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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht x Jaar 2011 x Rubriek Artikel x
Artikel

Evaluatie van de implementatie van de slachtoffer-dadergesprekken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victims,, victim-offender dialogue, restorative justice, victim-in-focus
Auteurs Bart de Jong en Agnes van Burik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2007, an organisation called ‘Slachtoffer in Beeld’ offers victims and juvenile delinquents the opportunity to engage in victim-offender dialogue. Since 2010, it is also possible for adult offenders to engage in victim-offender dialogue. Van Montfoort Advisory evaluated the implementation of victim-offender dialogue in 2010. The article sums up the most relevant conclusions of the evaluation, with a focus on conclusions related to victims. Results related to the internal implementation at ‘Slachtoffer in Beeld’ and the external implemention at organisations who refer to victim-offender dialogue are presented. Numbers of referrals are shown. It is striking to see that most referrals are coming from organisations working with offenders, even though victim-offender dialogue is, given the parlementary history, primarily an offer for victims. In the article reasons are given to explain the difference between the number of referrals from victim oriented organisations and offender oriented organisations. At the end possible effects of victims-offender dialogue on victims are presented.


Bart de Jong
Mr. drs. Bart de Jong is criminoloog en strafrechtsjurist en als onderzoeker verbonden aan onderzoeksbureau Van Montfoort, een onderzoeksbureau dat praktijkgericht sociaal-wetenschappelijk onderzoek verricht op het terrein van (jeugd)zorg, (jeugd)criminaliteit en veiligheid. Daarnaast is hij redacteur van de nieuwsbrief van de Stichting Restorative Justice Nederland. Samen met Agnes van Burik en andere collega’s heeft hij de evaluatie van de implementatie van de slachtoffer-dadergesprekken uitgevoerd.

Agnes van Burik
Drs. Agnes van Burik is socioloog en als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan onderzoeksbureau Van Montfoort. Samen met Bart de Jong en andere collega’s heeft zij de evaluatie van de implementatie van de slachtoffer-dadergesprekken uitgevoerd.
Artikel

De emotionele hond en zijn rationele staart in recent onderzoek naar slachtoffers van een misdrijf

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden moral psychology, victimology, restorative justice, victim impact statements
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decades the social intuitionist approach to moral psychology has eclipsed rationalist models. The social intutionist approach considers emotions to be a driving force in moral judgement, while reasoning most often functions as a post hoc rationalisation of the initial emotion. This article argues that the social intutionist approach is also applicable to the choice and preferences victims make and have while navigating the criminal justice system. This is illustrated through two recent evaluations of victims experiences in the Netherlands: an evaluation of the Dutch victim-offender encounters and the oral and written Victim Impact Statements (VIS). It is shown that participation in the former programme is a function of low emotional impact, while participants in the VIS-schemes present with high levels of anxiety and anger, and exhibit signs of possible posttraumatic disorder. The implications of these findings are discussed and framed in terms of the social intuitionist model of moral psychology.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Hersteldimensies in de slachtofferzorg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victim policy, victim restoration, victim assistance, restorative justice
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches some important tendencies in the attention for victims of crime, including in supranational regulation, with regard to the position of the offender and possibilities for restorative justice. The evaluation of victim policy in Belgium offers a view on this topic: victims have certain expectations towards the justice system and pose questions with regard to the offender. A third issue regards the place of restoration within the whole range of consequences of crime for victims: what is the meaning of ‘harm’ and what is the content of ‘restoration’ for victims? A last topic considers the openness of victim assistance programmes with regard to the offender dimension and possibilities of restorative justice. This article thus evaluates the possible link between victim assistance and restorative justice.


Ivo Aertsen
Prof. Dr. Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), K.U.Leuven.

Inge Vanfraechem
Dr. Inge Vanfraechem is coördinator van het project ‘Victims and restorative justice’ bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice en het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), K.U.Leuven.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

De kracht van buurtbemiddeling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Neighbourhood mediation, Restorative justice, Prevention, Autonomous action
Auteurs Mariëlle Jansen, Karin Bongers en Frannie Herder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Neighbourhood mediation has been practiced more than fifteen years in the Netherlands. In 2010 there was neighbourhood mediation in 160 municipalities. More than 7000 cases were handled. Volunteer mediators try to break through communication blockades and teach their neighbours to make agreements. They are successful in two thirds of the cases. This means that about 20.000 directly involved family members are participating in successful cases. The authors discuss some conditions, results and the central principles of Dutch neighbourhood mediation: communication on an equal basis, impartiality, responsibility to solve conflicts, autonomous action and the enhancement of security and quality of life.


