traditional discourse of the public police system a strong tradition of analysing the democratic nature of policing exists, in the public and scientific perception of the new, variegated police constellation such notions are still lacking, which contributes to the relative lack of political control, the defective democratic accountability and fragile human rights in the grey areas. The public discourse on the police remains too narrowly focused on the public police system. ‘Normal science’ of policing needs to break away from ‘police as an institute’ to incorporate new research questions and new concepts regarding ‘policing as a process’.


A.J.J. Meershoek
Dr. Guus Meershoek is als lector Politiegeschiedenis verbonden aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn. Hij is tevens universitair docent Maatschappelijke Veiligheidszorg aan de Universiteit Twente.

A.B. Hoogenboom
Prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom is hoogleraar Forensic Business Studies aan de Nyenrode Business Universiteit. Daarnaast is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Politie en Veiligheidstudies aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De kenmerken van high reliability organizations (HRO’s)

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden high reliability organizations (HROs), high reliability organizing, system safety, accident prevention
Auteurs K.M. Sutcliffe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic and professional disciplines, such as organization and management theory, psychology, sociology and engineering, have, for years, grappled with the multidisciplinary issues of safety and accident prevention. This article examines a domain of research on system safety – the high reliability organization (HRO) paradigm. HROs operate in hazardous conditions, but have fewer than their fair share of adverse events. HROs, traditionally found in the domain of aviation and aircraft carriers, are committed to safety at the highest level and adept a special approach to its pursuit. The attributes and operating dynamics of the best HROs provide a template on which to better understand how safe and reliable performance can be achieved under trying conditions.


K.M. Sutcliffe
Prof. Kathleen Sutcliffe is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het Department of Management and Organizations van de University of Michigan.
Artikel

Hoog betrouwbaar organiseren in het OM

Beelden uit parketten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Public Prosecutor’s Office, high reliability organization (HRO), HRO principles, professional culture, error prevention
Auteurs H. de Bruine, H. Fijn en P. de Beer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with possibilities for the Public Prosecutor’s Office in the Netherlands to learn from high reliability organizations (HROs). The authors draw a picture on the basis of information, gathered between 2008 and 2010. While dealing with mistakes or faults much emphasis is often laid upon a professional attitude, written handbooks and discipline as essential conditions. The experience with HROs shows that at the same time mental processes are needed for fast detection and containment of developing problems. These mental processes, heaped together as ‘collective mindfulness’, refer to the picking up of weak signals and the resilient reacting upon incidents. The authors show to what extent the Public Prosecutor’s Office makes use of these processes. The level of training and education and the ‘hands on’ mentality of the average Public Prosecutor build a firm foundation for reliability. Reflection and to what extent knowledge is shared seem liable for improvement. Adapting (elements of) the HRO philosophy may prove an effective way to foster the actual exchange and use of knowledge within the Public Prosecutor’s Office and thus raise its reliability.


H. de Bruine
Drs. Herman de Bruine is als docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Haagse Hogeschool. Van 1986 tot 2008 was hij in verschillende functies werkzaam bij de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen.

H. Fijn
Mr. Herman Fijn, MC is zelfstandig organisatieadviseur. Van 1998 tot 2010 was hij als adviseur werkzaam bij Prisma, het interne organisatieadviesbureau van de rechtspraak en het Openbaar Ministerie.

P. de Beer
Mr. drs. Peter de Beer, MPA is strafrechter bij de Rechtbank Utrecht. Van 1994 tot 2010 was hij officier van justitie. In 2010 en 2011 was hij als adviseur werkzaam bij Prisma.

    The introduction and fast growing popularity of electronic dance music has strongly influenced the spread of so-called party drugs in Amsterdam. Trends in substances use in Amsterdam's nightlife have been monitored systematically with ‘Antenna’, combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Ecstasy remained the most popular stimulant drug, but since the late 1990s it had to compete with cocaine, and to a lesser extent with amphetamine. In the past decade, GHB and ketamine also gained popularity among clubbers and pub-goers. However, the vast majority does not take illicit drugs while going out at night. Alcohol remains by far the most popular substance, and has become even more important in the past decade.


