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Artikel

Het is transparantie wat de klok slaat

Publeaks als geduchte concurrent voor het Huis voor klokkenluiders?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden Publeaks, whistleblowing, transparency, journalism ethics, confidentiality
Auteurs J. Beckers, H.G. van de Bunt en K. van Wingerde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As a result of the democratization of technology we now seem to live in an era of ‘Wiki-regulation’. Increasingly transparency is considered to be the universal solution to all sorts of problems. In line with this dominant viewpoint there has been a proliferation of whistleblower initiatives in recent years. A newly established Dutch initiative is Publeaks. Launched by a large number of Dutch media outlets and aimed at protecting whistleblowers, shedding light on wrongdoings and encouraging investigative journalism, Publeaks is a website ‘for people to leak documents to the media securely and anonymously’. In this opinionated article the authors propose three arguments against this particular form of whistleblowing: the protection against unfunded accusations, the negative side effects of ‘scandal overkill’, and the value of non-transparency.


J. Beckers
Drs. Joep Beckers is als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

H.G. van de Bunt
Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

K. van Wingerde
Dr. Karin van Wingerde is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Wilsvrijheid en strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid

Een rondgang langs fysicalisme, connectionisme en belichaamde cognitie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden free will, criminal responsibility, fysicalism, connectionism, embodied cognition
Auteurs F. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author defends two propositions related to the concepts of free will and criminal responsibility. Free will is defined as the capability of distancing oneself from one’s immediate surroundings and reflect on impulses. The first proposition is that it is a mistake to suppose – as do many neuroscientists adhering to objectivist theories on the human mind – that the concept of free will refers to a postulated natural phenomenon, the existence of which could, in principle, be established or falsified. Instead, the concept of free will constitutes a practice; it is a human artefact that is part and parcel of the differing means by which mankind structures intersubjective life. The second proposition is that the criminal law legitimately presupposes that persons normally act out of free will and that they, consequently, are morally responsible and accountable for the wrongful actions they perform. The author claims that his arguments for both propositions are supported by insights from the neuroscientific fields of connectionism and embodied cognition.


F. de Jong
Mr. dr. Ferry de Jong is als universitair docent strafrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: f.dejong1@uu.nl.

    Comparing an organized crime group to an ‘enterprise’ or ‘firm’ and its key persons to ‘entrepreneurs’ is only a small step to viewing its illegal activities as a business process. Yet, it took until the early 1990s before criminologists started to study the logistics of specific illegal activities. Since then, the Dutch police have adapted to thinking of organized crime in terms of criminal business processes and to erecting barriers (preferably insurmountable ones) to specific steps in these processes. Firstly, the police analyze logistical processes to find weak spots that can be targeted to hinder illegal activities most effectively, either through investigative action or by means of preventive measures. Secondly, law enforcement agencies consider such an analytical approach an attractive tool to explore the viability of involving other public or private parties in setting up barriers. The Dutch investigation authorities have used this concept successfully in the case of ecstasy production, by aiming at the small number of suppliers of particular chemicals and hardware. As regards large-scale (and indoor) cannabis cultivation, however, the approach is less fruitful, because there are no explicitly ‘vulnerable’ stages in the cultivation process. Furthermore, some of the intended barriers can be deemed rather intrusive, such as a plan to persuade banks to withdraw a mortgage if the police discover a cannabis nursery in a person's private home. This raises the question to what extent the police and the judiciary may call in other parties to help them put up barriers to illegal activities, instead of using the conventional tool of criminal investigation.


A.C.M. Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is tevens lector milieucriminaliteit aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn.

