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Artikel

Voor en na Mabo. Rechtsontwikkeling in Australië

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Legal anthropology, legal culture, Australian indigenous people, Aboriginal law, High Court of Australia
Auteurs Agnes Schreiner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Important legal developments are often credited to court decisions. This contribution will firstly discuss the Australian High Court decision in the Mabo case as such. The legal implications of a decision are often emphasised, instead of the actual persons who started the case, as Dutch sociological research has shown. The article will secondly state that in the Mabo case the person Eddy Mabo and his Aboriginal companions were a lot more important. Not that one has to solely think of him and his clansmen as political activists who go to court to change the legal order. The analysis will show that Eddie Mabo c.s. represent a legal culture in its own right. That legal culture has a far much longer history than the two centuries of Anglo-Australian common law. Mabo came to the fore as someone who was entitled by Aboriginal law to bear witness of Aboriginal law. The fact that an Aboriginal actor as such is the pure actuality of law is hardly recognised by the Anglo-Australian legal culture.


Agnes Schreiner
Agnes Schreiner is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de Afdeling Algemene Rechtsleer, sectie Rechtssociologie, van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij verzorgt onder meer het keuzevak Rechtsantropologie en het masterkeuzevak Anthropology of European Private Law. In 1990 promoveerde ze op Roem van het recht. Haar bijzondere belangstelling gaat uit naar recht & cultuur, recht & media, recht & ritueel, recht & semiotiek. Ze publiceerde onlangs eveneens over Australië: How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art (2013).
Artikel

Medical liability: do doctors care?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Ben C.J. van Velthoven en Peter W. van Wijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Van Velthoven and Van Wijck review empirical studies on the effects of tort law in the medical sector. The data they present comes mainly from the US, because from the 1970’s US states have enacted a variety of reforms in their tort systems. This variation has provided very useful data to study preventive effects. The empirical evidence analysed shows that medical malpractice risk affects the behaviour of health care providers. It has a negative impact on the supply of services and it encourages extra diagnostic testing;yet if the additional tests and procedures have any value, it is only a marginal one. Furthermore it has been found that changes in the supply of services do not affect health adversely. This suggests that the physicians who are driven out of business have a below average quality of performance. The authors conclude that, at the margin, medical liability law may have some social benefits after all.


Ben C.J. van Velthoven
Ben van Velthoven is associate professor of law and economics at Leiden University. His research interests are: liability issues, civil litigation, and criminal law enforcement.

Peter W. van Wijck
Peter van Wijck is associate professor of law and economics at Leiden University and coordinator strategy development at the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice. His research interests concern tort law, contract law, civil litigation, and crime.
Artikel

Tenure security in de informele stad in Latijns Amerika

Wanneer recht en realiteit uit elkaar lopen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 01 2009
Auteurs Jean-Louis van Gelder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By the end of 2007, the world’s urban population had outnumbered the amount of people living in rural areas. Urbanization is expected to increase strongly in the developing world over the coming years, most of it through informal ways of accessing land and housing. In the initiatives of governments and donor organizations to deal with these developments, the concept of tenure security features increasingly prominently. It is inter alia expected to encourage investment in housing improvement, facilitate access to public services such as gas, water and electricity and also to make formal credit available. There is, however, no consensus as to what tenure security exactly means or how it is to be established. In the present paper, development policy based on establishing tenure security through land titling is critically examined and with the emphasis on urban informality in Latin America, an alternative concept of tenure security is proposed.


Jean-Louis van Gelder
Jean-Louis van Gelder studeerde Arbeids- & Organisatiepsychologie en Nederlands Recht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Beide achtergronden werden vervolgens gecombineerd in een dissertatie getiteld “The Law and Psychology of Land Tenure Security: Evidence from Buenos Aires”. Sinds maart 2009 is hij als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Naast informaliteit liggen zijn onderzoeksinteresses op het gebied van Law & Development, rechtstheorie, risicoperceptie en –gedrag en de effectiviteit van voorwaardelijke straffen.

Janine Ubink
Janine Ubink (j.m.ubink@law.leidenuniv.nl) is senior researcher law and governance in Africa at the Van Vollenhoven Institute of the law faculty of Leiden University. In 2007 she published her dissertation In the Land of the Chiefs: Customary law, land conflicts, and the role of the state in peri-urban Ghana. She was furthermore involved as researcher and editor in a project comparing land tenure legalisations in eight countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Currently she is conducting research on the possibilities of legal empowerment through engagement with customary law, with a special focus on Namibia.

Karin Nijenhuis
Karin Nijenhuis (nijenhuis@ascleiden.nl) is a human geographer and environmental jurist. She is doing her PhD on the mobility of farmers and conflicts over access to land in Mali at the African Studies Centre, Leiden. In addition she is working as a senior project manager at the Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC) in The Hague.

Michiel Köhne
Michiel Köhne (michiel.kohne@wur.nl) is assistant professor at Law and Governance, Wageningen University. His main topic of interest is the relationships between law and development. He is presently working on two different topics. The first regards rights of indigenous peoples to land and self governance. The second concerns transnational regulation of tropical commodity chains in which western conglomerates of multinationals and NGOs make rules with regard to agrarian production in developing countries.
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