Mariëlle Jansen
Mariëlle Jansen is onderzoeksadviseur van het Centrum voor Criminaliteitspreventie en Veiligheid (CCV).

Karin Bongers
Karin Bongers is onderzoeksadviseur van het Centrum voor Criminaliteitspreventie en Veiligheid (CCV).

Frannie Herder
Frannie Herder is projectleider buurtbemiddeling van het Centrum voor Criminaliteitspreventie en Veiligheid (CCV).
Artikel

Actief burgerschap binnen herstelrecht

Een inventarisatie van participatievormen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Citizenship, Participation, Mediators, Activism
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Seemingly a difficult concept, participation in restorative justice can be understood better once the notion is broadened and operationalized. Therefore a proposal will be made here to first broaden the meaning of participation beyond participation of stakeholders and ‘community’ in the process as it is generally understood in restorative justice literature, and second break down the concept of participation into five different levels: (1) involvement of the stakeholders and the ‘community’ in the restorative process; (2) participation of citizens as volunteer mediators/facilitators in the process; (3) self-referrals from citizens; (4) voluntary participation of experts in restorative justice organisations; (5) promotion from ex-victims of crime and ex-offenders. Based on this approach, in the end, the author opens up the discussion on the meaning of active citizenship for restorative justice in continental Europe. Before discussing how the broadening of the concept of participation is concretely envisioned, the author argues on the importance of prioritizing the notion of citizenship instead of ‘community’ in the continental European restorative justice discourse.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali verricht promotieonderzoek aan het Instituut voor Criminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit van Leuven.
Artikel

Burenbemiddeling in Leuven

Werken met vrijwilligers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Neighbourhood mediation, Restorative justice, Prevention, Autonomous action
Auteurs Jana Nickmans en Myra Hoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2008 the prevention office of Leuven started the project ‘neighbour mediation’. Also in Flanders mediation is done by volunteers. The authors stress that mediating conflicts is difficult and demands a lot of energy. Regularly volunteers quit so continuous recruitment is necessary. The volunteers have an added value, not only for the project, but also for neighbours. The insights, life experience and engagement of individual volunteers cause residents to feel good in their proximity. They build bridges, incite residents to reflect, help people to communicate respectfully with each other, stimulate social contacts. In one formula, their attitude mirrors itself in the larger society.


Jana Nickmans
Jana Nickmans is werkzaam bij de Preventiedienst van de Stad Leuven.

Myra Hoeven
Myra Hoeven is werkzaam bij de Preventiedienst van de Stad Leuven.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers binnen een maximalistische visie op herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Volunteers, Participation, restorative justice, Autonomy
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article aims at grounding and defining the role of volunteers in restorative justice practices. It starts from the observation that processes of institutionalization tend to make the role of volunteering citizens in restorative justice programmes doubtful and superfluous. These doubts are strengthened by the fact that the link between restorative justice values and the importance of working with volunteers is too easily assumed. Can we offer some well-founded arguments to back up this assumption and to outline what key roles volunteers can play? Several conceptions of restorative justice might be explored. This contribution examines the maximalist view, as developed by Lode Walgrave in his latest book Restorative Justice, Self-interest and Responsible Citizenship. The article critically asks if and how his conception demands an active role for volunteers within restorative justice practices. The paper develops its arguments on the basis of three key concepts in Walgraves model: (1) his definition of restorative justice; (2) his notion of crime; and (3) his socio-ethical intuition of common self-interest.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is rechtsfilosoof en verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie van Daele is verbonden aan de Hogeschool Universiteit Brussel (HUB) en voert een onderzoeksproject uit rond herstelrecht.
Artikel

Een empirische blik op herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Criminalteitspreventie, empirisch onderzoek, Daderperspectief, Slachtofferperspectief
Auteurs Anniek Gielen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors summarize the empirical findings with regard to restorative justice and crime prevention as presented in the report of the European project on the matter at hand. With regard to the offender, they studied empirical research on the reduction of recidivism. Data refer to characteristics of the offender, the view of the offender with regard to the restorative process, characteristics of the communication processes and the type of offence as influencing factors. Results in general seem to be quite positive, although there are some cases when recidivism is worse in comparison to the traditional justice process. Crawford indicates how preventative effects for the victims can be taken into account – the researchers refer to the different effects depending on the type of crime and characteristics of the victim; satisfaction, re-victimisation and post-traumatic symptoms; and the prevention of revenge. With regard to the societal preventative effects, research on restorative justice seems to be restricted to the theoretical level: empirical research in this regard is lacking.