    The main question of this article is why the existing diverse populist movements have at least one feature in common: Crime, security and harsher punishments are high on their political agenda. The author points out that the rise of criminality in the last 20 years is a real basis for the growing anxiety among the population about insecurity. This anxiety is reinforced by the blown up media attention for crime issues. The dominance of the security issue is further explained and enhanced by cultural factors like individualisation, migration and the rise of a vitalist culture characterised by a geografical and normative boundlessness. In this context norm violations are always lurking and contributing to an insecure, complex and chaotic society. (In)security has become the common denominator to which all grievances can be reduced. The creation of new structures giving reassurance could provide a democratic alternative for the unevitable authoritarian tendency in state policy caused by the rise of populism. This type of social order should be understood in terms of arrangements of institutions and of tuning stakeholders to one another. Taking this longing for security among the population seriously means also to stop addressing civilians as consumers and start urging them to act like co-responsibles.


J.C.J. Boutellier
Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid & burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

    This article focuses on a phenomenon often called ‘function creep’. This is the process whereby new functions are added to systems that are basically intended for other purposes, or when systems or data originally intended for function A are linked to other systems or data having function B. New technical possibilities have definitely paved the way for function creep and a growing number of ICT-applications appear no longer limited to the purpose for which they were originally set up. Function creep is an inherent feature of innovation. But at the same time it poses risks if considered from a privacy perspective. After detailing many examples of function creep, the article elaborates on a potential risk not often discussed: loss of data quality. The analysis concludes in arguing that citizens can act as a crucial countervailing power to limit the expansion of function creep. This however requires that governments are more open and accountable to allow for a transparent and verifiable comparison between the interests at stake.


J.E.J. Prins
Prof.mr. Corien Prins is hoogleraar aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), Universiteit van Tilburg en Raadslid bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR). Deze bijdrage is voor een belangrijk deel ontleend aan het rapport iOverheid van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (maart 2011, zie: www.wrr.nl), dat onder haar verantwoordelijkheid werd opgesteld.

J.A. de Bruijn
Prof. dr. Hans de Bruijn is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

H. Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht.

    In the years 2000-2003 crime on Curaçao seemed to be going out of control and the economy was virtually stagnant with low growth and high unemployment. This situation has changed significantly since 2005. The author shows that a targeted approach by the authorities pushed back major crime problems like the smuggling of cocaine on passenger flights, armed robberies and homicides. However only a permanent effort can guarantee the continuation of this success. Corruption and nepotism are still vibrant, but mainly concern individuals, not institutions as a whole, while the judiciary actively prosecutes corrupt officials. In the long run not only repression, but preventive measures are needed as well. A major cause of corruption and nepotism is the small scale of island life, in combination with economic protectionism and state ownership of companies. Structural adjustments in economic institutions and policy in recent years heralded the return of economic growth and employment. More adjustments in economic policy and institutions could further reduce incentives for corruption; these might also lead to the opening up of Curaçao's rigid labour markets for the many unemployed youngsters. A more autonomous Curaçao faces serious challenges, but the island's record so far gives no reason for despondency.


A.W. Weenink
Dr. Anton Weenink is senior onderzoeker bij de Dienst Nationale Recherche van het Korps Landelijke Politiediensten (KLPD).

    Soccer is the most important professional sport played in Europe. During the last two decades, both the flows of money and the institutional setting have changed dramatically. This paper provides an analysis of the Dutch professional league. How does that league compare to other European leagues? Especially as far as television revenue is concerned, the Dutch league lags the big leagues. This financial inequality has partially been caused by three important changes in the institutional environment: the introduction of the Champions League, the Bosman ruling and the liberalization of the players labour market, that accompanied that ruling. At the moment, an open European market for soccer talent exists, and a closed national product market for teams. Economies of scales exacerbates these problems, so in the near future, it is not to be expected that Dutch soccer teams will be able to compete successfully with their Spanish or British counterparts.


R.H. Koning
Prof. dr. Ruud H. Koning is verbonden aan het Department of Economics, Econometrics & Finance, Faculty of Economics and Business van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Hoe het licht valt

Een persoonlijke visie op het burgemeesterschap

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs H.B. Eenhoorn
Auteursinformatie

H.B. Eenhoorn
Drs. Bas Eenhoorn was vanaf 1976 - met onderbrekingen - burgemeester van Schiermonnikoog, Voorburg, Lansingerland en Kaag en Braassem. Daarnaast is hij werkzaam als adviseur in het openbaar bestuur.

