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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid x Jaar 2009 x Rubriek Artikel x
Artikel

Filteren op internet

De rol van de Nederlandse overheid in het blokkeren van kinderpornografische websites

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden filteren, internet, kinderporno, politie
Auteurs Rutger Leukfeldt, Wouter Stol, Rik Kaspersen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The distribution of child pornography on the internet is observed as a major social problem. In the Netherlands a lively political-social discussion has emerged concerning the manner in which this can be prevented. The discussion moves between two polarities. On the one hand the dangers of internet censure are emphasised and on the other hand the need for a clamp down in which every measure seems to be justified. The present government wants to combat child pornography and by doing so answer the moral indignation of society. A means that the Dutch government, and on her behalf the police, uses, is blocking websites with child-pornographic content. The possibilities of the Dutch government to filter effectively, however, are restricted. The accuracy of existing filters is low and it is easy to get around filters. In addition, opportunities are restricted by constitutional rights. A filter that stops all websites with child pornography is bound to stop legal internet traffic too. That is at odds with the constitutional rights of freedom of expression and freedom of information gathering. The realisation of a filter that respects fundamental rights and still is able to block child pornography requires a lot of police manpower. This comes at the expense of the tracking down of criminals who produce and distribute child pornography. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the use of the child-pornography filter leads to the purposes for which they are deployed, such as hindering the sale of child pornography or reducing the abuse of children. The police, therefore, is assigned to a task that requires a considerable amount of time, but the benefits of which are unclear.


Rutger Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt is junior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Hogeschool. E-mail: e.r.leukfeldt@ecma.nhl.nl.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool, bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit Nederland en onderzoeker aan de Politieacademie. E-mail: w.ph.stol@ecma.nhl.nl.

Rik Kaspersen
Rik Kaspersen is emeritus hoogleraar Informatica en Recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: hwkkas@xs4all.nl.

Joyce Kerstens
Joyce Kerstens is docent-onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Hogeschool. E-mail: j.kerstens@ecma.nhl.nl.

Arno Lodder
Arno Lodder is universitair hoofddocent van de Afdeling Informatica en Recht, Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: a.r.lodder@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

De aard en omvang van belaging in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden belaging, stalking
Auteurs Suzan van der Aa en Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over nine years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provision there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the prevalence and nature of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. In order to generate these findings the results of the national Police Monitor of 2001 were analysed. Of the 88,607 respondents 24 percent reported a lifetime rate of stalking victimization and for 1.2 to 3.1 percent of the respondents the harassment had begun in the 12 months previous to the study. With almost one in three women (28.6%) and almost one in five men (19.2%), women were significantly more likely to report having been stalked at some time during their lives. In line with previous research age was significantly related to life-time stalking with younger people having greater odds of reporting victimization. (Cor)relations were furthermore found between stalking and having a job, being originally of another than the Dutch nationality and education. But, apart from gender, the odds ratios for those socio-demographic variables were only very small. In most cases (65.6%) the stalker only used one method of harassment with unwanted telephone calls being the method that appeared most in isolation (65.7%). 59.1% of the victims indicated that they felt threatened because of the repetitive harassment. A remarkable finding was that in over 56 percent of the cases the identity of the stalker was unknown.


Suzan van der Aa
Suzan van der Aa is promovenda en onderzoeker bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg. Postadres: Warandelaan 2, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: s.vdraa@uvt.nl.

Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is senior-onderzoeker en projectleider bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg. E-mail: a.pemberton@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Telefoontaps als netwerkdata?

Mogelijkheden en beperkingen om telefoontaps te gebruiken voor SNA van georganiseerde criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, telefoontaps, georganiseerde criminaliteit
Auteurs Willem-Jan Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The literature on using Social Network Analysis (SNA) in criminological research is expanding. The SNA perspective already changed the way we look at organized crime. More often organized crime is referred to as changeable social networks instead of hierarchical structured organizations like the Italian or American mafia. In this respect, SNA seems to lack behind in empirical research on organized crime. Mainly, this is due to the lack of suitable network data on organized crime. For obvious reasons, commonly used methods of gathering network data – such as questionnaires – are less suitable for research on organized crime. Suspects of organized crime have not much to gain from talking about their ‘comrades in crime’. Alternative data need to be explored. Wiretaps from criminal investigations are one such source. In this contribution the SNA perspective is used to present an overview of the possibilities and limitations of using wiretaps for SNA. It follows that wiretaps from criminal investigations should be regarded as ego-centered network data. Therefore, research questions and objective for both criminal investigations as well as scientific research should be directed to the personal networks of suspects instead of the network as a whole.


