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Artikel

Bemiddeling in strafzaken in België

Een blik op een gediversifieerde praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Penal mediation, Justice assistants, Direct and indirect mediation, compensation
Auteurs Dieter Burssens, Alexia Jonckheere en Christophe Mincke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1994, public prosecutors in Belgium can propose ‘penal mediation’ to criminal suspects. The supervision and follow-up of this procedure are provided by ‘justice assistants’ (comparable to probation officers), who systematically record crucial information and register it in the national database SIPAR. An exploration of this database reveals interesting insights regarding the actual practice of penal mediation. On the basis of the available data we also examined whether or not we could find relevant correlations between characteristics of (offenders in) cases and the extent to which cases have resulted in an agreement and proper compliance with that agreement. Finally, for a better comprehension of the actual practice of penal mediation in Belgium twelve interviews with justice assistants have been conducted.


Dieter Burssens
Dieter Burssens is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie in Brussel.

Alexia Jonckheere
Alexia Jonckheere is onderzoeker aan het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie.

Christophe Mincke
Christophe Mincke is operationeel directeur van de Operationele Directie van het Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie.
Artikel

Het Duitse recht op nevengeschikt aanklagen

De volledige integratie van het slachtoffer in het strafproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Accessory prosecution, victims, Victim lawyers, Secondary victimization, punishment
Auteurs Michael Kilchling en Helmut Kury
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the German concept of accessory prosecution (Nebenklage) is discussed. The Nebenklage was implemented in the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1877. It had merely an accessory function in conjunction with the private prosecution and the Klageerzwingungsverfahren, two legal institutions which had little practical relevance. Nowadays, in the course of the modern victim movement, the Nebenklage has radically changed into an instrument that is clearly provided as the main participatory option for victims interested in actively contributing to the trial of ‘their’ criminal. Previous research findings are outlined and the results of an explorative survey are presented. The findings suggest that the mere presence of the victim lawyer can significantly change the atmosphere in the courtroom, thus enhancing the willingness of the defence to treat the victim more respectfully.


Michael Kilchling
Michael Kilchling is criminoloog en is werkzaam aan het Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht in Freiburg (Duitsland), en is daarnaast voorzitter van het European Forum for Restorative Justice.

Helmut Kury
Helmut Kury was hoogleraar psychologie en criminologie en was onder andere verbonden aan het Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht in Freiburg (Duitsland).
Artikel

Conferencing internationaal: vaker toegepast dan gedacht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden Conferencing, Internationale toepassing
Auteurs Estelle Zinsstag en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Conferencing is a restorative justice practice which has started developing quite consistently since the 1990s, in majority in Anglophone countries such as New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Canada or the UK and in particular with consistently promising results for juvenile justice in Northern Ireland. Some continental European, Latin American and African countries are also starting to introduce this alternative to traditional criminal justice, especially in the case of juvenile justice, with some equally promising results. This article presents up-to-date information about the state of conferencing in the world and discusses some of the major conclusions that have come out of a European research project and book.


Estelle Zinsstag
Estelle Zinsstag is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en coördineert een EC Daphne project rond seksueel geweld en herstelrecht. Ze is managing editor van Restorative Justice: An International Journal.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en manager van een Europees FP7 project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten.

    At the end of 2000, a pilot project began in Flanders (Belgium) to offer family group conferencing for juvenile offenders. Since June 2006, this restorative practice – together with victim-offender mediation – has been inserted in the new Youth Justice Act, making conferencing available in all judicial districts in Flanders. Five years later, however, the mediation-services had to conclude that the number of referrals for conferencing remains rather limited. This observation inspired the mediation services to take actions to bring conferencing more to the attention. This article reports on the findings of a study that was part of this process. Based on (1) an analysis of all conferencing-files that were referred between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 31, (2) focus groups with youth court social workers and criminologists working at the level of the public prosecutor and (3) surveys conducted with youth judges, the study aimed to identify and discuss barriers and obstacles within the current referral practice of conferencing in Flanders.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt studeerde af als sociaal agoog aan de Universiteit Gent. In 2009 promoveerde zij op een proefschrift over herstelbemiddeling en sociaal werk. Momenteel is zij als doctor-assistent verbonden aan de Vakgroep Sociale Agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Actieve rechtvaardigheid