Anniek Gielen
Anniek Gielen was verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als project officer voor het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention. Ze werkt thans als begeleider van mensen met autisme.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als projectcoördinator van het Europese project Victims and Restorative Justice, onder promotorschap van het European Forum for Restorative Justice. Ze was copromotor van het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie

Het streven naar coöperatief handelen in de samenleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Criminaliteitspreventie, Strafrecht, Hongaars model, Europese Netwerk voor Criminaliteitspreventie
Auteurs Melinda Gyökös en Eszter Sárik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article departs from a crime prevention perspective following the definition of crime prevention as adopted by the European Union Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN). This approach handles a broad notion of community involvement in crime prevention, including non-judicial measures and models of intervention. Through its participatory approaches, restorative justice has the potential of mobilising and reinforcing social capital and, therefore, of contributing to effective crime prevention and control. The community oriented approach is illustrated by the model of crime prevention and its possible connection to restorative justice as being developed in Hungary and promoted through various actions of the EUCPN.


Melinda Gyökös
Melinda Gyökös, J.D., is adviseur bij het departement Europese Samenwerking van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken in Hongarije en voorzitter van het European Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN) tijdens het Hongaars voorzitterschap van de Raad van de Europese Unie.

Eszter Sárik
Eszter Sárik, J.D., is research fellow aan het Hongaarse Nationaal Instituut voor Criminologie.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie: valt het te onderzoeken?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Criminaliteitspreventie, Onderzoek, empirisch onderzoek, Methodologie
Auteurs Anniek Gielen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the authors summarize some important methodological problems that may be encountered when studying the crime preventative effects of restorative justice. Studies mostly focus on tertiary preventative effects, namely the reduction of recidivism. Empirical research is in that regard mainly dealing with the effects of victim-offender mediation and conferencing practices. Some problems include the definitional issue (what can be considered as a restorative justice intervention?), the (quasi-)experimental design, the small size of samples and issues of comparability between different studies due to differences in e.g. follow-period or criteria for measuring recidivism.


Anniek Gielen
Anniek Gielen was verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als project officer voor het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention. Ze werkt thans als begeleider van mensen met autisme.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als projectcoördinator van het Europese project Victims and Restorative Justice, onder promotorschap van het European Forum for Restorative Justice. Ze was copromotor van het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventiebeleid in een aantal EU-lidstaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Europees beleid, Europese regelgeving, Criminaliteitspreventie
Auteurs Eric Wiersma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article addresses the question whether restorative justice is embedded in the current policy and legal frameworks on crime prevention in several EU member states. Crime prevention is defined as all actions that are aimed to prevent involvement in crime (thus more than prevent re-offending only). Of course, the situation differs among the EU member states, but there is a growing awareness that restorative justice can play an important role in the prevention of crime, and is especially useful to meet the interests of victim and offender. Concerning the situation in the Netherlands, there are some promising developments and initiatives in which restorative justice approaches are advocated, for instance by a recent advice to the Secretary of State of the Ministry of Safety and Justice, in which restorative justice interventions are proposed within the juvenile justice system. Another relevant initiative is the joint effort to explore the boundaries of the Dutch diversion ‘Halt’ programme in order to apply this form of restorative practice more often, because of its estimated positive effects on victim and offender.


Eric Wiersma
Eric Wiersma is socioloog en als beleidsadviseur verbonden aan Halt Nederland, de landelijke koepelorganisatie van de regionale Haltbureaus. Halt richt zich op preventie en bestrijding van veelvoorkomende jeugdcriminaliteit in Nederland. Daarnaast is hij lid van de redactie van de nieuwsbrief van Restorative Justice Nederland.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie

Van conceptueel kader naar praktische uitdaging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden criminaliteitspreventie, conceptueel kader
Auteurs Adam Crawford
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On the basis of current definitions and approaches of restorative justice and crime prevention, and making use of a two-dimensional typology of crime prevention, this article develops a conceptual framework and seeks to offer points of connections and departure at the theoretical level between restorative justice practices and different models of offender-oriented, victim-oriented and community-oriented prevention. In order to face some of the present limitations of restorative justice, in particular the missing link to causes of crime at the societal-structural level, the author widens the perspective of restorative justice to the broader notion of ‘community justice’. The challenge for restorative justice is, then, to integrate polycentric problem-solving approaches into its operational models.


