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Artikel

Geen woorden maar daden

De invloed van legitimiteit en vertrouwen op het nalevingsgedrag van verkeersovertreders

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden perceptions of legitimacy, Compliance, procedural justice
Auteurs Marc Hertogh, Bert Schudde en Heinrich Winter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For many years, most regulatory research focused on instrumental motivations for compliance, which emphasize the role of rewards and punishments related to (dis)obeying the law. However, more recent studies have also emphasized the potential role of normative motivations. Using survey data collected from a sample of 1,182 traffic offenders in the Netherlands, and building on the ‘procedural justice model’ which was first developed in Why People Obey the Law (Tyler 1990), this paper explores how perceptions of legitimacy shape regulatory compliance. The study makes three contributions to the literature. First, this study is one of the few studies in which the procedural justice model is tested in Continental Europe. Second, following recent critiques in the literature, the paper introduces three modifications to the original model. Third, and unlike most previous studies, this study is not entirely based on self-reporting by drivers, but includes actual evidence about their behavior as well. With regard to the self-reported level of compliance, our study largely confirms Tyler’s (1990) original findings. Yet with regard to the observed level of compliance, there are also important differences between both studies. These findings will be explained by shifting our focus of attention from Tyler’s ‘universalistic’ approach to ‘legitimacy-in-context’ (Beetham 1991).


Marc Hertogh
Marc Hertogh is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Centrale thema’s in zijn onderzoek zijn de maatschappelijke effecten van wetgeving, de maatschappelijke beleving van recht en rechtsstaat, en de legitimiteit van het overheidsoptreden. Recente publicaties: Scheidende machten: de relatiecrisis tussen politiek en rechtspraak (Boom Juridische uitgevers 2012) en (met Heleen Weyers) Recht van onderop: antwoorden uit de rechtssociologie (Ars Aequi Libri 2011).

Bert Schudde
Bert Schudde studeerde sociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij Pro Facto. Hij heeft brede onderzoekservaring in toegepast beleids- en evaluatieonderzoek, grootschalig surveyonderzoek en kwantitatieve analyse.

Heinrich Winter
Heinrich Winter is directeur van Pro Facto, bureau voor bestuurskundig en juridisch onderzoek, onderwijs en advies. Daarnaast is hij in Groningen bijzonder hoogleraar Toezicht. Hij is veelvuldig betrokken bij wetsevaluaties, waarover hij ook publiceert. Recente publicaties over toezicht zijn ‘Waar blijft het interbestuurlijk toezicht?’, in: Publicaties van de Staatsrechtkring nr. 16 (Wolf Legal Publishers 2012) en ‘Meten van de effecten van toezicht. Yes we can?’, Tijdschrift voor Toezicht 2012/2, p. 63-80. In 2013 schreef hij met Bert Marseille de handleiding Professioneel behandelen van bezwaarschriften voor BZK/Prettig contact met de overheid.
Artikel

Juridische verkaveling van publieke taken: een historische vergelijking van dijkonderhoud en re-integratietaken

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden allotment, legal continuity, work reintegration, collective action
Auteurs Robert Knegt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands the task of reintegrating partially disabled workers into the labour market, that used to be accomplished by collective institutions, has been redistributed by the government to private actors: those who were the last to employ these workers. It is pointed out that this policy choice implies reusing a medieval legal technique and that its use regenerates typical legitimacy problems. Building on Ostrom’s theory of ‘institutions for collective action’, a historical comparison of the organization of dyke maintenance in the Dutch bog peat areas of the 11th-13th centuries and of these recent policies reveals that both are to be analysed in terms of a ‘double allotment’: duties as to collective tasks are allotted to individual participants in a collectivity by linking them up with a preceding allotment of usage rights, legally formalized in terms of ‘private law’. While neoliberal ideology may account for the direction that recent reintegration policies have taken, it is only in the Netherlands that this legal technique has to such an extent been mobilized. This observation raises questions as to long-term continuities in Dutch policies.


