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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2010 x Rubriek Artikel x

    There is a tendency to put honour-based and domestic violence in the same box. This article examines whether this is correct or not. The perception of the two phenomena share a number of similarities: violence that often occurs in the context of the family and, in many cases, complex issues that have already been at play for some time. Furthermore, the perception is that primarily women are the victims of both domestic and honour-based violence. A big difference is that the term domestic violence refers to the social context where violence is taking place and the term honour-based refers to the motive for violent action or threats. A complicating factor is that hurt feelings of honour might provoke violence or threats in the context of the family. In research literature it is assumed that domestic violence occurs at all levels of society, which means that this phenomenon will also be encountered amongst ethnic minorities. It is striking that domestic violence amongst ethnic minorities is often mentioned in the same breath as honour-based violence. However, both phenomena deserve a different approach. The risks of treating domestic violence as an honour case and honour-based violence as domestic abuse are described.


J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is als hoofd onderzoek verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG), dat is ondergebracht bij Politie Haaglanden.

    Honour-related physical or psychological violence, performed in reaction to perceived (threats of) loss of (family) honour, draws a lot of political and public attention in the Netherlands. A comprehensive policy-program was developed to reduce and prevent honour-related violence. However, the project knows two important restraints. In the first place, no reliable prevalence figures of honour-related violence are available. Furthermore, the program has been implemented without articulating and testing the presumed working mechanisms. In this article suggestions are made for evaluation of the program using the educational project ‘Black Tulip’ as an illustration. Black Tulip is used in secondary schools and aims at adolescent potential victims and perpetrators of honour-related violence. The main purpose is to achieve attitude and behaviour changes by means of visualizing experiences with honour-related violence in drama and film, and subsequent group discussions. Evaluation of Black Tulip and other parts of the program should take place by a combination of traditional evaluation research (e.g. with pre- and post-measurements of attitudes and behaviour in ‘Black Tulip-schools’ and in schools that do not receive the intervention), and a theory-driven evaluation which articulates the presumptions about the working mechanisms of the program and puts these to a test using the scientific literature.


C.H. de Kogel
Dr. Katy de Kogel is verbonden aan het WODC als senior-onderzoeker.

M.H.C. Kromhout
Dr. Mariska Kromhout is verbonden aan het WODC als senior-onderzoeker.

M. Smit
Dr. Monika Smit is verbonden aan het WODC als hoofd van de afdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving & Internationale en vreemdelingen-aangelegenheden.
Artikel

Omstreden gelijkheid

Over de constructie van (on)gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen in partnergeweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs R. Römkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) changed from a private problem to a public concern over the last decades. It has become subject of various discourses in different domains. In the social sciences the gender-based discriminatory nature of IPV is contested by some researchers who claim a gender equality in IPV. They call for a gender-neutral approach to IPV as a family problem, de-contextualized from gender-based inequalities. In the Netherlands this degendering is reflected in current policy discourse. However, in the international legal human rights domain, IPV is unequivocally considered to be an issue that affects women disproportionately as a form of women's discrimination that is the result of unequal power relations. Both international binding human rights law and recent ruling of the ECHR impose binding duties to acknowledge this. This article addresses the paradox that is reflected in these two positions and how to get beyond it.


R. Römkens
Prof. dr. Renée Römkens is als hoogleraar Huiselijk geweld verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute (Intervict) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    Many public prosecutors see a link between domestic violence and violence in the public sphere. In the beginning of this century the fight against domestic violence was integrated into the national security policy of The Netherlands. The growing attention for domestic violence combined with better registration has led to an enormous grow of criminal justice cases of domestic violence. The article analyses the public prosecution policy towards domestic violence. Nowadays even without a report suspects can be brought to trial if the charges can be proved. On the one hand the public prosecution aims to lay down a standard, on the other hand perpetrators are confronted with a set of conditions forcing them to accept professional help in order to bring about a change in their behaviour and prevent recidivism. In this way an effective use of criminal justice could contribute to a reduction of domestic violence and crime in general.


