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Artikel

Bemiddeling in strafzaken in België

Een blik op een gediversifieerde praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Penal mediation, Justice assistants, Direct and indirect mediation, compensation
Auteurs Dieter Burssens, Alexia Jonckheere en Christophe Mincke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1994, public prosecutors in Belgium can propose ‘penal mediation’ to criminal suspects. The supervision and follow-up of this procedure are provided by ‘justice assistants’ (comparable to probation officers), who systematically record crucial information and register it in the national database SIPAR. An exploration of this database reveals interesting insights regarding the actual practice of penal mediation. On the basis of the available data we also examined whether or not we could find relevant correlations between characteristics of (offenders in) cases and the extent to which cases have resulted in an agreement and proper compliance with that agreement. Finally, for a better comprehension of the actual practice of penal mediation in Belgium twelve interviews with justice assistants have been conducted.


Dieter Burssens
Dieter Burssens is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie in Brussel.

Alexia Jonckheere
Alexia Jonckheere is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie.

Christophe Mincke
Christophe Mincke is operationeel directeur van de Operationele Directie van het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie.
Artikel

Het Duitse recht op nevengeschikt aanklagen

De volledige integratie van het slachtoffer in het strafproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Accessory prosecution, victims, Victim lawyers, Secondary victimization, punishment
Auteurs Michael Kilchling en Helmut Kury
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the German concept of accessory prosecution (Nebenklage) is discussed. The Nebenklage was implemented in the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1877. It had merely an accessory function in conjunction with the private prosecution and the Klageerzwingungsverfahren, two legal institutions which had little practical relevance. Nowadays, in the course of the modern victim movement, the Nebenklage has radically changed into an instrument that is clearly provided as the main participatory option for victims interested in actively contributing to the trial of ‘their’ criminal. Previous research findings are outlined and the results of an explorative survey are presented. The findings suggest that the mere presence of the victim lawyer can significantly change the atmosphere in the courtroom, thus enhancing the willingness of the defence to treat the victim more respectfully.


Michael Kilchling
Michael Kilchling is criminoloog en is werkzaam aan het Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht in Freiburg (Duitsland), en is daarnaast voorzitter van het European Forum for Restorative Justice.

Helmut Kury
Helmut Kury was hoogleraar psychologie en criminologie en was onder andere verbonden aan het Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht in Freiburg (Duitsland).
Artikel

Conferencing internationaal: vaker toegepast dan gedacht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden Conferencing, Internationale toepassing
Auteurs Estelle Zinsstag en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Conferencing is a restorative justice practice which has started developing quite consistently since the 1990s, in majority in Anglophone countries such as New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Canada or the UK and in particular with consistently promising results for juvenile justice in Northern Ireland. Some continental European, Latin American and African countries are also starting to introduce this alternative to traditional criminal justice, especially in the case of juvenile justice, with some equally promising results. This article presents up-to-date information about the state of conferencing in the world and discusses some of the major conclusions that have come out of a European research project and book.


Estelle Zinsstag
Estelle Zinsstag is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en coördineert een EC Daphne project rond seksueel geweld en herstelrecht. Ze is managing editor van Restorative Justice: An International Journal.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en manager van een Europees FP7 project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten.
Artikel