Robert Knegt
Robert Knegt is als directeur onderzoek verbonden aan het Hugo Sinzheimer Instituut, centrum voor onderzoek van ‘arbeid en recht’ aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij doet daar onderzoek naar de praktijk van arbeidsrechtelijke regelingen (ontslagrecht, flexwerk, arbeidstijden) en werkt aan een bij uitstek interdisciplinair project over ‘langetermijnontwikkelingen in de regulering van arbeid’. In 2008 verscheen The employment contract as an exclusionary device (Antwerp/Oxford/Portland: Intersentia).
Artikel

Socio-legal Studies in a Transnational World

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet, Betty De Hart en Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The concept of transnationalism refers to border-crossing activities and social relations, such as family relations, migration, international trade and international organisations. It is argued that transnationalism is an important topic in the sociology of law for three reasons: the transnationalisation of law (laws travel across borders), the law under transnationalism (transnational processes affect law) and classic socio-legal themes may gain a new and exciting lease of life when used in a transnational context. Transnationalism touches on the core of the sociology of law: studying the relation between law and society and the social working of law. Socio-legal scholars should look beyond the national borders, include non-state actors in their analysis and take notice of how rules are used in different localities.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.

Betty De Hart
Betty De Hart is associate professor at the Institute for Sociology of Law and the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. She gained her PhD in 2003 with a socio-legal study of Dutch nationals with a migrant partner. She has published widely on family law, migration law and nationality law. Her interest is in the meaning of law in everyday life and in gender, ethnicity and diversity issues. In 2008, she received a personal VIDI grant for excellent researchers from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) for the international comparative research programme ‘Transnational Families between Dutch and Islamic Family Law’.

Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is associate professor of sociology of law at the Radboud University Nijmegen. She publishes on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, experiences of large companies with specialised courts, equal opportunities law, and migration. She is particularly interested in relations between industry and law related to the public interest.
Artikel

Transnational Supermarket Standards in Global Supply Chains

The Emergence and Evolution of GlobalGAP

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, West European supermarkets have been playing an active role in the global regulation of food safety. They have developed several transnational food safety standards and compelled suppliers of food products around the world to acquire certification under these standards. Why and how did supermarkets do this? This article explores the emergence and evolution of transnational supermarket standards by analyzing the development of GlobalGAP, one of the most commonly implemented supermarket standards on farms throughout the world. In the literature, the emergence of transnational regulation is often attributed to one or two factors that play an important role at a particular moment in time. The main argument made in this article is that the emergence of transnational supermarket standards is best understood when it is studied as a process. The development of GlobalGAP includes four main characteristics which may be helpful in analyzing the emergence of other transnational private standards.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.

    This paper presents a reflection on the theoretical work on the social working of law of the past two decades. It is argued that early assumptions, that legal models were becoming increasingly globalised, creating an increasingly uniform body of law, have not come true. The global spread of neo-capitalism has not only given rise to de-juridification, it has also engendered juridification in which ever more sectors of social life, from small scale to global, are being colonised by law. This development is initiated from above and below in equal measure, and concerns not only the law of nation states, but also law created by other actors, including religious law of various provenance. The paper argues that great progress has been made in understanding how transnational law is generated and how law is transnationalised, but that the ways in which these processes work when actors actually use this transnationalised law in contexts of legal pluralism are not yet adequately understood. The paper presents a perspective on transnationalisation of law that is grounded in space, a perspective that may aid our understanding of the social working of law in transnational contexts. The first section provides a brief survey of some of the main academic approaches to processes of transnationalisation. The second section addresses the issue of location and considers what happens in settings where actors use transnationalising law. The conclusions discuss the value of transnational space and transnational legal space as concepts for the analysis of transnationalising law.


