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Artikel

Kwetsbaarheid voor voedselfraude in de vleessector

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food fraud, meat sector, melamine scandal, adulterants, food analysing techniques
Auteurs S. van Ruth en W. Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud is as old as mankind but has advanced in the last decades. Fraud regarding the gross composition of food has progressed in the direction of the addition of unconventional adulterants. Furthermore, consumers are more and more interested in how and where their foods are produced and pay price premiums for organic foods, fair trade, animal welfare considering, and sustainable food products. Since these products are very similar to their conventional counterparts in terms of composition, they provide an additional challenge. The knowledge regarding occurrence, type of meat fraud, causes and damage caused to the sector is limited. There is a need for extensive identification of the vulnerabilities and criminogenic factors. These insights offer leads for detection and prevention. The article deals with a first step into the inventory of these vulnerabilities and factors affecting meat fraud, by assessing fraud risks related to products, companies and the meat supply chain.


S. van Ruth
Prof. dr. ir. Saskia van Ruth is als hoogleraar Voedselauthenticiteit verbonden aan de Food Quality and Design Group en het Rikilt – Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid van de Universiteit Wageningen.

W. Huisman
Prof. dr. mr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    Electric and electronic waste (e-waste) is the fastest growing waste stream worldwide: 50 million tons of electronic waste each year. Part of it is exported, often illegally, from industrialised countries to e-waste hubs like Ghana, Nigeria, India, and China. E-waste often contains both valuable metals as well as toxic substances. The high value of metal is the main reason for imports by countries like Ghana, Nigeria, and China. However, the recycling methods in these countries are not tailored to responsible recycling of the toxic elements of e-waste, thereby causing major negative environmental and health effects. Also, the recycling methods in those countries are less efficient, which leads to the loss of valuable metals and to an increase in the mining of virgin metals. In this way the e-waste problem is directly related to the social and environmental problems at the beginning of the electronics chain. This article explores the e-waste problem from a value chain perspective and proposes policy measures that could diminish Europe's contribution to the problem.


M. van Huijstee
Dr. Mariëtte van Huijstee is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

T. Steinweg
Tim Steinweg MSc is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

    Using the script approach, this article analyses the different stages that characterise the infiltration of organised crime groups in the public construction industry. Three different Italian local contexts with a high presence of organised crime groups (Sicily, Calabria and Campania) are considered. The Sicilian case is analysed by detail using the script approach and following the dynamic of organised crime action: preparation, enabling conditions, target selection, the acts (of violence and corruption) or ‘the doing’, and the post-conditions or aftermath. The script approach helps in a micro-analysis of organised crime that draws on general knowledge on the topic deriving from the macro-analysis currently undertaken in the literature. Because to date this analysis has mainly produced crime control remedies, the author hopes that the microapproach may help in developing more concrete situational crime prevention measures.


E.U. Savona
Prof. dr. Ernesto Savona is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milaan. De auteur dankt Marco Zanella, PhD-kandidaat in het International PhD Programme in Criminology van dezelfde universiteit, voor zijn bijdrage aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.
Artikel

De Brabantse smokkelaars

Een grensgeschiedenis vol heroïek en eigenbelang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs P. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Considerable differences in tax and excise levels since the Belgium independence in 1830 gave rise to large scale smuggling between the Dutch border province Noord-Brabant en Belgium. The smuggling history can be divided in six periods. Salt was the most important contraband in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. During the First World War a lot of food was smuggled from the Netherlands to Belgium. During the crisis years in the 1930s unemployed people used to supplement their scarce income through smuggling. Belgian tobacco was the most important contraband during the Second World War. After the war ten thousands of Dutch occasional smugglers illegally fetched consumer and luxury goods in Belgium. In the 1950s and 1960s millions of kilo's of Dutch butter were smuggled to Belgium. The smuggling business gradually came into the hands of professional criminal gangs. In the second half of the 1960s the smugglers switched to the illegal distilling of alcohol. Many years later these would evolve into labs for the production of chemical drugs.


P. Spapens
Paul Spapens (Hilvarenbeek, 1949) is professioneel dagbladjournalist. Hij publiceerde enkele tientallen boeken over de geschiedenis, de volkscultuur en de identiteit van Noord-Brabant en de Noord-Brabanders. Hij is onder meer gespecialiseerd in thema's die voortvloeien uit de aanwezigheid van de rijksgrens. Dit artikel is voor een groot deel gebaseerd op de boeken Smokkelen in Brabant (1988) en Tappen uit een geheim vaatje (1990) over respectievelijk de geschiedenis van het smokkelen tussen Noord-Brabant en België en de geschiedenis van het illegaal alcohol stoken in Nederland. De beide boeken zijn geschreven op basis van onderzoek van officiële bronnen, zoals politie- en douaneverslagen en daarnaast krantenverslagen. Een belangrijke bron zijn ook de vele tientallen interviews met de direct betrokkenen, dus smokkelaars, alcoholstokers en hun opponenten.

    This article describes the development of the Dutch bar, which seems to follow the international trends, the Anglo-Saxon trends in particular. These trends are internationalization, commercialization, organizational professionalization, specialization and differentiation. The Dutch bar nowadays consists of approximately 15.000 advocates, working in approximately 3.800 law firms. Approximately 3.500 advocates work in the Top 30 law firms, whereas the firms consisting of one advocate form the majority of the bar. Particularly during the last decade the bar has grown tremendously due to an increase in demand for specialistic legal service and advice. Due to new developments the client has become more prominent when it comes to determining the quality of the legal service, a phenomenon also known as ‘simultaneity’.


R. van Otterlo
Prof. mr. dr. Rob van Otterlo is als bijzonder hoogleraar organisatie van de juridische dienstverlening verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens werkzaam bij de Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten in Den Haag.
Artikel

De verdrijving van Hulanda

De Sabanen en hun toekomst als BES-eilanders

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2009
Auteurs F. Guadeloupe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the ongoing effort to create a post-imperial Dutch Kingdom, one in which colonial categories have no place, preparations are underway to reorganize this transatlantic political entity. The BES islands, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, will be granted the status of overseas municipalities of the Netherlands. Such welcoming efforts by mandarins in The Hague must however be based upon a sound understanding of how the cultural sensibilities of many Caribbean Dutch continue to be impacted by the lingering memories of the colonialism. Throughout the Dutch Caribbean isles, these lingering memories have given rise to Hulanda, a collection of fantastic spectres supposedly representing the benevolent and malevolent mindsets of the European Dutch to whom the future allegedly belongs. By specifically focusing on Saban imaginings of Hulanda, as well as offering modes to exorcize these specific spectres, this essay seeks to contribute to the process of mutual recognition within the Dutch Kingdom.


F. Guadeloupe
Dr. Francio Guadeloupe is verbonden aan de afdeling Culturele Antropologie en Ontwikkelingsstudies van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit.
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