    Offenders of the law used to be sentenced by the criminal courts of justice. However, the Dutch Government is striving for better and more efficient law enforcement, and is increasingly delegating this enforcement to local authorities, especially to the mayor's level. For example, to maintain order, not only does the mayor decide on camera surveillance, preventative body search, restraining orders and curfews; he/she is now also allowed to shut down houses and evict people from their homes. New laws are in the making to delegate even more power to local authorities. The question arises whether the position of mayor can and should include the Sheriff Star. After all, he/she is politically accountable, plus it would take Superman to take on this new role as upholder of justice. Meanwhile, legal protection is in a sorry state, and citizens rarely take advantage of their legal protection rights. Adequate judicial control is lacking, and whether orders given out by the mayor based on the new responsibilities actually comply with the European Treaty of Human Rights is something that remains to be seen.


H.J.B. Sackers
Prof. mr. Henny Sackers is als hoogleraar bestuurlijk sanctierecht verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Delen van deze tekst zijn gebaseerd op zijn inaugurele rede (Sackers, 2010).
Artikel

Swiebertje en Superman

De burgemeester en zijn taak in openbare orde en veiligheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs A.B. Engberts en H.G.M. Cornelissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article paints the picture of a mayor who is proactive, assumes a directive role, signals and tackles problems, while also playing a binding role in the community. When it comes to matters of public order and safety, the mayor obviously works in close cooperation and consultation with the other parties of the local triangle, e.g. the chief of police and the public prosecutor. Points of improvement are presented as regards the functioning of the triangle as well the mayor's position in terms of information. The directive role of the mayor can in the near future be embedded, whereby the mayor ‘oversees’ the integral safety policy in his municipality.


A.B. Engberts
Mr. Bart Engberts is als senior beleidsmedewerker respectievelijk adviseur verbonden aan de Directie Veiligheid en Bestuur van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties.

H.G.M. Cornelissen
drs. Hans Cornelissen is als senior beleidsmedewerker respectievelijk adviseur verbonden aan de Directie Veiligheid en Bestuur van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties.

    In a changing social and political environment, mayors assume quite a few different roles in local government. This is because they face different expectations, held by social and political actors at different times. Based on the distinction between strong and weak mayoral leadership, this article develops a typology of mayoral leadership roles. The authors argue that inherent tensions exist between some of these roles, making it impossible for mayors to fulfill all roles at once. Therefore, political leadership is best conceived as something that is contextually dependent. Mayors continually have to find a temporal balance between different roles, depending on the institutional setting and social and political context in which they operate at that time. Therefore, a caleidoscopic perspective on political leadership may provide valuable insights for mayors on how to develop their own leadership style.


N. Karsten
Niels Karsten, MSc MA is als promovendus respectievelijk universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg.

L. Schaap
dr. Linze Schaap is als promovendus respectievelijk universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg.

W.J. Verheul
Drs. Wouter Jan Verheul is als programmamanager en promovendus verbonden aan de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur. Het artikel is mede gebaseerd op Cachet, Karsten e.a. (2009).

    Each of the more than four hundred Dutch municipalities is governed by an executive board led by a mayor. This board of municipal executives is formed by a coalition of political parties reflecting the balance in the general council of elected members. The mayor is a member of the board; he is not elected by the people. The mayor is officially appointed by the national cabinet of ministers, but in fact since recently selected by the local council. In the Netherlands there has been a significant rise in the number of forced resignations by mayors. From 2000 to 2010 more than fifty mayors were forced to resign before the end of their term. The impression that the mayor's position has recently weakened, is confirmed by case studies. The Dutch mayor is in limbo between being elected and being appointed. In itself this is a major factor contributing to the weakening of Dutch mayors in general. This might give more room than before to private reasons and micro factors causing mayors to resign early. Mayors wishing to survive, should give more attention to signals about ‘strengths and weaknesses’ of their position in a field of political ‘stakeholders’.