P. van der Valk
Mr. drs. Patricia van der Valk is officier van justitie bij het parket Almelo.
Artikel

De bestrijding van arbeidsuitbuiting

Werkwijzen en bevindingen van de SIOD

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs A. Bogaerts, P. Plooij en R. Zoetekouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the strategies and investigation results of the Social Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD) concerning labour exploitation are discussed. The results from reactive criminal investigation confirm current ideas in the literature about labour exploitation in relation to vulnerable (victim) groups. However, an increase in reports did not lead to more investigations. This is partly caused by bad or incomplete reports. Therefore the SIOD is in addition developing a new approach: the labour exploitation risk model. This method fits into the idea of Intelligence-Led Policing and tackles the problem that many exploitation cases are not reported to the police. In a risk model enterprises and employers with a (high) risk of violations are selected for control or investigation on the basis of particular characteristics generated from various information databases of various (government) agencies. The authors discuss the further development of the risk model and conclude with a look ahead.


A. Bogaerts
Anne Bogaerts MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt haar collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

P. Plooij
Drs. Peter Plooij is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

R. Zoetekouw
René Zoetekouw is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

    Illegal activities like smuggling, prostitution and the production and sales of illicit drugs contribute to the national income of a country. In practice, however, they are not included in the statistics, because reliable estimates of the size of these activities hardly exist. Recently Statistics Netherlands started research into the share of illegal activities in the national income. This article presents the first estimates for the production and trade of illicit drugs. The total contribution of illicit drugs to the national income of the Netherlands ranges from € 1,300 million in 1995 to almost € 1,800 million in 1998 to 1,200 million in 2008. This is equal to approximately 0.45% of the national income in the 1990s to about 0.2% in 2008. The main reasons for this decrease are the decrease in the prices for drugs, the deterioration of terms of trade and the increase in international competition, especially for xtc and amphetamines.


M. Rensman
Dr. Marieke Rensman werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

A. Bruil
Drs. Arjan Bruil werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

A. van de Steeg
Dr. Annemieke van de Steeg werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

B. Kazemier
Dr. Brugt Kazemier werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

    ‘Informal economy’ is a controversial concept defined in many different ways. This is reflected in the amount of synonyms, such as shadow economy, parallel economy, hidden economy, black economy etcetera. On the international level the concept of the informal sector was first used in 1972 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in its report on a mission to Kenya. The popular view of informal sector activities was that they are primarily those of petty traders, street hawkers, shoeshine boys and other groups ‘underemployed’ on the streets of the big towns. The evidence presented in the report suggested that the bulk of employment in the informal sector, far from being only marginally productive, is economically efficient and profit-making, though small in scale. The informal sector is formed by the coping behaviour of individuals and families in economic environment where earning opportunities are scarce, or where regulation is too complex. The informal sector can also be a product of rational behaviour of entrepreneurs wishing to escape state regulations. There is a relation between welfare (GDP per capita) and relative size of the informal sector. Richer countries have relatively a smaller informal sector. However, government policies and attitudes are important as well. The relative size of the informal sector depends, among other factors, on the ‘regulatory capacity’ and ‘regulatory intent’ of governments. There is little known about the relation between informal and criminal activities. The informal economy seems to be a permanent feature of both high, middle and low income countries. Due to the actual economic crisis, people are pushed from the formal to informal economy. Rapid urbanisation is a factor as well. While the problem of size measuring is not insignificant, most observers agree that the informal economy is large and growing and will be an enduring feature of the economy of mega-cities.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is als beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Mensenhandel en arbeidsuitbuiting

Recente ontwikkelingen in de jurisprudentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs L. van Krimpen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in jurisprudence on human trafficking in sectors other than the sex industry. In October 2009, the Supreme Court for the first time ruled in a case about human trafficking outside the sex industry. Whereas the number of cases before the Supreme Court ruling was limited, with only a few convictions for this type of exploitation, and with differences in the way courts interpreted the legal definition, this has changed tremendously after this ruling. The Supreme Court, in the case about exploitation in a Chinese restaurant, gave a very clear interpretation on the elements ‘intention of exploitation’ and the means ‘abuse of a vulnerable position’. Following the Supreme Court ruling, the number of cases has increased, as well as the number of convictions for this type of exploitation. Among these cases are also cases of criminal exploitation. It is not completely clear yet what type of behaviour falls within the scope of criminal exploitation.


