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Artikel

Het landelijke onderzoek huiselijk geweld 2010

De methode en de belangrijkste resultaten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs H.C.J. van der Veen en S. Bogaerts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the research project was determining the size and the nature of the domestic violence in the Netherlands. The project consists of four studies: the first estimates the size of domestic violence, the second is a victim study and the third an offender study. The article is based upon the fourth study, the overarching synthesis which integrates and cross validates (by triangulation) the main results of these three studies. Every year at least 200,000 victims and about 110,000 suspected offenders are involved in severe domestic violence. Most victims are women (60%). This is a substantially lower share than a former study showed (84%). Most offenders are men (83%). In 65% of the cases the violence is aimed at the (ex-)partner. Offenders are often victims as well and vice versa. 20% of the domestic violence is reported to the police. In 1997 this was 12%. 70% of the prosecuted offenders got into trouble with the police before. 30% of this particular segment of domestic violence offenders commit another violent crime or a serious traffic offence within two years.


H.C.J. van der Veen
Dr. Henk van der Veen is als projectbegeleider verbonden aan het WODC.

S. Bogaerts
Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychologie en Victimologie verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    There is a tendency to put honour-based and domestic violence in the same box. This article examines whether this is correct or not. The perception of the two phenomena share a number of similarities: violence that often occurs in the context of the family and, in many cases, complex issues that have already been at play for some time. Furthermore, the perception is that primarily women are the victims of both domestic and honour-based violence. A big difference is that the term domestic violence refers to the social context where violence is taking place and the term honour-based refers to the motive for violent action or threats. A complicating factor is that hurt feelings of honour might provoke violence or threats in the context of the family. In research literature it is assumed that domestic violence occurs at all levels of society, which means that this phenomenon will also be encountered amongst ethnic minorities. It is striking that domestic violence amongst ethnic minorities is often mentioned in the same breath as honour-based violence. However, both phenomena deserve a different approach. The risks of treating domestic violence as an honour case and honour-based violence as domestic abuse are described.


J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is als hoofd onderzoek verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG), dat is ondergebracht bij Politie Haaglanden.

    Honour-related physical or psychological violence, performed in reaction to perceived (threats of) loss of (family) honour, draws a lot of political and public attention in the Netherlands. A comprehensive policy-program was developed to reduce and prevent honour-related violence. However, the project knows two important restraints. In the first place, no reliable prevalence figures of honour-related violence are available. Furthermore, the program has been implemented without articulating and testing the presumed working mechanisms. In this article suggestions are made for evaluation of the program using the educational project ‘Black Tulip’ as an illustration. Black Tulip is used in secondary schools and aims at adolescent potential victims and perpetrators of honour-related violence. The main purpose is to achieve attitude and behaviour changes by means of visualizing experiences with honour-related violence in drama and film, and subsequent group discussions. Evaluation of Black Tulip and other parts of the program should take place by a combination of traditional evaluation research (e.g. with pre- and post-measurements of attitudes and behaviour in ‘Black Tulip-schools’ and in schools that do not receive the intervention), and a theory-driven evaluation which articulates the presumptions about the working mechanisms of the program and puts these to a test using the scientific literature.


C.H. de Kogel
Dr. Katy de Kogel is verbonden aan het WODC als senior-onderzoeker.

M.H.C. Kromhout
Dr. Mariska Kromhout is verbonden aan het WODC als senior-onderzoeker.

M. Smit
Dr. Monika Smit is verbonden aan het WODC als hoofd van de afdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving & Internationale en vreemdelingen-aangelegenheden.
Artikel

Bij dreiging ingrijpen

De Wet tijdelijk huisverbod in de praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs K.B.M. de Vaan en A. Schreijenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As from January 2009, mayors in The Netherlands can impose a temporary restraining order on (potential) perpetrators of domestic violence in situations in which there is an immediate threat to victims and/or children. This restrains these (potential) perpetrators from entering their own house or contacting their partner and/or children for a period of 10 to 28 days. In this article, the law regarding these temporary restraining orders is explained and an overview of the first experiences with the actual implementation is given. The temporary restraining orders are an addition to the existing measures regarding domestic violence because they enable intervention before the violence has actually taken place or the situation escalates. In practice, however, the orders are frequently imposed after escalation of the situation, parallel to the arrest and possible persecution of the suspected perpetrator. Apparently, the orders provide a break from explosive situations, and the intensive form of professional help that those involved receive is a welcome addition, even in situations for which the order was not primarily designed. The first experiences show that aid is given quickly. They also show that more attention needs to be given to the content of this aid, to regional differences in the enforcement of the law and to the follow-up aid after the temporary restraining order has ended.


