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Artikel

Tenure security in de informele stad in Latijns Amerika

Wanneer recht en realiteit uit elkaar lopen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 01 2009
Auteurs Jean-Louis van Gelder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By the end of 2007, the world’s urban population had outnumbered the amount of people living in rural areas. Urbanization is expected to increase strongly in the developing world over the coming years, most of it through informal ways of accessing land and housing. In the initiatives of governments and donor organizations to deal with these developments, the concept of tenure security features increasingly prominently. It is inter alia expected to encourage investment in housing improvement, facilitate access to public services such as gas, water and electricity and also to make formal credit available. There is, however, no consensus as to what tenure security exactly means or how it is to be established. In the present paper, development policy based on establishing tenure security through land titling is critically examined and with the emphasis on urban informality in Latin America, an alternative concept of tenure security is proposed.


Jean-Louis van Gelder
Jean-Louis van Gelder studeerde Arbeids- & Organisatiepsychologie en Nederlands Recht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Beide achtergronden werden vervolgens gecombineerd in een dissertatie getiteld “The Law and Psychology of Land Tenure Security: Evidence from Buenos Aires”. Sinds maart 2009 is hij als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Naast informaliteit liggen zijn onderzoeksinteresses op het gebied van Law & Development, rechtstheorie, risicoperceptie en –gedrag en de effectiviteit van voorwaardelijke straffen.
Artikel

De fictie van de constitutie

Over de maatschappelijke functie van ontwerp-denken

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 01 2009
Auteurs Olaf Tans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution seeks to explain our commitment to the ambition to establish constitutional government, given the fact that this ambition appears to be unsuccessful. As for the latter, it is argued that the constitutional ambition is unsuccessful in that it is based on the idea of legal closure, whereas the practice of constitutional decision-making shows a continuous failure to establish such closure. To explain why political communities are nevertheless drawn to the constitutional ambition, this contribution defends that the idea of the constution as a governing normative framework functions as a useful fiction. This fiction, so the argument goes, facilitates a certain kind of public debate that enables political communities to express their collective identity.


Olaf Tans
Olaf Tans is verbonden aan de Afdeling Rechtstheorie en Rechtsgeschiedenis van de Vrije Universiteit. Centraal in zijn onderzoek staat de communicatietheoretische analyse van de relatie tussen constitutionele normen en politieke gemeenschappen. Verder heeft hij gepubliceerd over argumentatieleer, rechtsvinding en de rol van nationale parlementen in Europa.
Artikel

Rookverboden

Surfen op golven van een veranderende maatschappelijke norm

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 01 2009
Auteurs Heleen Weyers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Like surfers, legislators … who wish to change everyday social norms must wait for signs of a rising cultural support, catching it at just the right time... (Kagan and Skolnick 1993: 85) The empirical study of the relation between the way a law comes into being and its effectiveness in practice is an underdeveloped subject in the sociology of law. In this article this relation is studied with respect to smoking bans in the Netherlands. The focus is on private companies in general, with special attention for Dutch cafés, bars, hotels and restaurants (where such a ban was recently introduced). Dutch smoking bans in private establishments were only enacted after the government was convinced of public support and after a period of selfregulation. This proved to be a good preparation. The general picture of the relation between the emergence and the effectiveness of smoking bans in Dutch hotels, restaurants etc. is much the same. However, there is one sector - bars, pubs and the like – in which the smoking ban has encountered problems. In this sector a fourth of the establishments refuse to comply. A question addressed in this article is whether the legislator acted too precipitously with respect to this sector. This is obviously the case: there is less public support for smoking bans in such establishments and there had not been a preparatory period of selfregulation.


Heleen Weyers
Heleen Weyers is universitair docent bij de vakgroep Rechtstheorie van de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Ze promoveerde op een onderzoek naar de totstandkoming van de euthanasieregelgeving in Nederland. Sindsdien publiceert zij onderzoek waarin de verklarende kracht van veranderingen in waardes en vertrouwen voor de totstandkoming van dit type regelgeving wordt onderzocht.
Artikel

Constitutioneel bewustzijn in Nederland:

Van burgerzin, burgerschap en de onzichtbare Grondwet

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 02 2009
Auteurs Barbara Oomen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Faced with increased individualization, debates on immigration and interna-tionalization, the Dutch government has recently appointed a Constitutional Review Commission to strengthen the Dutch constitution and enhance its social relevance. It is against this background that this article examines the place that the Dutch constitution currently holds in empirical and discursive understand-ings of citizenship in the Netherlands. From the vantage point of citizenship discourse, the interpretation of citizenship (burgerschap) in the Netherlands amongst policy-makers and the public at large hinges on civicness rather than on democratic citizenship, and departs from a strongly assimilationist perspec-tive: ‘burgerschap’ is essentially about participating in and adapting to the dominant culture. From the vantage point of the constitution, the current consti-tution’s main function is legal: constituting government powers and limiting their exercise. Legal scholars emphasize that the Dutch constitution hardly has a more symbolic or social role. These facts are contrasted with data from a representative survey under the Dutch adult population, which demonstrates how the Dutch hardly know anything about the contents of the constitution, but do have great confidence in the document, and consider it to be very important. Interestingly, respondents also emphasize the symbolic and societal function, in addition to the legal function of the constitution. This seems to point towards the possibility of an understanding of Dutch citizenship more firmly based upon the values embodied in the constitution.