De vrijwilliger-ondersteuner en het herstelgericht groepsoverleg

Een experiment binnen de bemiddelingsdienst van Leuven (BAL)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden Vrijwilliger ondersteuner, hergo
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches an experiment initiated by a local mediation service in Flanders (BAL) with regard to the role of a supporting volunteer in the context of family group conferencing. Engaged as researchers in this experiment, the authors reconstruct the conceptual challenges of this project and the solution proposed by the team of mediators. One of these challenges revolves around finding an appropriative account of restorative justice that fits with the aims of the Belgian conferencing practice and clarifies the role of the supporting volunteer. Another comes down to distinguishing this role with the essential tasks of the moderator, and formulating deontological devices. In the last part of this contribution a few learning points are formulated with regard to the process and results of the experiment. One of these points is the need to rethink how successfully offering the possibility of engaging a supporting volunteer to the stake holding parties.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is docent filosofie en recht aan de Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUB), opleiding sociaal werk. Hij is projectleider van de onderzoeksprojecten ‘Herstelbemiddeling en vrijwilligers’ (2010-2013) en ‘Herstelrecht en interculturele spanningen in Brussel’, gefinancierd door PWO-financiering van de HUB.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie Van Daele is stafmedewerkerster bij Socius en voormalig onderzoeksmedewerkster op het onderzoeksproject ‘Herstelbemiddeling en vrijwilligers’.
Artikel

Actieve rechtvaardigheid

Herstelrecht als vruchtbare bodem voor de uitoefening van burgerschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2013
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article reflects on the conceptual work undertaken during the first year of ALTERNATIVE, a project coordinated by KU Leuven. The overall objective of the project is to provide an alternative and deepened understanding of justice and security based on empirical evidence of how to handle conflicts within intercultural contexts, mainly through the active participation of citizens. The paper focuses mainly on the relation of the concept of citizenship with restorative justice, especially as viewed and enacted in the four intercultural settings of the ALTERNATIVE project. Several issues are discussed: the concept of participatory citizenship in relation to crime and conflict; the claim of the discourse of restorative justice to the concept of participatory citizenship and democracy and the challenges in the restorative justice discourse that complicate its relationship to participatory citizenship. Next, insight is provided in the ways the ALTERNATIVE project tries to tackle some of these challenges, by exploring and strengthening the relationship between the concept of active citizenship and justice in Europe. By targeting the intercultural field the ALTERNATIVE aims to explore the potential of mediation services and restorative justice models to engage with macro societal conflicts that are not referred to these services by the criminal justice system, and on the other hand expand the way some of the crimes referred by the criminal justice system are handled by the mediation services alternatively by fostering alliances with various civil society organisations. Employing ‘action research’ methodology, it is argued that the concept and framework of ‘nodal governance’ (Shearing and Wood, 2003) can serve to support participatory modes of conflict regulation. Interactive settings are created, which allow for spaces between informal and formal justice, and between justice mechanisms at the individual and at the societal level (Aertsen, 2001, 2008). Arguments are provided in support of the need to promote broader models of restorative justice which are able to address social and systemic crimes and conflicts, and which will help the theory and practice of RJ to move beyond the individualisation of crime and its remedies.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is onderzoekster aan het Criminologisch Instituut, KU Leuven (LINC). Daar werkt zij aan een proefschrift over ethiek en herstelrecht, als onderdeel van het onderzoek verricht binnen het ALTERNATIVE-project.

    Utrecht, the fourth largest city of The Netherlands, is addressing resolving social conflict by promoting schools to adhere to the Peaceful School Program and civilians and professionals to join the Peaceful Neighborhood Program. The Peaceful School Program is designed to address problematic behavior of youth in primary, secondary and high school education and evolved into a democratic and participatory citizenship program. The Peaceful Neighborhood Program is involving important organizations that are active within the neighborhood, members of the community and stake-holders to adapt peaceful attitudes in daily life, including a mind-set that addresses conflicts by resolving them (together).
    These two programs are in the process of ‘conquering’ the whole of the city of Utrecht and every single neighborhood. The so-called Utrecht Model for Mediation is supporting these Peaceful Programs, through empowering citizens and professional to enhance their ‘peaceful skills’ and skills for conflict resolution. Citizens and professionals are being trained to develop this mindset. The Utrecht Model for Mediation is organizing a community of mediators that can be of help. A pool of volunteer mediators is being formed to help organizations, professionals, parents, students and members of the community in case of problems, tensions, problematic behavior of youth groups, etcetera. Professional mediators intervene in case of escalated conflicts and penal cases.


Janny Dierx
Janny Dierx werkt als adviseur en mediator en is ambassadeur van de Stichting mediation in strafzaken. Zij is tevens lid van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht.