L. van Krimpen
Mr. Linda van Krimpen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel in Den Haag.
Artikel

Werken in de marge

Illegaal verblijvende jongeren in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs R. Staring en J. Aarts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A large number of former unaccompanied minors in the Netherlands leave for unknown destinations during the asylum procedure or after being rejected. In this contribution the authors provide answers to the question how undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors provide for their living and housing. The study is based on interviews with 118 former undocumented unaccompanied minors who were recruited through the personal networks of the researchers and through contacts with representatives of (private) organizations who support the youngsters. The undocumented minors are excluded from formal employment as well as provisions of the welfare state. By far the largest group of the undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors has never been involved in criminal activities and only one third of them work in the informal economy. The sectors in which these youngsters perform informal work vary from cleaning and construction to catering and personal services. The work is characterized by uncertain working hours. There are often few hours available and the work often takes place on call. The pay is meagre and few respondents can survive exclusively on their earnings. The undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors are mainly supported by friends and private organizations for their living and housing. It is because of this support that the youngsters do not roam the streets and can continue their illegal stay in the Netherlands. The strong orientation of the youngsters towards a lawful residence in the Netherlands causes them to fear the risks of arrest while working, so they rather settle for the limited support of private organizations and friends. The support of private organizations and the focus of the youngsters towards a lawful stay thus constitute a buffer against exploitation.


R. Staring
Dr. Richard Staring is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.

J. Aarts
Drs. José Aarts is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.

J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek bij het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld, dat is ondergebracht bij politie Haaglanden. Daarnaast is zij geïnteresseerd in de positie van dieren in de criminologie.

J.A. de Bruijn
Prof. dr. Hans de Bruijn is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

M. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is als docent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechten van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

E.A. van Zoonen
Prof. dr. Liesbet van Zoonen is als hoogleraar Communication and Media Studies verbonden aan de Loughborough University in Engeland.

H. Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht.

    Soccer is the most important professional sport played in Europe. During the last two decades, both the flows of money and the institutional setting have changed dramatically. This paper provides an analysis of the Dutch professional league. How does that league compare to other European leagues? Especially as far as television revenue is concerned, the Dutch league lags the big leagues. This financial inequality has partially been caused by three important changes in the institutional environment: the introduction of the Champions League, the Bosman ruling and the liberalization of the players labour market, that accompanied that ruling. At the moment, an open European market for soccer talent exists, and a closed national product market for teams. Economies of scales exacerbates these problems, so in the near future, it is not to be expected that Dutch soccer teams will be able to compete successfully with their Spanish or British counterparts.


R.H. Koning
Prof. dr. Ruud H. Koning is verbonden aan het Department of Economics, Econometrics & Finance, Faculty of Economics and Business van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

    This article analyzes how football game situations, especially those where players get injured, are posted within the law. In the Netherlands sport rules are not regulated in specific laws. An incident in the soccer pitch should be approached by the ordinary law: criminal law as well as liability. An important standard laid down in jurisdiction is that sport participants accept a certain risk to get hurt.
    A conviction on the basis of criminal law occurs not very often, because it is hard to prove that the accused in a game situation had the intention to cause injury. The author gives an outline of the disciplinary rule structure of Dutch football. The Dutch football association KNVB has an important role in this structure. Every football player is a member of his own club as well as a member of the KNVB. As a consequence the club as well as the KNVB has the authority to take disciplinary action against football players breaking the rules. The disciplinary system and rules are different for professional and amateur football.


S.F.H. Jellinghaus
Dr. mr. Steven Jellinghaus is als universitair docent sportrecht verbonden aan de vakgroep sociaal recht en sociale politiek van de Universiteit van Tilburg en als advocaat aan De Voort Hermes de Bont te Tilburg.
Artikel

Het nieuwe hooliganisme

Geweld ook buiten het voetbalveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs H. Ferwerda, I. van Leiden en T. van Ham
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Large-scale violations of public order occur regularly in the Netherlands. The most startling riot of the last decade took place last summer on the beach of Hoek van Holland during the dance festival Sunset Grooves. In this riot as well as in other riots, hooligans play more and more a negative role. Put differently, they do not confine themselves to the riots at football matches, but they also show up at events, parties and in entertainment centres to disturb the peace. The article argues that the phrase ‘hooligan’ is in fact inappropriate. It is better to speak about notorious disturbers of the peace; people who are consciously looking for a stage and an opponent to disturb the peace.