Barbara Oomen
Barbara Oomenis docent rechten aan de Roosevelt Academy en is bij-zonder hoogleraar rechtspluralisme aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Haar belangstelling gaat uit naar rechtssociologische vraagstukken op het terrein van culturele diversiteit, constitutionalisme en de doorwerking van internationale mensenrechten. Zij is voorzitter van het Platform Mensenrechteneducatie, lid van de Commissie Mensenrechten van de Adviesraad Internationale Vraag-stukken en lid van de Staatscommissie Grondwet.
Artikel

In blijde verwachting?

Een analyse van de oordelen van de Commissie Gelijke Behandeling over zwangerschapsdiscriminatie

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 02 2009
Auteurs Kirsten Bolier en Nienke Doornbos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we report on our research which aimed to investigate which fac-tors influence the outcome of pregnancy discrimination cases of the Dutch Equal Treatment Commission (CGB) and the compliance of respondents with this outcome. We studied equal treatment legislation and all 188 cases between the period of September 1994 and March 2008. The results show that equal treatment legislation hardly leaves any room for objections raised by the re-spondents. The arguments made by the employers are often based on financial or other business-related burdens, even though these arguments are legally irrelevant. We assume that the strictness of the legislation might cause the lack of willingness to comply with the outcome. This presumption is confirmed by the fact that the legal representatives of employers put forward these irrelevant arguments as well. Furthermore, the results show that the nature of the relation of the applicant with the respondent has an influence on the compliance of the respondent with the outcome. Respondents are more likely to comply in cases where the applicant is already working for the employer instead of applying for a job. The results also show that non-profit organizations are more likely to comply with the outcome than profit organizations.


Kirsten Bolier
Kirsten Boliervolgt de Legal Research Master van het Departement Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij deed in opdracht van de Commissie Gelijke Behandeling onderzoek naar de oordelen met betrekking tot zwangerschapsdiscriminatie. Haar afstudeeronderzoek betreft een juridisch onderzoek naar algemene rechtsbeginselen in het EG-recht.

Nienke Doornbos
Nienke Doornbosis universitair docente Rechtssociologie bij het Depar-tement Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij promoveerde in 2006 op een rechtssociologisch onderzoek naar de wijze waarop asielzoekers worden gehoord in het kader van de asielprocedure. Haar onderzoeksinteresses betref-fen onder meer de wisselwerking tussen recht en communicatie en het functio-neren van klachten- en geschillenprocedures.
Artikel

Over de instabiele betekenis van staatsburgerschap, staatloosheid en juridisch vreemdelingenschap

Nederlandse politieke vertogen over de burger- schapsstatus van 'postkoloniale' burgers

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 02 2009
Auteurs Guno Jones
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article demonstrates how Dutch politicians have in- and excluded people from the former overseas Dutch colonies in/from the Dutch legal and imagined community, against the backdrop of decolonization and increased migration to the Netherlands. Political discourses by members of the Dutch Government and Parliament in the wake of World War II demonstrate the contingent meaning of Dutch citizenship of people in and from the (former) Dutch colonies of Indone-sia, Suriname and the Dutch Antilles. These discourses not only illustrate that formal Dutch nationality as such can proof to be an uncertain status that can be lost. They also illuminate how politicians have redefined the meaning of Dutch citizenship of people from the colonies (who remained Dutch citizens) in con-nection with discourses on their identities. As a consequence, their rights of free migration and settlement in the Netherlands were problematized, both symbolically and via policies. However, Dutch political discourses and related policies are also characterized by instances of partial inclusion of legal aliens and stateless people from the former colonies who lost Dutch citizenship, often to compensate for political injustices in the past. Agency by postcolonial citi-zens played an important role in bringing about these changes. In sum, formal citizenship, statelessness and legal alienage turned out not to be stable predictors of positions in Dutch society: their meaning was and is constantly mediated by power relations.


Guno Jones
Guno Jones is als postdoc verbonden aan de faculteit der Geestesweten-schappen van Universiteit van Amsterdam (leerstoelgroepen Cultuurgeschiede-nis van Europa & Nederlandse geschiedenis). Hij promoveerde in 2007 op een proefschrift waarin de Nederlandse politieke vertogen over het nationale toebe-horen van burgers uit de Nederlandse (ex) kolonies Indonesië, Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen centraal stonden. Hij publiceerde hierover verscheidene artikelen. Momenteel doet hij een comparatief onderzoek op dit terrein. Daarin vergelijkt hij de Nederlandse situatie met die in andere Europese landen. Daarnaast doet hij (in samenwerking met Esther Captain) onderzoek naar het erfgoed van en de herinnering aan de Tweede Wereldoorlog in de (voormalige) Nederlandse kolonies.