Caroline Verhoeff
Caroline Verhoeff is Directeur Kwaliteit bij de Stichting Primair Onderwijs Utrecht en stedelijk coördinator Vreedzame Wijkaanpak.
Artikel

Recht op kwaliteit, maar geen recht op toegang

Herstelrecht in de EU-regelgeving omtrent slachtoffers van misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Restorative justice, Victims’ rights, EU-legislation, framework decision 2001, directive 2012
Auteurs Katrien Lauwaert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some ten years ago, victim-offender mediation was introduced for the first time in EU-legislation through article 10 of the 2001 framework decision on the standing of victims in criminal proceedings. In 2012 this framework decision was replaced by a more extensive directive establishing minimum standards for victims of crime. This article examines the position of restorative justice in this new legal instrument. The outcome is mixed. The emphasis on safeguards in case restorative justice is applied is a positive move towards good practices, but it is disappointing that a right to access restorative justice services was not adopted.


Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is onderzoeker bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice en het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) op een Europees project rond desistance en herstelrecht en is tevens redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Wraak, recht en slachtofferbehoeften

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden revenge, retributive emotions, victim impact statements, victim needs, penal populism
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Considerable political pressure is currently being brought to impose severe punishments, and it is frequently suggested that these punishments would enhance the wellbeing of victims and achieve ‘closure’. Populist images, such as ‘victims have a right to revenge’ have gained great influence. To what extent would therapeutic professionals have to support victim needs that are shaped within such punitive contexts? In this paper it is first argued that revenge embraces ambivalent meanings. Although avengers are lauded in the popular imagination, feelings of revenge are still viewed as ethically unacceptable. In recent decades, however, a penal populism has been gaining ground as a result of which revenge was stripped of its pejorative associations. In a punitive climate it is believed that victims would demand harsher penalties and that such penalties would promote closure and peace. Research findings show however that revenge may bring temporary relief, but anger rumination precludes healing. Subsequently the question is discussed whether two different forms of victim participation, victim impact statements and restorative justice conferences, might temper revenge feelings. Because VIS-participants (dealing with high levels of anger and fear) believe that their statements will culminate in longer sentences, they are generally frustrated that the imposed sentence is not tough enough. After the procedure they keep on viewing the offender as a malign person. Restorative procedures generally show an opposite picture. Finally this paper is criticizing the tendency of victim-oriented therapeutization within criminal justice and restorative justice. It is argued that the voice of the victim and the process of emotional healing should be separated strictly.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschappen van de faculteit der sociale wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is hij verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen). Hij verricht onderzoek op het grensvlak van ethiek, criminologie en de sociale wetenschappen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, burgerschap en lokale veiligheidszorg, sanctietheorieën en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl.
Artikel