K.B.M. de Vaan
Drs. Katrien de Vaan is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek en momenteel betrokken bij de landelijke proces evaluatie van de Wet tijdelijk huisverbod in opdracht van het WODC. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op openbaar beschikbare bronnen en evaluaties. Recent is een aantal onderzoeken afgerond dat op een gestructureerde manier nadere informatie zal bieden over de toepassing van het huisverbod: een onderzoek naar de hulpverlening in het kader van het huisverbod, een partiële kwaliteitsbepaling van het Risicotaxatie-instrument Huiselijk Geweld, een landelijke procesevaluatie van het huisverbod en een onderzoek naar de rechtsbescherming van de uithuisgeplaatste. Deze onderzoeken zijn deels in het najaar van 2010 openbaar geworden, de rest wordt in het voorjaar van 2011 openbaar.

A. Schreijenberg
Mr. drs. Ad Schreijenberg is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek en momenteel betrokken bij de landelijke proces evaluatie van de Wet tijdelijk huisverbod in opdracht van het WODC. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op openbaar beschikbare bronnen en evaluaties. Recent is een aantal onderzoeken afgerond dat op een gestructureerde manier nadere informatie zal bieden over de toepassing van het huisverbod: een onderzoek naar de hulpverlening in het kader van het huisverbod, een partiële kwaliteitsbepaling van het Risicotaxatie-instrument Huiselijk Geweld, een landelijke procesevaluatie van het huisverbod en een onderzoek naar de rechtsbescherming van de uithuisgeplaatste. Deze onderzoeken zijn deels in het najaar van 2010 openbaar geworden, de rest wordt in het voorjaar van 2011 openbaar.

    Children suffer differently from domestic violence as a witness of interparental violence than as direct victim of maltreatment or sexual abuse. In this article three different research samples of children as witnesses of domestic violence are compared with regard to the posttraumatic stress symptoms they show. One sample is a clinical population from mental health care for youth, one sample consists of children reported to a child maltreatment centre and one sample stems from a pilot study of referrals of domestic violence in families in the G4. In all three samples we find a much higher percentage of children with traumatic symptoms than in the normal population. The highest percentage of traumatized children (74%) we find in the clinical population. When we look at the parents we also find a high percentage of traumatized parents (31%), but more striking is the percentage of parents who themselves were involved (as a victim or witness) in domestic violence when they were children (60%). This leads to questions concerning the intergenerational transfer of domestic violence.


B. Tierolf
Drs. Bas Tierolf is als onderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Orthopedagogiek van de Faculteit Psychologie en Pedagogiek van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, alsmede aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut in Utrecht.
Artikel

Omstreden gelijkheid

Over de constructie van (on)gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen in partnergeweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs R. Römkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) changed from a private problem to a public concern over the last decades. It has become subject of various discourses in different domains. In the social sciences the gender-based discriminatory nature of IPV is contested by some researchers who claim a gender equality in IPV. They call for a gender-neutral approach to IPV as a family problem, de-contextualized from gender-based inequalities. In the Netherlands this degendering is reflected in current policy discourse. However, in the international legal human rights domain, IPV is unequivocally considered to be an issue that affects women disproportionately as a form of women's discrimination that is the result of unequal power relations. Both international binding human rights law and recent ruling of the ECHR impose binding duties to acknowledge this. This article addresses the paradox that is reflected in these two positions and how to get beyond it.


R. Römkens
Prof. dr. Renée Römkens is als hoogleraar Huiselijk geweld verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute (Intervict) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    There are two conflicting viewpoints about partner violence: either that it involves a considerable degree of mutual combat or that it generally involves male perpetrators and female victims. In general, results supporting the former viewpoint are usually reported in studies of general population samples, while data that supports the latter viewpoint is usually collected in samples that were recruited in shelters, through victim support, or that was studied through police and court data. This article describes results from a Dutch study that investigated two different research groups: a sample of respondents from the general population and a group of offenders who had been in contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. In line with the literature on this topic, one of the most striking differences between the research groups from the general population and the judicial population is the fact that the former group consisted of more women than men (57.8% versus 42.2%), whereas the second group consisted nearly only of men (93.1% were men). This article explores a number of possible explanations for the strongly divergent proportion of men and women in the two research groups. The most probable explanation seems to be that, although both men and women commit domestic violence, the more serious types of injury are caused more often by men, as a result of which predominantly men come into contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. Moreover, there are some indications in the literature that male victims are less likely to report domestic violence to the police.