T. Nabben
Dr. Ton Nabben is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Bonger Instituut voor Criminologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

D.J. Korf
Prof. dr. Dirk Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut voor Criminologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    The main difference between various forms of prevention of organised crime is between primary and secondary prevention on the one hand and tertiary prevention on the other. The latter is directed at diminishing an already existing problem. This article deals with social conditions which promote the arising of organised crime and with relevant specifically vulnerable factors and sectors (primary and secondary prevention). The authors argue that in a way every society gets the organised crime it deserves. Organising and regulating society often has the side effect of creating opportunities for individuals and groups which gain profit by exploiting the illegal markets that arise as a consequence of regulations. Whether the desire for regulation or the prevention of (organised) crime should prevail is a topic for political and social debate.


A.C. Berghuis
Drs. Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.

J. de Waard
Mr. drs. Jaap de Waard is als senior beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.
Artikel

Ontzetting uit beroep of ambt

Herleving van een weinig gebruikte straf?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs M. Malsch, W.C. Alberts, J.W. de Keijser e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Offenders can be deprived from their profession or office by a court. The Dutch legislator has recently increased possibilities for the judge to disqualify offenders who committed certain crimes within their professional occupation. This article discusses a study on the penalty of expulsion from a profession or an office. It appears that this penalty is not often imposed. Most cases concern sex crime cases and fraud cases. Although it is a penalty, the prosecutors and judges general aim at preventing new crimes when considering a disqualification. It is not known whether convicted persons comply to this penalty. The prosecution does not actively supervise observance. Respondents in this study fear that relapse into new crime within a profession happens, but figures are lacking on this point. Positive and negative sides of the disqualification are discussed in the article.


M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is zij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Haarlem en in het Hof Den Bosch.

W.C. Alberts
Drs. Wendy Alberts MSc was verbonden aan het NSCR voor het onderzoek naar ontzetting uit beroep of ambt en werkt thans bij de Reclassering.

J.W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan de Keijser werkte eerder bij het NSCR en is nu als universitair hoofddocent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

J.F. Nijboer
Prof. mr. dr. Hans Nijboer is hoogleraar Bewijs en Bewijsrecht bij dezelfde faculteit en tevens als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.

    Honour-related physical or psychological violence, performed in reaction to perceived (threats of) loss of (family) honour, draws a lot of political and public attention in the Netherlands. A comprehensive policy-program was developed to reduce and prevent honour-related violence. However, the project knows two important restraints. In the first place, no reliable prevalence figures of honour-related violence are available. Furthermore, the program has been implemented without articulating and testing the presumed working mechanisms. In this article suggestions are made for evaluation of the program using the educational project ‘Black Tulip’ as an illustration. Black Tulip is used in secondary schools and aims at adolescent potential victims and perpetrators of honour-related violence. The main purpose is to achieve attitude and behaviour changes by means of visualizing experiences with honour-related violence in drama and film, and subsequent group discussions. Evaluation of Black Tulip and other parts of the program should take place by a combination of traditional evaluation research (e.g. with pre- and post-measurements of attitudes and behaviour in ‘Black Tulip-schools’ and in schools that do not receive the intervention), and a theory-driven evaluation which articulates the presumptions about the working mechanisms of the program and puts these to a test using the scientific literature.


C.H. de Kogel
Dr. Katy de Kogel is verbonden aan het WODC als senior-onderzoeker.

M.H.C. Kromhout
Dr. Mariska Kromhout is verbonden aan het WODC als senior-onderzoeker.

M. Smit
Dr. Monika Smit is verbonden aan het WODC als hoofd van de afdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving & Internationale en vreemdelingen-aangelegenheden.
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