De publieke emoties na een misdrijf en het beschavingsproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden public emotions, civilisation process, punishment, inclusion, exclusion
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tendency to revalorise emotions in the response to offending, seems to face a dilemma. On the one hand, experiencing crime and reacting to it inevitably are imbued by emotion. On the other hand, giving way to emotions in responding to crime entails the risks of disproportionate and unequal justice. This article argues that there is a fundamental difference between the emotions promoted to be included in the response to crime and the emotions feared as a risk to overwhelm good and proportionate jurisprudence. The first ones focus on the needs of the immediate stakeholders of the offence and seek their (re-)inclusion. The second type of emotions focuses on the criminal act and seeks to keep the threat it represents under control through punishment and incapacitation. It is a socio-ethical choice to promote the inclusionary approach. Whereas the rehabilitative approach has addressed the needs of the offenders only, the restorative tendency addresses the needs of both the victim and the offenders in a more balanced way. This balance also helps to avoid that respectful responses to crime degrade into norm erosion. The option for revalorising inclusionary emotions in the response to crime through restorative justice is located as a next phase in the civilisation process, described originally by Elias.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Over het denken en voelen achter straf- en herstel(recht)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden cognitive emotion theory, punishment, interconnectedness, (ir)rationality, mysticism
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article attention is paid to the thoughts and feelings which underlie criminal law and restorative justice, as well as the question whether those thoughts and feelings have to be regarded as rational or irrational. For this purpose, the author has firstly examined the relationship between thinking and feeling from the perspective of the so-called cognitive emotion theory as put forth by the American philosopher Martha Nussbaum and the Dutch philosopher Mirjam van Reijen. In addition, this contribution also addresses the ideas of the Stoics, Spinoza and Schopenhauer, since the aforementioned theory goes back on the ideas of these philosophers. These philosophers depart from the view on man and world in which interconnectedness plays an important role – as the opposite of separateness. This view which reflects the mystic-religious perspective on man and world forms an important connecting thread in this article, as this turns out to have direct consequences for the idea about the (ir)rationality of certain thoughts and feelings, as well as for the (ir)rationality of criminal law and restorative justice. Special attention is paid to emotions that are relevant within the context of criminal law and restorative justice – which include anger, resentment, hatred, fear and compassion. After having explained – on the basis of the cognitive emotion theory – how thinking and feeling relate to each other and which thoughts and feelings – on the basis of the perspective of interconnectedness – have to be considered as (ir)rational, the article examines whether punishment is (ir)rational and whether the regular theories which legitimate punishment (i.e. retribution and prevention theories) are ‘rationalities of something irrational’. Furthermore, it is assessed whether the thoughts and feelings behind restorative justice are (ir)rational. The article concludes with a suggestion in which the main findings of this contribution are summarized, in order to stimulate discussion.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen (1980) is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. In 2010 verscheen zijn dissertatie Misdaad en straf. Een herbezinning op het strafrecht vanuit mystiek perspectief (Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers). Zijn interessegebieden zijn sanctierecht, herstelrecht en de strafrechtelijke positie van het slachtoffer. Claessen is redacteur van dit tijdschrift en van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht. Voorts is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Maastricht. Hij is winnaar van de Bianchi Herstelrechtprijs 2012.
Artikel

Huiselijk geweld samen geweldloos de baas

Herstel van verbindingen en (her)nemen van regie met een Eigen Kracht-conferentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden empowering victims, domestic violence, Family Group Conference
Auteurs Hilleke Crum
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Rooted in forty years of history and experience a new concept is developed in empowering victims of domestic violence. Sheltering is not the solution to stop the violence; domestic violence is a social problem instead of an individual issue. The Orange Houses is a Dutch women’s refuge shelter with a new approach: ‘sheltered in the open’. The Orange House is visible and recognisable and one of the consequences is working with all family members in order to stop the violence.Family Group Conference as a decision making model appears to be effective for families to make their own plans. When given responsibility of the situation and the solution, families, also in situations of domestic violence, create, according to themselves and professionals as well, safe and creative plans that fit.Illustrated by a personal story it becomes clear that family can and will make the positive difference for members of them in trouble.Research is an important key to ensure that civilians in comparable situations – for instance elderly abuse, abuse by professionals, divorce – do have the choice of making their own plans and decisions before or instead of professional intervention.


Hilleke Crum
Hilleke Crum is regiomanager Eigen Kracht Centrale Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Tussen hoop en vrees

Toepassing van herstelrecht in het buitengerechtelijk spoor

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden restorative justice, criminal proceedings, diversion, subsidiarity, sanctions
Auteurs Renée Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Topical developments regarding the use of restorative justice in the Netherlands are discussed. Several initiatives have been taken, showing a genuine interest in the benefits of the use of restorative justice. However, there are underlying risks for a managerial use of restorative justice. Momentarily Dutch criminal justice policy features a shift towards settlement by the Public Prosecution, implying a use of restorative justice in the context of consensual settlement. However, there are no signs directing towards an intrinsic interest for the concept of restorative justice by the criminal justice authorities. Notwithstanding the legislator having started a fundamental revision of the Dutch Code of Penal Procedure, there are no intentions known to acknowledge restorative justice arrangements to be part of the regular penal procedures and sanctions. Nevertheless, incorporating the use of restorative justice arrangements requires a systematic implementation of restorative justice arrangements.