L.M. van der Knaap
Dr. Leontien van der Knaap is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute van de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

S. Bogaerts
Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychologie en Victimologie eveneens verbonden aan dit instituut.
Artikel

Fataal huiselijk geweld

Doding van eigen kind, partner of ouder

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs F. Koenraadt en M. Liem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Homicides that take place in the family generally lead to shock and incomprehension in society at large. Even though in recent years the number of homicides in the Netherlands has decreased, domestic homicides still claim approximately sixty victims per year. This article aims to describe the nature and incidence of domestic homicide in the Netherlands by making use of both epidemiological data as well as detailed analyses of case reports of domestic homicides. In doing so, several types of domestic homicides are distinguished: intimate partner homicide, child homicide, parent and sibling homicide, multiple family homicide and finally, domestic homicide followed by suicide. The findings are discussed and put into perspective.


F. Koenraadt
Dr. Frans Koenraadt is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychiatrie en Psychologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht; hij is tevens wetenschappelijk adviseur bij het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de Forensisch Psychiatrische Kliniek te Assen.

M. Liem
Dr. Marieke Liem is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    Many public prosecutors see a link between domestic violence and violence in the public sphere. In the beginning of this century the fight against domestic violence was integrated into the national security policy of The Netherlands. The growing attention for domestic violence combined with better registration has led to an enormous grow of criminal justice cases of domestic violence. The article analyses the public prosecution policy towards domestic violence. Nowadays even without a report suspects can be brought to trial if the charges can be proved. On the one hand the public prosecution aims to lay down a standard, on the other hand perpetrators are confronted with a set of conditions forcing them to accept professional help in order to bring about a change in their behaviour and prevent recidivism. In this way an effective use of criminal justice could contribute to a reduction of domestic violence and crime in general.


P. van der Valk
Mr. drs. Patricia van der Valk is officier van justitie bij het parket Almelo.
Artikel

De bestrijding van arbeidsuitbuiting

Werkwijzen en bevindingen van de SIOD

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs A. Bogaerts, P. Plooij en R. Zoetekouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the strategies and investigation results of the Social Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD) concerning labour exploitation are discussed. The results from reactive criminal investigation confirm current ideas in the literature about labour exploitation in relation to vulnerable (victim) groups. However, an increase in reports did not lead to more investigations. This is partly caused by bad or incomplete reports. Therefore the SIOD is in addition developing a new approach: the labour exploitation risk model. This method fits into the idea of Intelligence-Led Policing and tackles the problem that many exploitation cases are not reported to the police. In a risk model enterprises and employers with a (high) risk of violations are selected for control or investigation on the basis of particular characteristics generated from various information databases of various (government) agencies. The authors discuss the further development of the risk model and conclude with a look ahead.


A. Bogaerts
Anne Bogaerts MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt haar collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

P. Plooij
Drs. Peter Plooij is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

R. Zoetekouw
René Zoetekouw is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

    Illegal activities like smuggling, prostitution and the production and sales of illicit drugs contribute to the national income of a country. In practice, however, they are not included in the statistics, because reliable estimates of the size of these activities hardly exist. Recently Statistics Netherlands started research into the share of illegal activities in the national income. This article presents the first estimates for the production and trade of illicit drugs. The total contribution of illicit drugs to the national income of the Netherlands ranges from € 1,300 million in 1995 to almost € 1,800 million in 1998 to 1,200 million in 2008. This is equal to approximately 0.45% of the national income in the 1990s to about 0.2% in 2008. The main reasons for this decrease are the decrease in the prices for drugs, the deterioration of terms of trade and the increase in international competition, especially for xtc and amphetamines.