Herstelrecht als vruchtbare bodem voor de uitoefening van burgerschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2013
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article reflects on the conceptual work undertaken during the first year of ALTERNATIVE, a project coordinated by KU Leuven. The overall objective of the project is to provide an alternative and deepened understanding of justice and security based on empirical evidence of how to handle conflicts within intercultural contexts, mainly through the active participation of citizens. The paper focuses mainly on the relation of the concept of citizenship with restorative justice, especially as viewed and enacted in the four intercultural settings of the ALTERNATIVE project. Several issues are discussed: the concept of participatory citizenship in relation to crime and conflict; the claim of the discourse of restorative justice to the concept of participatory citizenship and democracy and the challenges in the restorative justice discourse that complicate its relationship to participatory citizenship. Next, insight is provided in the ways the ALTERNATIVE project tries to tackle some of these challenges, by exploring and strengthening the relationship between the concept of active citizenship and justice in Europe. By targeting the intercultural field the ALTERNATIVE aims to explore the potential of mediation services and restorative justice models to engage with macro societal conflicts that are not referred to these services by the criminal justice system, and on the other hand expand the way some of the crimes referred by the criminal justice system are handled by the mediation services alternatively by fostering alliances with various civil society organisations. Employing ‘action research’ methodology, it is argued that the concept and framework of ‘nodal governance’ (Shearing and Wood, 2003) can serve to support participatory modes of conflict regulation. Interactive settings are created, which allow for spaces between informal and formal justice, and between justice mechanisms at the individual and at the societal level (Aertsen, 2001, 2008). Arguments are provided in support of the need to promote broader models of restorative justice which are able to address social and systemic crimes and conflicts, and which will help the theory and practice of RJ to move beyond the individualisation of crime and its remedies.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is onderzoekster aan het Criminologisch Instituut, KU Leuven (LINC). Daar werkt zij aan een proefschrift over ethiek en herstelrecht, als onderdeel van het onderzoek verricht binnen het ALTERNATIVE-project.
Artikel

Samen beslissen over je eigen omgeving.

Wijkbewoners aan zet met een Eigen Kracht-conferentie voor groep, wijk of buurt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2013
Auteurs Hilleke Crum
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Eigen Kracht Centrale is striving for a society based on participation and mutual self reliance of citizens, where citizens remain in charge of their own life, especially when dealing with organizations and government bodies. It is important, in the Eigen Kracht Centrale vision, that everyone is part of society and everyone can participate, everyone has a say and remains in charge of his or her own life, everyone gets support from their own social network: family, friends, neighbors, etc.
    Especially when problems arise that might lead to involvement of various (social care) institutions.
    To implement this vision in daily life, the Eigen Kracht Centrale has introduced the Family Group-conference as a decision making model. This model appears to be effective for citizens to make their own plans. When given responsibility for the situation and the solution, citizens, in every situation thinkable, create, according to themselves and professionals as well, save and creative plans that fit.
    In this article the FG-c for a group, district or neighbourhood is discussed and is illustrated by real life examples. Even when people don’t know each other, they can make a plan to solve conflicts in their street or neighbourhood: they all have a strong interest in living in safe, comfortable surroundings. Although the experience with this variant of FGC is limited in The Netherlands: what are they, what lessons can be learned?


Hilleke Crum
Hilleke Crum is regiomanager Eigen Kracht Centrale Noord-Holland en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Recht op kwaliteit, maar geen recht op toegang

Herstelrecht in de EU-regelgeving omtrent slachtoffers van misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Restorative justice, Victims’ rights, EU-legislation, framework decision 2001, directive 2012
Auteurs Katrien Lauwaert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some ten years ago, victim-offender mediation was introduced for the first time in EU-legislation through article 10 of the 2001 framework decision on the standing of victims in criminal proceedings. In 2012 this framework decision was replaced by a more extensive directive establishing minimum standards for victims of crime. This article examines the position of restorative justice in this new legal instrument. The outcome is mixed. The emphasis on safeguards in case restorative justice is applied is a positive move towards good practices, but it is disappointing that a right to access restorative justice services was not adopted.


Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is onderzoeker bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice en het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) op een Europees project rond desistance en herstelrecht en is tevens redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Het belang van de institutionele context: slachtofferervaringen met bemiddeling vergeleken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden mediation, victims, institutional context, victim satisfaction, diversity
Auteurs Daniela Bolivar, Ivo Aertsen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The diversity of institutional contexts within which restorative justice has been implemented worldwide has raised the question whether this aspect may have an influence on the experience of victims of crime. Some are of the opinion that certain institutional settings (such as probation) could relegate victims, once more, to a secondary place. This article discusses the results of a two-year research project (2011-2012) that addresses this question. One single questionnaire was administrated in three different countries (Netherlands, Austria and Finland) whose mediation programmes differ in terms of the institutional setting in which mediation is implemented. Our findings suggest that the institutional context does not matter for victims’ levels of satisfaction, but it does in terms of victims’ expectations and experiences.