Keebet von Benda-Beckmann
Keebet von Benda-Beckmann is head of the Project Group Legal Pluralism at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle. She also holds honorary chairs in social anthropology and legal pluralism at the Universities of Leipzig and Halle. She has carried out research on dispute management, social security, natural resources in West Sumatra, the Moluccas, and in the Netherlands. She has been conducting field research on the effects of decentralisation and reforms of local government in West Sumatra since the fall of the Suharto regime. She has widely published on dispute management, resources, social security, and on theoretical issues of legal pluralism.
Artikel

Wonen, wijken en diversiteit

Een interpretatieve beleidsanalyse van de legitimering van de relatie tussen huisvesting en integratie in ‘probleemwijken’

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden legitimacy, housing, integration, interpretative policy analysis
Auteurs Marleen van der Haar en Ashley Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we study ways in which the relationship between housing and integration of migrants are being justified and legitimated in policy documents from the cities of Arnhem and Nijmegen. Making use of a critical frame analysis, we are particularly interested in the assumptions made with regard to the preferred population composition of neighbourhoods, images of ‘normality’ and ‘the ideal society’. Based on the analysis of a set of policy documents (such as the most recent coalition agreement, housing policy document and several neighbourhood plans of each city) and a pilot study that includes interviews with local administrators and residents of twelve neighbourhoods, we found that most problems that are being related to residential segregation in neighbourhoods are defined in socio-economic terms. In general, the data show that the mixing of people with different socio-economic positions is thought to be the solution to this problem. References to migrants are mainly indirect: many documents mention that a large part of the poor people are migrants. The issue of integration is mostly dealt with in documents that focus on so-called ‘problem neighbourhoods’. We conclude that the desirability of diverse neighbourhoods in terms of types of housing and groups of people is widespread. Yet the assumptions on which these ideas are built remain largely implicit.


Marleen van der Haar
Marleen van der Haar is postdoc onderzoeker en docent bij het Institute for Management Research, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Op dit moment doet zij (samen met Mieke Verloo en Iris van Huis) een studie naar organisaties in de publieke sector die projecten uitvoeren met als doel bepaalde mannen te emanciperen en te activeren. Hiervoor deed zij (samen met Dvora Yanow) aan de Vrije Universiteit onderzoek naar de implicaties van het gebruik van de beleidstermen allochtoon en autochtoon. In 2007 promoveerde zij op een proefschrift over de manieren waarop professionele repertoires van maatschappelijk werkers beïnvloed worden door hulpverlening aan een cultureel divers cliëntenbestand. Kenmerkend voor haar werk is het gebruik van een combinatie van kritische frameanalyse en etnografisch onderzoek.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Zij studeerde rechten aan de Universiteit Utrecht en werkte onder meer als wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het stafbureau Vreemdelingenzaken van de Rechtbank Den Haag en als hoofd van de afdeling Vluchtelingen bij Amnesty International Nederland. In 2003 promoveerde zij aan de Radboud Universiteit op een rechtssociologisch onderzoek naar samenwerking tussen vreemdelingenrechters. In de periode 2004-2008 was zij als commissielid verbonden aan de Commissie gelijke behandeling. Zij publiceert op het gebied van gelijke behandeling, rechtspleging en migratierecht.
Artikel

Verzet tegen gedoogbeleid: iets typisch rechts?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden punitive turn, political conservatism, ‘gedoogbeleid’, administrative tolerance
Auteurs Peter Mascini en Dick Houtman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article demonstrates on the basis of a representative survey among the Dutch population (N=1,892) that it is not necessarily politically ‘rightist’ or ‘conservative’ to resist the toleration of illegal activities (‘gedoogbeleid’). Even though, generally speaking, political conservatives are most likely to be critical, this is merely because they unconsciously associate the latter with practices of tolerating illegal activities by marginal individuals. Whereas conservatives hence oppose the latter more than political progressives do, the latter for their part are more critical than conservatives about tolerating illegal activities by official agencies. These findings illustrate that gedoogbeleid does not have a universal legitimacy in the eyes of the public, but that its legitimacy is determined case by case by the concrete aims and targets addressed by this policy instrument.


Peter Mascini
Peter Mascini is universitair docent sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zijn onderzoek richt zich op de legitimiteit, uitvoering en handhaving van publiek beleid. Hierover heeft hij onder andere gepubliceerd in Law and Policy, Regulation and Governance, British Journal of Criminology, International Migration Review en Tijdschrift voor Criminologie.