Adam Crawford
Adam Crawford is professor Criminology and Criminal Justice en directeur van het Centre for Criminal Justice Studies aan de universiteit van Leeds. Hij is eveneens hoofdredacteur van het wetenschappelijke tijdschrift Criminology and Criminal Justice.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en het streven naar een betere democratie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Restorative justice, ethics, democracy, responsibility
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice focuses on doing justice after the occurrence of an offence. It gives priority to deliberative encounters as the best way of achieving restoration. The ambition of the maximalist option of restorative justice is to modify the punitive apriorism in criminal justice into a restorative apriorism. One of the challenges is to unravel the socio-ethical and political intuitions that orient the option for restorative justice. Restorative justice is first of all an option based on socio-ethical considerations: aiming at restoration instead of accepting the punitive premise, and giving full space for deliberation processes among stakeholders instead of imposing a top down decision procedure. These social ethical grounds of restorative justice have a potential contribution to improving the quality of our democracies.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de faculteit rechtsgeleerdheid van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Herstelrecht in Nederland?

Voorlopig veel nadruk op gesprekken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Restorative justice, penal mediation, evaluation studies, victim-offender conversations
Auteurs John Blad
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a complete and detailed overview of research evaluations and outcomes of restorative justice projects in the Netherlands over the past decades. It involves developments where clearly restorative justice inspiration was visible. The author describes restorative practices with juveniles and the so-called project ‘Herstelbemiddeling’ (restorative mediation) that started in the nineties. Most evaluations had positive outcomes, but nevertheless there was no continuation from the political side. The author also examines the introduction of the country wide ‘victim-offender conversations’ which are carried out by the national victim support organization. Although this choice is justified because of the vulnerability of some victims and the chance of revictimisation, the author questions if victim organizations can really - in the best interests of the victims – turn away from problems related to the (hardened) treatment of offenders. Victim-offender conversations are to be respected and to be continued, but they cannot be seen as a restorative justice practice.


John Blad
John Blad is hoofddocent strafrechtswetenschappen aan de capaciteitsgroep strafrecht en criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Herstelrecht in België: een stand van zaken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Restorative justice, penal mediation, evaluation studies, victim-offender conversations,
Auteurs Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author evaluates whether the development of restorative justice in Belgium over the past ten years offers an opportunity to ‘celebrate’, as the Journal for Restorative Justice does. Developments in practice show that mediation is available at all stages of the judicial procedure for adult offenders and mediation and conferencing are available according to youth law. Research has been carried out on various topics, covering a variety of practices. Furthermore, it has elaborated the concept of restorative justice, inspired innovative practices and influenced policy-making. Belgium seems to be peculiar in the relation between practice, research and policy, which tend to influence one another. Compared to the Netherlands, Belgium does have more reasons to celebrate the development of restorative justice.


Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is criminologe en onderzoeker aan de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Zij is actief binnen het European Forum for Restorative Justice en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Herstelrecht in een populistische context

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden networks, citizen initiatives, democracy, Populism
Auteurs Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hans Boutellier is giving a panoramic overview of important changes in society. As worked out in his recent book De improvisatiemaatschappij (The improvisation society) he describes that society has evaluated into a network society in which social ordering is primarily a matter of self-organizing mechanisms. The aim for self-ordering would be a possibility for a further growth of restorative practices, but at the same time we are dealing with a penal-populist culture. In that culture citizenship, dialogue and self-ordering are suspect and – paradoxically – safety is expected to be delivered only by the state.


Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Recht doen vanuit herstelrechtelijk perspectief

Precies dat begrijpen wat er toe doet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Restorative justice, democracy, public opinion, victims
Auteurs Daniel W. Van Ness
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution aims to understand the right things when doing justice. Restorative justice is an approach to crime that, properly pursued, focuses not merely on the lawbreaking behaviour of the offender but also on the effect of that behaviour on victims and communities. Restorative justice seeks accountability on the part of offenders in such a way that the harm done can be addressed and repaired to the extent possible. Restorative justice allows the parties to a crime to participate directly and voluntarily in considering the harm and fashioning a resolution that addresses that harm. It is also important that the right thing about restorative justice and about democracy be understood. Crucial is respectful dialogue during which people who disagree listen to one another, speak from the heart and mind, identify common values, recognize the importance of the others, and work toward a common solution.


Daniel W. Van Ness
Daniel W. Van Ness is Executive Director van het Prison Fellowship International’s Centre for Justice and Reconciliation in Washington DC. Hij is, samen met Karen Heetderks Strong, auteur van Restoring Justice: An Introduction to Restorative Justice (4th ed.), en met Gerry Johnstone redacteur van The Handbook of Restorative Justice. Hij is ook de hoofdredacteur van www.restorativejustice.org.
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