Rafael Wittek

Jonelle Armstrong
Jonelle Armstrong is a graduate of the European Erasmus Mundus master program in Humanitarian Assistance (NOHA), during which the research for this paper was carried out. Since then she served as a base manager for Medair in North Uganda, and recently was appointed base manager of the Disaster Management Team of Tearfund's North Sudan Programme.

Wibo van Rossum
Wibo van Rossum (w.vanrossum@uu.nl) is lecturer in legal theory at Utrecht University. He teaches courses in sociology of law, comparative legal cultures, and (at Erasmus University Rotterdam) anthropology of law. He published on the ritual behaviour of Turkish defendants in court, on the religious law and legal procedure of the alevis, on the influence of minority cultures in family and labour law cases, and on legal pluralistic family law among Moroccan immigrants.

Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker (a.bocker@jur.ru.nl) is associate professor at the Institute for Sociology of Law in Nijmegen. Her PhD thesis (Radboud University Nijmegen 1994) dealt with the impact of the Dutch state system of social security on informal social security arrangements within Turkish migrant families and networks. Her current research topics include the social security strategies of older migrants and ethnic diversity in the judiciary in old and new countries of immigration.

Joke Kusters
Joke Kusters (joke.kusters@ua.ac.be) studied law at the University of Antwerp and Social and Cultural Anthropology at the University of Leuven. From 2002-2008 she did doctoral research in the field of legal anthropology at the University of Antwerp and during 2009, she was visiting research scholar at the Cardozo School of Law. Her main research areas are the Jewish communities of Antwerp and the state legal approach of Romani culture.

Laurens Bakker
Laurens Bakker (l.bakker@jur.ru.nl) is a researcher and lecturer at the Institute of Cultural Anthropology and Development Studies and the Institute of Sociology of Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Janine Ubink
Janine Ubink (j.m.ubink@law.leidenuniv.nl) is senior researcher law and governance in Africa at the Van Vollenhoven Institute of the law faculty of Leiden University. In 2007 she published her dissertation In the Land of the Chiefs: Customary law, land conflicts, and the role of the state in peri-urban Ghana. She was furthermore involved as researcher and editor in a project comparing land tenure legalisations in eight countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Currently she is conducting research on the possibilities of legal empowerment through engagement with customary law, with a special focus on Namibia.

Karin Nijenhuis
Karin Nijenhuis (nijenhuis@ascleiden.nl) is a human geographer and environmental jurist. She is doing her PhD on the mobility of farmers and conflicts over access to land in Mali at the African Studies Centre, Leiden. In addition she is working as a senior project manager at the Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC) in The Hague.

Michiel Köhne
Michiel Köhne (michiel.kohne@wur.nl) is assistant professor at Law and Governance, Wageningen University. His main topic of interest is the relationships between law and development. He is presently working on two different topics. The first regards rights of indigenous peoples to land and self governance. The second concerns transnational regulation of tropical commodity chains in which western conglomerates of multinationals and NGOs make rules with regard to agrarian production in developing countries.

André J. Hoekema
André J Hoekema (a.j.hoekema@uva.nl) held a chair in Sociology of Law in the law faculty of the Universiteit van Amsterdam, and now holds a chair in Legal Pluralism. The last 15 years or so he is paying special attention to problems of multi-ethnic states, particularly the legal position of indigenous peoples and of minority communities. At home he studies multicultural tendencies in family law and other legal fields, abroad he addresses legal pluralism and its place within development policies and philosophies, concentrating on matters like land and territorial rights, legal reform, and ways to ‘pluralize’ the state and its legal order, mostly in Latin American and some African countries. Recent publications: J.M. Ubink, A.J. Hoekema, W.J. Assies (eds.), Legalising Land Rights; Local Practices, State Responses and Tenure Security in Africa, Asia and Latin America (Leiden 2009); R.Grillo, R. Ballard, A. Ferrari, A.J.Hoekema, M. Maussen & P.Shaw (eds), Legal practice and cultural diversity, Farnham UK (Aldershot, 2009).
Artikel

The Process of Interlegality in a Situation of Formal Legal

Pluralism: A Case Study from La Cocha, Ecuador

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2009
Auteurs Marc Simon Thomas
Auteursinformatie

Marc Simon Thomas
Marc Simon Thomas (m.a.simonthomas@uu.nl) is a PhD candidate at the Centre for Latin American Research and Education (CEDLA) in Amsterdam and Utrecht University, and affiliated as a tutor at the Department of Cultural Anthropology of Utrecht University. He obtained a Dutch law degree at the University of Leiden in 1992. After a decade of work experience in business services, he continued his academic career in Cultural Anthropology at Utrecht University where he graduated in 2006 (cum laude). Next, he received his masters degree in Latin American Studies at CEDLA in 2008. His current research interest concern indigenous rights and legal consciousness in Ecuador.
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