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Artikel

Regionale risicoprofielen ter versterking van veiligheidscapaciteiten

Overzicht en evaluatie tegen de achtergrond van het externe-veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Regional Risk Assessment, all-hazards approach, multi-criteria evaluation, likelihood estimation, risk diagram.
Auteurs Charles Vlek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A regional risk profile (RRP) is a systematic ordering – by likelihood and impact seriousness – of identified hazards and threats in one of the Netherlands’ 25 safety regions. Since 2010, RRPs follow the Dutch National Risk Assessment (NRA) as a basis for prioritising regional safety capacities. In Europe, RRPs are proliferating, and the corresponding risk-assessment approach is further spreading internationally. The methodology comprises risk identification, scenario development, multi-criteria impact evaluation, expert likelihood estimation, a two-dimensional risk diagram and an analysis and prioritisation of safety capabilities. A compact overview and discussion is provided of the 25 published RRPs for the Netherlands, each covering between 9 and 40 hazards and threats, along with their most and least worrying risk scenarios. It appears that for many regions pandemic disease, electricity black-out and major flooding are most worrying, while transport accident, industry fire and disturbance of water supply are (relatively) least worrying. Also, in different regions similar risk scenarios (e.g., pandemic disease and electricity black-out) are assessed rather differently, both by likelihood and by impact seriousness. Apparent weaknesses of the RRP (and the NRA) approach so far are, among other: lack of stakeholder involvement, rigid multi-criteria impact evaluation, hybrid methods for likelihood estimation, forced comparison of disparate risk scenarios, and unclear decision rules for risk acceptance. Independent review and validation of major RRP components is recommended for strengthening overall results as a reliable basis for regional safety policies. The ‘new risk thinking’ is considered in view of the long-problematic standard-setting approach about Individual Risk and Group Risk in the framework of Dutch external-safety policies. The RRP approach may be called ambitious and much-demanding. External validation and closer cooperation between safety policy-makers and scientists seem desirable.


Charles Vlek
Prof. dr. Charles Vlek is emeritus hoogleraar omgevingspsychologie en besliskunde aan de Faculteit Gedrags- en Maatschappijwetenschappen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/I, 9712 TS Groningen E-mail: c.a.j.vlek@rug.nl.
Artikel

Slachtofferschap van cybercrime in kaart gebracht

Hacken, e-fraude, identiteitsfraude en voorschotfraude

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden cybercrime, hacking, online fraud, identity fraud, victim survey
Auteurs Miranda Domenie, Rutger Leukfeldt, Johan van Wilsem e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the results of a Dutch study that focuses specifically on victimization of various forms of cybercrimes among civilians. The survey addresses the cybercrimes hacking, fraud through selling and auction websites, identity theft and fraud and advanced fee fraud. The results are based on a validated questionnaire which was posted amongst a representative sample of 21,800 citizens, the response rate was 10,314 (47 per cent). In this article of each of these cybercrimes the prevalence is shown. Concerning prevalence, the victim survey shows that in the twelve months preceding the survey 4.3 percent of all Internet users were victims of hacking, 2.4 percent were victims of online scams (by paying for a good or service but not receiving them), 0.8 percent were victims of identity fraud and 0.2 percent of advanced fee fraude. Of all victims, 11.9 percent was victim of more than one of the cybercrimes we studied for this article. If we compare this with figures of offline crime we see that in the Netherlands in 2010, 1 percent were victims of assault, 1.2 percent of burglary and 1.5 percent of sexual offenses. In comparison with these offline crimes, the cybercrimes in our study have significant numbers of victims. Among Internet users, we see that victims of hacking and fraud by auction or selling sites are more often youngsters than older people (for hacking 15 till 35 years in fraud 15 till 25 years), people without a partner are at higher risk than people with partners and people with indicated that their most recently completed education were low are more at risk than people with high education. Especially with the online fraud this is remarkable, because it appears that people who make the most purchases over the Internet are higher educated and mostly in 25 till 45 years old.


Miranda Domenie
M.M.L. (Miranda) Domenie BSc is onderzoeker bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie. E-mail: m.m.l.domenie@nhl.nl

Rutger Leukfeldt
E.R. (Rutger) Leukfeldt MSc is onderzoeker bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en promovendus aan de Open Universiteit. E-mail: e.r.leukfeldt@nhl.nl

Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.