H. Ferwerda
Dr. Henk Ferwerda is als directeur/onderzoeker werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.

I. van Leiden
Drs. Ilse van Leiden is als senior onderzoekster werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.

T. van Ham
Drs. Tom van Ham is als junior onderzoeker werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.
Artikel

Misdaadgeld en voetbal

Emotioneel witwassen en andere oneconomische motieven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs B.M.J. Slot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the growing economic importance of sport in the past two decades there has been a massive increase in the investment of money in the football sector, and some of this has criminal connections. The FATF has carried out a study, Money laundering through the football sector, to analyze what makes the football sector attractive to criminals. The report examines case studies to identify vulnerabilities of the football sector for criminal money. Some of those relate to the financial fragilities of the sector as a whole. Other vulnerabilities involve the intransparant transfer market and the dubious role of football agents. There are also social-psychological vulnerabilities. Football has a long history of private individuals investing in clubs. These individuals do not expect profits, but hope to acquire prestige and gain access to the local or even national establishment. Football has changed from a popular sport into a global industry, but its regulatory structure has not yet caught up with these changes.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

De Brabantse smokkelaars

Een grensgeschiedenis vol heroïek en eigenbelang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs P. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Considerable differences in tax and excise levels since the Belgium independence in 1830 gave rise to large scale smuggling between the Dutch border province Noord-Brabant en Belgium. The smuggling history can be divided in six periods. Salt was the most important contraband in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. During the First World War a lot of food was smuggled from the Netherlands to Belgium. During the crisis years in the 1930s unemployed people used to supplement their scarce income through smuggling. Belgian tobacco was the most important contraband during the Second World War. After the war ten thousands of Dutch occasional smugglers illegally fetched consumer and luxury goods in Belgium. In the 1950s and 1960s millions of kilo's of Dutch butter were smuggled to Belgium. The smuggling business gradually came into the hands of professional criminal gangs. In the second half of the 1960s the smugglers switched to the illegal distilling of alcohol. Many years later these would evolve into labs for the production of chemical drugs.


P. Spapens
Paul Spapens (Hilvarenbeek, 1949) is professioneel dagbladjournalist. Hij publiceerde enkele tientallen boeken over de geschiedenis, de volkscultuur en de identiteit van Noord-Brabant en de Noord-Brabanders. Hij is onder meer gespecialiseerd in thema's die voortvloeien uit de aanwezigheid van de rijksgrens. Dit artikel is voor een groot deel gebaseerd op de boeken Smokkelen in Brabant (1988) en Tappen uit een geheim vaatje (1990) over respectievelijk de geschiedenis van het smokkelen tussen Noord-Brabant en België en de geschiedenis van het illegaal alcohol stoken in Nederland. De beide boeken zijn geschreven op basis van onderzoek van officiële bronnen, zoals politie- en douaneverslagen en daarnaast krantenverslagen. Een belangrijke bron zijn ook de vele tientallen interviews met de direct betrokkenen, dus smokkelaars, alcoholstokers en hun opponenten.

    The question of social engineering is an important aspect of debates on security: up to what point can undesired behavior be corrected, prevented or diminished? To what extent is human behavior malleable? This article is a reflection on the development of social engineering, through the lense of the developments in the north of Amsterdam. It is an area that can be seen as a laboratory, a testing ground for the social democratic dream to create a new man, by uplifting and disciplining the urban poor. The central thesis is that the present redevelopment of Amsterdam Noord is predicated upon a shift in governmental strategy: from social engineering to spatial engineering. Location is arguably no longer used to uplift the population, presently the social composition of the population is being changed to uplift the location.


M. Oudenampsen
Drs. Merijn Oudenampsen is freelance onderzoeker. Hij studeerde politicologie en sociologie en was tot 2009 als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Jan van Eijck Academie in Maastricht. Hij werkt op het moment aan een boek over populisme en symboolpolitiek.
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