A.F.A. Korsten
Prof. dr. Arno Korsten is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Open Universiteit Nederland en bijzonder hoogleraar bestuurskunde van de lagere overheden aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

De burgemeester in crisistijd

Schakelen tussen bestuurlijke moed en terughoudendheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs R. Bron en M. Zannoni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article aims to illustrate the importance of the mayor in times of disaster and crisis management. The mayor plays a crucial role, even though he is merely one link in the crisis management process. In the Netherlands, the organization and coordination of crisis management is subdivided into 25 safety regions. Recently there has been a strong development towards professionalization of these safety regions and their partners. However, in the case of a local crisis all attention goes to the mayor, whose decisions and actions are critically followed by the media and the public. In order to identify what would constitute a good mayor in times of crisis, the article lists essential points and qualities. In sum, a good mayor in times of crisis should be critical and show managerial courage.


R. Bron
Mr. drs. Roland Bron is als managing senior werkzaam bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement.

M. Zannoni
drs. Marco Zannoni is als managing senior werkzaam bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement.

    The prehistory of criminology doesn't get all that much attention in the Low Countries. In the Dutch case many criminologists e.g. see the publication of Bonger's work in 1905 on crime and economic conditions as the real starting point of criminology. This narrow historical view overlooks the fact that, before the French Revolution, notably the ideas of Beccaria on crime and punishment sparked a rather fierce discussion in the Netherlands - this in contrast to the Austrian/Belgian provinces. Beccaria's views also inspired Calkoen to write the first comprehensive treatise on the prevention and repression of crime in 1778. Later, after 1830, two major figures in the prehistory of modern criminology stepped forward in the new independent state of Belgium. Quetelet was the first one in history to apply modern statistics in order to assess the nature, extent and development of crime problems. He became one of the founding fathers of criminal statistics. Ducpétiaux developed into an enlightened and brilliant defender of the Pennsylvania penitentiary system and completely rebuilt the Belgian system according to this model. Both men also had a notable impact on the discussion how to deal with crime and in particular on the construction of new prisons in the Netherlands. After the birth of modern criminology in 1876 - thanks to Lombroso - the writings of Quetelet were an important source of knowledge for Bonger and the Belgian criminologist Denis. Lombroso, however, equally had important followers in both countries: Aletrino in the Netherlands and Héger in Belgium. It is a pity that the (pre-)history of criminology in the Low Countries is not part of the contemporary international image of the history of criminology. Time has come to fill up this important gap in the historical analysis of criminology.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut is gewoon hoogleraar aan de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

een overzicht, een mythe en nieuwe varianten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 02 2008
Trefwoorden Website, Tussenkomst, Bestuurder, Administratief recht, Levering, Voorwaarde, Belastingfraude, Handhaving, Investering, Kind
Auteurs Pligt, J. van der, Koomen, W. en Harreveld, F. van

Pligt, J. van der

Koomen, W.

Harreveld, F. van
Artikel

De ‘verwijtenroute’

Over de achtergronden van fraude en corruptie in het Caribische deel van het Koninkrijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2009
Auteurs P.C.M. Schotborgh-van de Ven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The subjects fraud and corruption play an important role in the recent debate on the constitutional changes within the Netherlands Antilles and the ‘status aparte’ of Curaçao and Sint Maarten. The Netherlands and the various islands keep passing the blame on one another when it comes to fraud and corruption. It seems there is little willingness to look at the underlying causes or to express self-criticism. In this article an attempt is made to outline what is really going on in the field of fraud and corruption in the Caribbean part of the Kingdom. Several investigations on fraud and corruption committed by politicians in the past fifteen years will be addressed. Furthermore several socio-cultural, political and economic factors that play a role in causing fraud and corruption are being discussed. In this way the author hopes to contribute to a more constructive debate about the issue of fraud and corruption.


P.C.M. Schotborgh-van de Ven
Drs. Nelly Schotborgh-van de Ven is directeur van Forensic Services Caribbean N.V. te Curaçao en docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit van de Nederlandse Antillen.
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