Renée Kool
Renée Kool is hoofddocent straf(proces)recht, verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de juridische faculteit, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers binnen een gematigde visie op herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden restorative justice, volunteers, citizenship, participation, communicative justice
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In restorative thinking it is often assumed that the involvement of volunteers, almost naturally, flows from its values and aims. But are there really convincing arguments that account for, justify or even necessitate an active policy on volunteering in restorative justice practices?This contribution focuses on the moderate view on restorative justice as developed in the Belgian context. It is argued that this approach offers a variety of reasons for developing a volunteers-programme. Two central issues in a moderate view on restorative justice are essential to understand the value of volunteering in restorative justice practices. Such a view sees 1) crime as a multi-layered phenomenon, and 2) takes participative and communicative justice as its central aim.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is docent sociaal werk aan de HUB en onderzoeker op het Centrum Pragodi (HUB). Hij begeleidt een praktijkgericht wetenschappelijk onderzoek rond vrijwilligers en herstelrecht.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie Van Daele is onderzoekster op het Centrum Pragodi (HUB) en doet onderzoek rond vrijwilligers en herstelrecht.
Artikel

Hersteldimensies in de slachtofferzorg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victim policy, victim restoration, victim assistance, restorative justice
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches some important tendencies in the attention for victims of crime, including in supranational regulation, with regard to the position of the offender and possibilities for restorative justice. The evaluation of victim policy in Belgium offers a view on this topic: victims have certain expectations towards the justice system and pose questions with regard to the offender. A third issue regards the place of restoration within the whole range of consequences of crime for victims: what is the meaning of ‘harm’ and what is the content of ‘restoration’ for victims? A last topic considers the openness of victim assistance programmes with regard to the offender dimension and possibilities of restorative justice. This article thus evaluates the possible link between victim assistance and restorative justice.


Ivo Aertsen
Prof. Dr. Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), K.U.Leuven.

Inge Vanfraechem
Dr. Inge Vanfraechem is coördinator van het project ‘Victims and restorative justice’ bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice en het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), K.U.Leuven.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Actief burgerschap binnen herstelrecht

Een inventarisatie van participatievormen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Citizenship, Participation, Mediators, Activism
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Seemingly a difficult concept, participation in restorative justice can be understood better once the notion is broadened and operationalized. Therefore a proposal will be made here to first broaden the meaning of participation beyond participation of stakeholders and ‘community’ in the process as it is generally understood in restorative justice literature, and second break down the concept of participation into five different levels: (1) involvement of the stakeholders and the ‘community’ in the restorative process; (2) participation of citizens as volunteer mediators/facilitators in the process; (3) self-referrals from citizens; (4) voluntary participation of experts in restorative justice organisations; (5) promotion from ex-victims of crime and ex-offenders. Based on this approach, in the end, the author opens up the discussion on the meaning of active citizenship for restorative justice in continental Europe. Before discussing how the broadening of the concept of participation is concretely envisioned, the author argues on the importance of prioritizing the notion of citizenship instead of ‘community’ in the continental European restorative justice discourse.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali verricht promotieonderzoek aan het Instituut voor Criminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit van Leuven.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers binnen een maximalistische visie op herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Volunteers, Participation, restorative justice, Autonomy
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article aims at grounding and defining the role of volunteers in restorative justice practices. It starts from the observation that processes of institutionalization tend to make the role of volunteering citizens in restorative justice programmes doubtful and superfluous. These doubts are strengthened by the fact that the link between restorative justice values and the importance of working with volunteers is too easily assumed. Can we offer some well-founded arguments to back up this assumption and to outline what key roles volunteers can play? Several conceptions of restorative justice might be explored. This contribution examines the maximalist view, as developed by Lode Walgrave in his latest book Restorative Justice, Self-interest and Responsible Citizenship. The article critically asks if and how his conception demands an active role for volunteers within restorative justice practices. The paper develops its arguments on the basis of three key concepts in Walgraves model: (1) his definition of restorative justice; (2) his notion of crime; and (3) his socio-ethical intuition of common self-interest.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is rechtsfilosoof en verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie van Daele is verbonden aan de Hogeschool Universiteit Brussel (HUB) en voert een onderzoeksproject uit rond herstelrecht.
Artikel