Dick Houtman
Dick Houtman is als hoogleraar cultuursociologie verbonden aan het Centre for Rotterdam Cultural Sociology (CROCUS) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij verricht overwegend onderzoek naar de spiritualisering van religie en de culturalisering van de politiek in hedendaagse westerse samenlevingen. Zijn twee recentste boeken zijn Religions of modernity (2010; red. met Stef Aupers) en Paradoxes of individualization (in druk; met Stef Aupers en Willem de Koster).
Artikel

Ik en mijn medepatiënt

Juridisering in de gezondheidszorg

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden market of health care, legalization, patients rights
Auteurs Margo Trappenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two types of legalization can be distinguished. In type 1 legal relations between parties are changed, without consequences for others. In legalization type 2 a change in legal positions does have consequences for third parties. The gradual change in the legal position of patients, managerial measures and the transition to ‘demand driven care’ have changed the relations between patients and doctors, nurses etc. But they had also profound external effects. They have influenced especially other interests than the quality of medical care, like equal treatment of patients and professional discretion. Decision making about the granting of rights should incorporate these external effects.


Margo Trappenburg
Margo Trappenburg is universitair hoofddocent bij de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschappen en bijzonder hoogleraar sociaal-politieke aspecten van de verzorgingsstaat aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij schrijft over gezondheidszorgbeleid, ethische kwesties in de zorg en over rechtvaardigheidsvraagstukken. In 2008 verscheen van haar hand Genoeg is genoeg. Over gezondheidszorg en democratie. Meer informatie op www.margotrappenburg.nl.
Artikel

Draagt aansprakelijkheidsrecht bij aan de voedselveiligheid?

Over de preventieve werking van schadeclaims en aansprakelijkheidsverzekering

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden voedselveiligheid, regulering, aansprakelijkheid, aansprakelijkheidsverzekering, preventie, schadeclaim, ‘moreel risico’, voedingsindustrie, productaansprakelijkheid, sociale werking
Auteurs Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most research on food safety has focussed on direct forms of food safety regulation. This paper explores the opportunities for product liability law to encourage food safety measures within firms. It aims to contribute to the discussion on the role public and private actors could have in providing an effective food safety system. Liability law is assumed to promote food safety. The author distinguishes three ways in which liability law could act as an incentive for firms to implement enhanced food safety controls: liability claims, liability insurance and direct effects of liability law on management strategy. The paper concludes that the assumption that liability laws make firms sensitive to prevention of food safety risks is too optimistic. However, liability law could stimulate a culture within firms to take responsibility for food safety. Existing economic and legal analysis could gain from a sociological analysis of the actual impact of liability on company decisions.


Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is universitair hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Rechtssociologie van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Zij verricht rechtssociologisch onderzoek op diverse terreinen, waaronder de relaties tussen het bedrijfsleven en recht, regulering van voedsel, beleidsuitvoering, arbeidsrecht en gelijke behandeling. Ze is co-auteur van Specialisatie loont?! Ervaringen van ondernemingen met specialistische rechtspraakvoorzieningen (2010).

Karin Nijenhuis
Karin Nijenhuis (nijenhuis@ascleiden.nl) is a human geographer and environmental jurist. She is doing her PhD on the mobility of farmers and conflicts over access to land in Mali at the African Studies Centre, Leiden. In addition she is working as a senior project manager at the Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC) in The Hague.

Michiel Köhne
Michiel Köhne (michiel.kohne@wur.nl) is assistant professor at Law and Governance, Wageningen University. His main topic of interest is the relationships between law and development. He is presently working on two different topics. The first regards rights of indigenous peoples to land and self governance. The second concerns transnational regulation of tropical commodity chains in which western conglomerates of multinationals and NGOs make rules with regard to agrarian production in developing countries.
Artikel

The Process of Interlegality in a Situation of Formal Legal

Pluralism: A Case Study from La Cocha, Ecuador

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2009
Auteurs Marc Simon Thomas
Auteursinformatie

Marc Simon Thomas
Marc Simon Thomas (m.a.simonthomas@uu.nl) is a PhD candidate at the Centre for Latin American Research and Education (CEDLA) in Amsterdam and Utrecht University, and affiliated as a tutor at the Department of Cultural Anthropology of Utrecht University. He obtained a Dutch law degree at the University of Leiden in 1992. After a decade of work experience in business services, he continued his academic career in Cultural Anthropology at Utrecht University where he graduated in 2006 (cum laude). Next, he received his masters degree in Latin American Studies at CEDLA in 2008. His current research interest concern indigenous rights and legal consciousness in Ecuador.