Daniela Bolivar
Daniela Bolivar is onderzoeker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) op een Europees project rond seksueel geweld en herstelrecht.

Ivo Aertsen
Prof. Dr. Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Inge Vanfraechem
Dr. Inge Vanfraechem is onderzoeker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) op een Europees FP7-project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten, en is tevens redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Duurzame rechtspleging

Doorlichten van conflictoplossingssystemen op duurzaamheid, en: hoe komt herstelrecht uit de bus?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden sustainable justice, conflict resolutions, conflict managment styles
Auteurs Alexander F. de Savornin Lohman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author analyses and compares several distinct models of doing justice to find out which is serving ‘sustainable justice’ the best. Sustainable justice could be defined as justice that produces conflict resolutions that last for a long time and in this way contribute to a more sustainable society. Modern developmental methods for organisations make use of assessments to measure, compare and improve the effectiveness of organizational cultures. These methods are used in this contribution to analyse the organizational cultures of mediation, the traditional accusatorial (penal) procedure, problem-solving courts (with a focus on drug courts) and restorative justice conferencing. The comparison results in conclusions indicating that mediation and problem solving courts have a sound and effective organizational culture, due to healthy conflict management styles, characterized by managing both opposition and competition constructively and by a stimulating person-oriented focus. Restorative justice conferences bring together many stakeholders in a conflict and its resolution and facilitates in this way the awareness of the connections between many problems behind the actual conflict at hand: for this reason the resolutions may have a deeper societal impact and a greater sustainability.


Alexander F. de Savornin Lohman
Alexander F. de Savornin Lohman was veertig jaar advocaat. Hij ontwikkelde het concept duurzame rechtspleging en is als juridisch adviseur en inspirator werkzaam in het door hem opgerichte Center for Sustainable Justice te Utrecht (www.dynalaw.nl).
Artikel

Wraak, recht en slachtofferbehoeften

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden revenge, retributive emotions, victim impact statements, victim needs, penal populism
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Considerable political pressure is currently being brought to impose severe punishments, and it is frequently suggested that these punishments would enhance the wellbeing of victims and achieve ‘closure’. Populist images, such as ‘victims have a right to revenge’ have gained great influence. To what extent would therapeutic professionals have to support victim needs that are shaped within such punitive contexts? In this paper it is first argued that revenge embraces ambivalent meanings. Although avengers are lauded in the popular imagination, feelings of revenge are still viewed as ethically unacceptable. In recent decades, however, a penal populism has been gaining ground as a result of which revenge was stripped of its pejorative associations. In a punitive climate it is believed that victims would demand harsher penalties and that such penalties would promote closure and peace. Research findings show however that revenge may bring temporary relief, but anger rumination precludes healing. Subsequently the question is discussed whether two different forms of victim participation, victim impact statements and restorative justice conferences, might temper revenge feelings. Because VIS-participants (dealing with high levels of anger and fear) believe that their statements will culminate in longer sentences, they are generally frustrated that the imposed sentence is not tough enough. After the procedure they keep on viewing the offender as a malign person. Restorative procedures generally show an opposite picture. Finally this paper is criticizing the tendency of victim-oriented therapeutization within criminal justice and restorative justice. It is argued that the voice of the victim and the process of emotional healing should be separated strictly.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschappen van de faculteit der sociale wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is hij verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen). Hij verricht onderzoek op het grensvlak van ethiek, criminologie en de sociale wetenschappen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, burgerschap en lokale veiligheidszorg, sanctietheorieën en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl.
Artikel

De publieke emoties na een misdrijf en het beschavingsproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden public emotions, civilisation process, punishment, inclusion, exclusion
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tendency to revalorise emotions in the response to offending, seems to face a dilemma. On the one hand, experiencing crime and reacting to it inevitably are imbued by emotion. On the other hand, giving way to emotions in responding to crime entails the risks of disproportionate and unequal justice. This article argues that there is a fundamental difference between the emotions promoted to be included in the response to crime and the emotions feared as a risk to overwhelm good and proportionate jurisprudence. The first ones focus on the needs of the immediate stakeholders of the offence and seek their (re-)inclusion. The second type of emotions focuses on the criminal act and seeks to keep the threat it represents under control through punishment and incapacitation. It is a socio-ethical choice to promote the inclusionary approach. Whereas the rehabilitative approach has addressed the needs of the offenders only, the restorative tendency addresses the needs of both the victim and the offenders in a more balanced way. This balance also helps to avoid that respectful responses to crime degrade into norm erosion. The option for revalorising inclusionary emotions in the response to crime through restorative justice is located as a next phase in the civilisation process, described originally by Elias.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Huiselijk geweld samen geweldloos de baas