Wouter Stol
Prof. dr. W.Ph. (Wouter) Stol is Lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.
Artikel

Politieonderzoek in open bronnen op internet

Strafvorderlijke aspecten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden criminal investigation, surveillance, OSINT, investigation powers, legal basis
Auteurs Bert-Jaap Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Analysing large amounts of data goes to the heart of the challenges confronting intelligence and law enforcement professionals today. Increasingly, this involves Internet data that are ‘open source’ or ‘publicly available’. Projects such as the European FP7 VIRTUOSO aim at developing platforms for open-source intelligence by law enforcement and public security, which open up opportunities for large-scale, automated data gathering and analysis. However, the mere fact that data are publicly available does not imply an absence of restrictions to researching them. This paper investigates one area of legal constraints, namely Dutch criminal-procedure law in relation to open-source data gathering by the police. Which legal basis is there for this activity? And under what conditions can foreign open sources be investigated?
    After sketching the context of the VIRTUOSO project and legal constraints of open-source intelligence in general, this paper discusses provisions of the Dutch Police Act 1993 and the Code of Criminal Procedure to determine which is the correct legal basis for gathering data from openly accessible and semi-open sources. Next, cross-border gathering of data is discussed on the basis of article 32 of the Cybercrime Convention. The paper draws the conclusion that investigating open sources by the police will often go beyond what is allowed on the basis of the general task description of the police (art. 2 Police Act 1993); hence, an order from the Public Prosecutor for systematic observation or intelligence is required. Moreover, the tools used must meet the non-manipulability and auditing requirements of the Dutch Decree on Technical Devices in Criminal Procedure.


Bert-Jaap Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society, Universiteit van Tilburg. Het onderzoek voor dit artikel werd mede gefinancierd door het Europese KP7-project VIRTUOSO (projectnr. FP7-SEC GA-2009-242352).
Artikel

Het gebruik van virtual reality in de veiligheidsketen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Virtual reality, augmented reality, physical safety, integrated emergency management system
Auteurs André Groenewoud en Margrethe Kobes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Virtual reality is increasingly used in our society. Also in the field of physical safety this technique is applied. In this article we give an overview of virtual reality applications that are used in the Netherlands in this domain. This overview is divided into the five phases of the integrated emergency management system of the Netherlands. Based on international studies from other fields we try to indicate where in the near future virtual reality also can be used.
    Conclusion of this article is that virtual reality already plays an important role in the physical safety domain, especially because this technique can support the learning ability of the safety organizations in many areas. Because of constant innovation (in technique and application) that takes place, it is expected that in the future even more virtual reality applications in the field of physical safety are possible.


André Groenewoud
Drs. U.A. (André) Groenewoud is freelance onderwijskundige. E-mail: a.groenewoud@oidict.nl

Margrethe Kobes
Dr. Ing. M. (Margrethe) Kobes is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV).
Artikel

Jazzy structures

Een slotbeschouwing over de toekomst van veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Auteurs Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author provides a discussion of the articles in this issue of the Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid (Journal on Security) on the occasion of its tenth anniversary. He notes that there is an increasing hybridising, subjectification and fragmentation in the security area. The increasing interweaving of security politics seems to apply least to a common approach in ‘social security and physical safety issues’ (crime control and disaster and crisis management), while exactly this was aimed for in so-called integral security politics. According to the author that is the case because of ‘the moral pin’, which plays a dominant role in crime, but not in safety issues. The entanglement of forms of security identified by the author has a normative basis – it comes from the social order of an increasingly complex society. For the future an ever greater responsibilisation can be expected, in which the perception of security becomes even more important than it is now already. Not a big orchestrated security policy, but jazzy structures will then determine the prospects.


Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. J.C.J. (Hans) Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam. E-mail: j.c.j.boutellier@vu.nl
Artikel

De strafrechtelijke bescherming van jongeren tegen seksuele contactlegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden teenagers, sexual activities, legal protection, criminal law, discourse analysis
Auteurs Juul Gooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Teenagers between twelve and eighteen years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual encounters that can be described as ‘voluntarily’. If teenagers are approached without force or approach a person themselves autonomously they are thus protected against such contact, but they could have played a sexual active role nevertheless. How do the alleged offenders in these criminal cases make contact and how are the punishable interactions possible considering the facilitative role of the victim? This paper will deal with the way the officials of the police and justice departments value sexual contacts with youngsters in a diverse range of settings. The crucial question is how the professionals dealing with the protection of youngsters and at the same time safeguarding the legal rights of offenders come to their juridical deliberation.


Juul Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is docent/onderzoeker aan de Haagse Hogeschool, Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Veiligheid, opleiding Integrale Veiligheid. E-mail: j.c.w.gooren@hhs.nl.
Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
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