Devyani Prabhat
Devyani Prabhat is PhD candidate in sociology at New York University. – 2001 Law degree (India), 2004 Law degree (US); 2008 MA (Sociology). 2001-2003 Lawyer (New Delhi); 2003 clerk for the Indian Supreme Court; 2005 attorney (New York). Research interests include legitimacy, social movements, professional autonomy; lawyers. Recent publications: Entries on Anti-terror laws (Greenwood Press Criminal Justice Encyclopedia), Desis, San Antonio case, Fordice Case and Cisneros case (all Brown v. Board of Education progeny cases on desegregation of American educational institutes) for the Sage Russell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society (2007).

Robert Knegt
Robert Knegt is Research director of the Hugo Sinzheimer Instituut (UvA, Amsterdam). 1979 Law degree/1982 MA Sociology/1986 PhD. His research interests incluse implementation of social security schemes, rules and practices as to dismissal and to other situations of deconstructing socio-economic relations and a historical-sociological approach of labour law as it has developed from the 11th century, with special interest in the formative role of legal concepts in the development of socio-economic/labour relations. Recent publication: The Employment Contract as an Exclusionary Device (Intersentia, 2008).
Artikel

Escaping the Iron Cage

Framing Weber’s Concept of Legitimacy

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2008
Auteurs Erik de Bakker
Auteursinformatie

Erik de Bakker
Erik de Bakker is senior researcher at LEI Wageningen UR (Department of Public Issues). - 1992 MA Sociology and Philosophy, 2001 PhD Sociology of Law. His research interests are consumer concerns and applied ethics in the field of food policy. Recent publications: Grenzen aan governance: Een analyse van toezicht op controle. (Bestuurskunde, 2007, co-author); Integrity and Cynicism: Possibilities and Constraints of Moral Communication (Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2007).

Enrico Peuker
Enrico Peuker is Research Assistant at the Institute of Public Law, European Law and Public International Law at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. – 2006 Law Degree. Research on German Public Law, European Law, Public International Law and Problems of Legitimacy in the European Joint Administration. Recent Publications: Das Dogma der Unantastbarkeit. (Juristenzeitung 2007, together with D. Seifarth); Finanzwirksame Volksbegehren im Verfassungsstaat – Das Beispiel der Initiative ‘Für eine bessere Familienpolitik in Thüringen. (Thüringer Verwaltungsblätter 2007); Das Wahlrecht zum Europäischen Parlament als Achillesferse der europäischen Demokratie (Zeitschrift für Europarechtliche Studien 2008).
Artikel

The Dynamics of Legitimacy

A Critical Reconstruction of Max Weber’s Concept

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2008
Auteurs Oliver Lembcke
Auteursinformatie

Oliver Lembcke
Oliver Lembcke is Assistant Professor of political theory at Friedrich- Schiller-University, Jena; secretary general of the Hellmuth Loening Center for Political Science – 1995 MA Political Science, 2002 Mediator, 2004 PhD - Research on political theory and legal theory; history of political ideas; ethics and politics. Recent publications: Hüter der Verfassung. Eine institutionentheoretische Studie zur Autorität des Bundesverfassungs-gerichts. (Tübingen 2007); Des Menschen Würde – entdeckt und erfunden im Humanismus der italienischen Renaissance (Politika, 2008).

Niels van van Manen
Niels van Manen is lecturer General Jurisprudence at the Law Faculty of the University of Amsterdam, substitute judge in the High Court of Amsterdam, and chairman of the Committee on Police complaints in Amsterdam- Amstelland. See for research subjects and recent publications: http://home.medewerker.uva.nl/n.f.vanmanen/ .

Joris Kocken
Joris Kocken is Associate Professor of conflict resolution at the University of Amsterdam. – 1989 MA Sociology/ 1997 PhD/ 2000 Law degree LL.M. - 2000 Mediator. Research: Conflict theory, international conflicts and rule of law, (legal) conflict resolution, ADR, professional ethics for lawyers and mediators.
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