M. Rensman
Dr. Marieke Rensman werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

A. Bruil
Drs. Arjan Bruil werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

A. van de Steeg
Dr. Annemieke van de Steeg werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

B. Kazemier
Dr. Brugt Kazemier werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

    ‘Informal economy’ is a controversial concept defined in many different ways. This is reflected in the amount of synonyms, such as shadow economy, parallel economy, hidden economy, black economy etcetera. On the international level the concept of the informal sector was first used in 1972 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in its report on a mission to Kenya. The popular view of informal sector activities was that they are primarily those of petty traders, street hawkers, shoeshine boys and other groups ‘underemployed’ on the streets of the big towns. The evidence presented in the report suggested that the bulk of employment in the informal sector, far from being only marginally productive, is economically efficient and profit-making, though small in scale. The informal sector is formed by the coping behaviour of individuals and families in economic environment where earning opportunities are scarce, or where regulation is too complex. The informal sector can also be a product of rational behaviour of entrepreneurs wishing to escape state regulations. There is a relation between welfare (GDP per capita) and relative size of the informal sector. Richer countries have relatively a smaller informal sector. However, government policies and attitudes are important as well. The relative size of the informal sector depends, among other factors, on the ‘regulatory capacity’ and ‘regulatory intent’ of governments. There is little known about the relation between informal and criminal activities. The informal economy seems to be a permanent feature of both high, middle and low income countries. Due to the actual economic crisis, people are pushed from the formal to informal economy. Rapid urbanisation is a factor as well. While the problem of size measuring is not insignificant, most observers agree that the informal economy is large and growing and will be an enduring feature of the economy of mega-cities.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is als beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Mensenhandel en arbeidsuitbuiting

Recente ontwikkelingen in de jurisprudentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs L. van Krimpen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in jurisprudence on human trafficking in sectors other than the sex industry. In October 2009, the Supreme Court for the first time ruled in a case about human trafficking outside the sex industry. Whereas the number of cases before the Supreme Court ruling was limited, with only a few convictions for this type of exploitation, and with differences in the way courts interpreted the legal definition, this has changed tremendously after this ruling. The Supreme Court, in the case about exploitation in a Chinese restaurant, gave a very clear interpretation on the elements ‘intention of exploitation’ and the means ‘abuse of a vulnerable position’. Following the Supreme Court ruling, the number of cases has increased, as well as the number of convictions for this type of exploitation. Among these cases are also cases of criminal exploitation. It is not completely clear yet what type of behaviour falls within the scope of criminal exploitation.


L. van Krimpen
Mr. Linda van Krimpen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel in Den Haag.
Artikel

Werken in de marge

Illegaal verblijvende jongeren in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs R. Staring en J. Aarts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A large number of former unaccompanied minors in the Netherlands leave for unknown destinations during the asylum procedure or after being rejected. In this contribution the authors provide answers to the question how undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors provide for their living and housing. The study is based on interviews with 118 former undocumented unaccompanied minors who were recruited through the personal networks of the researchers and through contacts with representatives of (private) organizations who support the youngsters. The undocumented minors are excluded from formal employment as well as provisions of the welfare state. By far the largest group of the undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors has never been involved in criminal activities and only one third of them work in the informal economy. The sectors in which these youngsters perform informal work vary from cleaning and construction to catering and personal services. The work is characterized by uncertain working hours. There are often few hours available and the work often takes place on call. The pay is meagre and few respondents can survive exclusively on their earnings. The undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors are mainly supported by friends and private organizations for their living and housing. It is because of this support that the youngsters do not roam the streets and can continue their illegal stay in the Netherlands. The strong orientation of the youngsters towards a lawful residence in the Netherlands causes them to fear the risks of arrest while working, so they rather settle for the limited support of private organizations and friends. The support of private organizations and the focus of the youngsters towards a lawful stay thus constitute a buffer against exploitation.


R. Staring
Dr. Richard Staring is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.

J. Aarts
Drs. José Aarts is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.

J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek bij het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld, dat is ondergebracht bij politie Haaglanden. Daarnaast is zij geïnteresseerd in de positie van dieren in de criminologie.

F. van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert is als hoofddocent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

J.A. de Bruijn
Prof. dr. Hans de Bruijn is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

M. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is als docent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechten van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Tussen Marrakech en Theater De Flint

Ideologie en praktijk in moskeebouw

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2010
Auteurs O. Verkaaik
Auteursinformatie

O. Verkaaik
Dr. Oskar Verkaaik is als assistant professor verbonden aan het Research Center for Religion and Society van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

E.A. van Zoonen
Prof. dr. Liesbet van Zoonen is als hoogleraar Communication and Media Studies verbonden aan de Loughborough University in Engeland.
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