Herstel van verbindingen en (her)nemen van regie met een Eigen Kracht-conferentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden empowering victims, domestic violence, Family Group Conference
Auteurs Hilleke Crum
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Rooted in forty years of history and experience a new concept is developed in empowering victims of domestic violence. Sheltering is not the solution to stop the violence; domestic violence is a social problem instead of an individual issue. The Orange Houses is a Dutch women’s refuge shelter with a new approach: ‘sheltered in the open’. The Orange House is visible and recognisable and one of the consequences is working with all family members in order to stop the violence.Family Group Conference as a decision making model appears to be effective for families to make their own plans. When given responsibility of the situation and the solution, families, also in situations of domestic violence, create, according to themselves and professionals as well, safe and creative plans that fit.Illustrated by a personal story it becomes clear that family can and will make the positive difference for members of them in trouble.Research is an important key to ensure that civilians in comparable situations – for instance elderly abuse, abuse by professionals, divorce – do have the choice of making their own plans and decisions before or instead of professional intervention.


Hilleke Crum
Hilleke Crum is regiomanager Eigen Kracht Centrale Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Inzet voor herstel in sociale netwerken

Cirkels en conferenties, steun en het stoppen van huiselijk geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden social networks, domestic violence, conferences
Auteurs Jan van Lieshout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author made a tour throughout the country to see how people fulfill their social responsibility in the process of creating a normal and stabile situation again after a criminal offence, after the use of (domestic) violence. Yearly 37.000 women are victims of serious to very serious forms of violence in the Netherlands. It turns out that several initiatives have been developed in the last few years in different parts of the country whereby networks of people are used to stop violence and to look for ways to continue relationships or contacts. The article contains descriptions of powerful conferences. For example, one between two Turkish families who had years of conflicts, partly through two 16-year-old daughters. It almost turned into blood revenge and serious violence. Talking to each other in an organized and well prepared setting however resulted in a positive situation for all parties. Social systems and networking turn out to be the key factors for restoration.


Jan van Lieshout
Jan van Lieshout is publicist, adviseur bij de Eigen Kracht Centrale en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers binnen een gematigde visie op herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden restorative justice, volunteers, citizenship, participation, communicative justice
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In restorative thinking it is often assumed that the involvement of volunteers, almost naturally, flows from its values and aims. But are there really convincing arguments that account for, justify or even necessitate an active policy on volunteering in restorative justice practices?This contribution focuses on the moderate view on restorative justice as developed in the Belgian context. It is argued that this approach offers a variety of reasons for developing a volunteers-programme. Two central issues in a moderate view on restorative justice are essential to understand the value of volunteering in restorative justice practices. Such a view sees 1) crime as a multi-layered phenomenon, and 2) takes participative and communicative justice as its central aim.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is docent sociaal werk aan de HUB en onderzoeker op het Centrum Pragodi (HUB). Hij begeleidt een praktijkgericht wetenschappelijk onderzoek rond vrijwilligers en herstelrecht.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie Van Daele is onderzoekster op het Centrum Pragodi (HUB) en doet onderzoek rond vrijwilligers en herstelrecht.
Artikel

Evaluatie van de implementatie van de slachtoffer-dadergesprekken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victims,, victim-offender dialogue, restorative justice, victim-in-focus
Auteurs Bart de Jong en Agnes van Burik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2007, an organisation called ‘Slachtoffer in Beeld’ offers victims and juvenile delinquents the opportunity to engage in victim-offender dialogue. Since 2010, it is also possible for adult offenders to engage in victim-offender dialogue. Van Montfoort Advisory evaluated the implementation of victim-offender dialogue in 2010. The article sums up the most relevant conclusions of the evaluation, with a focus on conclusions related to victims. Results related to the internal implementation at ‘Slachtoffer in Beeld’ and the external implemention at organisations who refer to victim-offender dialogue are presented. Numbers of referrals are shown. It is striking to see that most referrals are coming from organisations working with offenders, even though victim-offender dialogue is, given the parlementary history, primarily an offer for victims. In the article reasons are given to explain the difference between the number of referrals from victim oriented organisations and offender oriented organisations. At the end possible effects of victims-offender dialogue on victims are presented.


Bart de Jong
Mr. drs. Bart de Jong is criminoloog en strafrechtsjurist en als onderzoeker verbonden aan onderzoeksbureau Van Montfoort, een onderzoeksbureau dat praktijkgericht sociaal-wetenschappelijk onderzoek verricht op het terrein van (jeugd)zorg, (jeugd)criminaliteit en veiligheid. Daarnaast is hij redacteur van de nieuwsbrief van de Stichting Restorative Justice Nederland. Samen met Agnes van Burik en andere collega’s heeft hij de evaluatie van de implementatie van de slachtoffer-dadergesprekken uitgevoerd.