Een empirische blik op herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Criminalteitspreventie, empirisch onderzoek, Daderperspectief, Slachtofferperspectief
Auteurs Anniek Gielen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors summarize the empirical findings with regard to restorative justice and crime prevention as presented in the report of the European project on the matter at hand. With regard to the offender, they studied empirical research on the reduction of recidivism. Data refer to characteristics of the offender, the view of the offender with regard to the restorative process, characteristics of the communication processes and the type of offence as influencing factors. Results in general seem to be quite positive, although there are some cases when recidivism is worse in comparison to the traditional justice process. Crawford indicates how preventative effects for the victims can be taken into account – the researchers refer to the different effects depending on the type of crime and characteristics of the victim; satisfaction, re-victimisation and post-traumatic symptoms; and the prevention of revenge. With regard to the societal preventative effects, research on restorative justice seems to be restricted to the theoretical level: empirical research in this regard is lacking.


Anniek Gielen
Anniek Gielen was verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als project officer voor het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention. Ze werkt thans als begeleider van mensen met autisme.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als projectcoördinator van het Europese project Victims and Restorative Justice, onder promotorschap van het European Forum for Restorative Justice. Ze was copromotor van het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie

Het streven naar coöperatief handelen in de samenleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Criminaliteitspreventie, Strafrecht, Hongaars model, Europese Netwerk voor Criminaliteitspreventie
Auteurs Melinda Gyökös en Eszter Sárik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article departs from a crime prevention perspective following the definition of crime prevention as adopted by the European Union Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN). This approach handles a broad notion of community involvement in crime prevention, including non-judicial measures and models of intervention. Through its participatory approaches, restorative justice has the potential of mobilising and reinforcing social capital and, therefore, of contributing to effective crime prevention and control. The community oriented approach is illustrated by the model of crime prevention and its possible connection to restorative justice as being developed in Hungary and promoted through various actions of the EUCPN.


Melinda Gyökös
Melinda Gyökös, J.D., is adviseur bij het departement Europese Samenwerking van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken in Hongarije en voorzitter van het European Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN) tijdens het Hongaars voorzitterschap van de Raad van de Europese Unie.

Eszter Sárik
Eszter Sárik, J.D., is research fellow aan het Hongaarse Nationaal Instituut voor Criminologie.
Artikel

Herstelrecht in Nederland?

Voorlopig veel nadruk op gesprekken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Restorative justice, penal mediation, evaluation studies, victim-offender conversations
Auteurs John Blad
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a complete and detailed overview of research evaluations and outcomes of restorative justice projects in the Netherlands over the past decades. It involves developments where clearly restorative justice inspiration was visible. The author describes restorative practices with juveniles and the so-called project ‘Herstelbemiddeling’ (restorative mediation) that started in the nineties. Most evaluations had positive outcomes, but nevertheless there was no continuation from the political side. The author also examines the introduction of the country wide ‘victim-offender conversations’ which are carried out by the national victim support organization. Although this choice is justified because of the vulnerability of some victims and the chance of revictimisation, the author questions if victim organizations can really - in the best interests of the victims – turn away from problems related to the (hardened) treatment of offenders. Victim-offender conversations are to be respected and to be continued, but they cannot be seen as a restorative justice practice.


John Blad
John Blad is hoofddocent strafrechtswetenschappen aan de capaciteitsgroep strafrecht en criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.
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