Agnes van Burik
Drs. Agnes van Burik is socioloog en als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan onderzoeksbureau Van Montfoort. Samen met Bart de Jong en andere collega’s heeft zij de evaluatie van de implementatie van de slachtoffer-dadergesprekken uitgevoerd.
Artikel

De emotionele hond en zijn rationele staart in recent onderzoek naar slachtoffers van een misdrijf

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden moral psychology, victimology, restorative justice, victim impact statements
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decades the social intuitionist approach to moral psychology has eclipsed rationalist models. The social intutionist approach considers emotions to be a driving force in moral judgement, while reasoning most often functions as a post hoc rationalisation of the initial emotion. This article argues that the social intutionist approach is also applicable to the choice and preferences victims make and have while navigating the criminal justice system. This is illustrated through two recent evaluations of victims experiences in the Netherlands: an evaluation of the Dutch victim-offender encounters and the oral and written Victim Impact Statements (VIS). It is shown that participation in the former programme is a function of low emotional impact, while participants in the VIS-schemes present with high levels of anxiety and anger, and exhibit signs of possible posttraumatic disorder. The implications of these findings are discussed and framed in terms of the social intuitionist model of moral psychology.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Hersteldimensies in de slachtofferzorg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victim policy, victim restoration, victim assistance, restorative justice
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches some important tendencies in the attention for victims of crime, including in supranational regulation, with regard to the position of the offender and possibilities for restorative justice. The evaluation of victim policy in Belgium offers a view on this topic: victims have certain expectations towards the justice system and pose questions with regard to the offender. A third issue regards the place of restoration within the whole range of consequences of crime for victims: what is the meaning of ‘harm’ and what is the content of ‘restoration’ for victims? A last topic considers the openness of victim assistance programmes with regard to the offender dimension and possibilities of restorative justice. This article thus evaluates the possible link between victim assistance and restorative justice.


Ivo Aertsen
Prof. Dr. Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), K.U.Leuven.

Inge Vanfraechem
Dr. Inge Vanfraechem is coördinator van het project ‘Victims and restorative justice’ bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice en het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), K.U.Leuven.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers binnen een maximalistische visie op herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Volunteers, Participation, restorative justice, Autonomy
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article aims at grounding and defining the role of volunteers in restorative justice practices. It starts from the observation that processes of institutionalization tend to make the role of volunteering citizens in restorative justice programmes doubtful and superfluous. These doubts are strengthened by the fact that the link between restorative justice values and the importance of working with volunteers is too easily assumed. Can we offer some well-founded arguments to back up this assumption and to outline what key roles volunteers can play? Several conceptions of restorative justice might be explored. This contribution examines the maximalist view, as developed by Lode Walgrave in his latest book Restorative Justice, Self-interest and Responsible Citizenship. The article critically asks if and how his conception demands an active role for volunteers within restorative justice practices. The paper develops its arguments on the basis of three key concepts in Walgraves model: (1) his definition of restorative justice; (2) his notion of crime; and (3) his socio-ethical intuition of common self-interest.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is rechtsfilosoof en verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie van Daele is verbonden aan de Hogeschool Universiteit Brussel (HUB) en voert een onderzoeksproject uit rond herstelrecht.
Artikel

Een empirische blik op herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Criminalteitspreventie, empirisch onderzoek, Daderperspectief, Slachtofferperspectief
Auteurs Anniek Gielen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors summarize the empirical findings with regard to restorative justice and crime prevention as presented in the report of the European project on the matter at hand. With regard to the offender, they studied empirical research on the reduction of recidivism. Data refer to characteristics of the offender, the view of the offender with regard to the restorative process, characteristics of the communication processes and the type of offence as influencing factors. Results in general seem to be quite positive, although there are some cases when recidivism is worse in comparison to the traditional justice process. Crawford indicates how preventative effects for the victims can be taken into account – the researchers refer to the different effects depending on the type of crime and characteristics of the victim; satisfaction, re-victimisation and post-traumatic symptoms; and the prevention of revenge. With regard to the societal preventative effects, research on restorative justice seems to be restricted to the theoretical level: empirical research in this regard is lacking.


Anniek Gielen
Anniek Gielen was verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als project officer voor het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention. Ze werkt thans als begeleider van mensen met autisme.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als projectcoördinator van het Europese project Victims and Restorative Justice, onder promotorschap van het European Forum for Restorative Justice. Ze was copromotor van het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention.
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