Willem-Jan Verhoeven
Willem-Jan Verhoeven is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Contactadres: Criminologie/OMV, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam. E-mail: verhoeven@frg.eur.nl.
Artikel

Analyse van het Zuid-Nederlandse xtc-netwerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, xtc-netwerk, xtc-handel, crimineel macronetwerk
Auteurs Dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The social network approach is gaining influence among criminologists studying organized crime and terrorism. The theoretical concept, however, still needs further elaboration. To this end, concepts developed within the field of economic sociology could provide a substantial contribution. Economic sociologists have, among other things, focused on the role of social networks with regard to the completion of economic transactions. They regard mutual trust built through personal relations as an essential part of economic transactions, particularly if these imply certain risks for the parties involved. In other words, before transactions materialize, the parties must first be able to establish trustworthy personal relations. Based on these ideas, Spapens introduced in 2006 the theoretical concept of the criminal macro network, being a social network consisting of individuals able and willing to engage in illegal activities. The capital of each member of the criminal network consists, on the one hand, of his links, defined as information relations, within the network. On the other hand, a person’s position is determined by personal knowledge and skills. It is assumed that executing an actual illegal activity – e.g. drug production, trafficking human beings, bank robbery – requires cooperation between a subset of members of the criminal network, the criminal group.An extensive study of xtc production in the south of the Netherlands between 1996 and 2004 revealed the existence of a ‘xtc network’ consisting of individuals interconnected by social relations. The macro network proved to be relatively stable over time. The composition of the criminal groups, however, changed regularly. This was not only explained by shifting business opportunities, but also by the efforts of the police and the Public Prosecution Service leading to convictions and the dismantling of criminal groups. Better knowledge of the functioning of the criminal macro network can provide valuable contributions to criminological understanding of organized crime. These insights are of course also of great practical importance for law enforcement agencies.


Dr. Toine Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Contactadres: Universiteit van Tilburg, Vakgroep Strafrechtswetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: a.c.spapens@uvt.nl.
Artikel

De Collectieve Winkelontzegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden winkelontzegging, overlast, (on)veiligheid, voorzorgsprincipe
Auteurs Loes Wesselink, Marc Schuilenburg en Patrick Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public Private Partnerships (PPS) are becoming one of the most popular answers to problems of crime and disorder. In this contribution, the authors research the Collective Shop Ban, maybe the most successful form of Public Private Partnerships currently operating in the Netherlands. A Collective Shop Ban is a civil measure bestowed upon a person by the shop owner, when s/he displays ‘unwanted behaviour’. As a consequence entry can be denied for every shop assembled in the association of entrepreneurs. In 2007 almost 900 people have been denied access to over 450 shops in the city centre of The Hague. This new form of collaboration between police, public prosecution service and entrepreneurs has already been rewarded with the Regional Crime Control Platform ‘safety award’. However, the authors question the effects of this collaboration. They argue that the Collective Shop Ban creates its own public of ‘unwanted shoppers’, that can be banned from a shopping area by devising new terms of exclusion. This ‘public’ is subjected to new means of power, to be applied by private security guards and shop owners. While entrepreneurs celebrate the possibilities of this civil measure, the authors warn for the juridical and ethical consequences of this measure.


Loes Wesselink
Loes Wesselink is criminologe en werkt als junior onderzoeker bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement in Den Haag. E-mail: wesselink.loes@gmail.com.

Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@rechten.vu.nl.

Patrick Van Calster
Patrick Van Calster is universitair hoofddocent aan het departement strafrecht en criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: p.j.v..van.calster@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Veilig melden van incidenten in de gezondheidszorg: voorbeelden van (buitenlandse) wetgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2009
Trefwoorden patiëntenveiligheid, incidentenmelding, bescherming melder, blame free reporting
Auteurs Prof. mr. Johan Legemaate en Mr. Robinetta de Roode
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Dutch health care the importance of reporting adverse events is increasingly recognized. Reporting adverse events is seen as a valuable instrument to assess and improve the quality and safety of patient care. It is widely acknowledged that health care practitioners (physicians, nurses) should be able to report adverse events blame free, to prevent that information reported to improve the quality and safety of care is used for other purposes (e.g. to punish the reporter of other persons involved). Several parties have proposed to enact legislation to protect health care practitioners who report adverse events. In other sectors of the Dutch society, as well as in other countries, such legislation already exists. This legislation may serve as an example for legislative action in the area of Dutch health care.


Prof. mr. Johan Legemaate
Johan Legemaate is juridisch adviseur van de Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot bevordering der Geneeskunst (KNMG) en bijzonder hoogleraar gezondheidsrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit. E-mail: j.legemaate@fed.knmg.nl

Mr. Robinetta de Roode
Robinetta de Roode is beleidsmedewerker bij de KNMG.
Artikel

De Collectieve Winkelontzegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2009
Trefwoorden winkelontzegging, overlast, (on)veiligheid, voorzorgsprincipe
Auteurs Loes Wesselink, Marc Schuilenburg en Patrick Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public Private Partnerships (PPS) are becoming one of the most popular answers to problems of crime and disorder. In this contribution, the authors research the Collective Shop Ban, maybe the most successful form of Public Private Partnerships currently operating in the Netherlands. A Collective Shop Ban is a civil measure bestowed upon a person by the shop owner, when s/he displays ‘unwanted behaviour’. As a consequence entry can be denied for every shop assembled in the association of entrepreneurs. In 2007 almost 900 people have been denied access to over 450 shops in the city centre of The Hague. This new form of collaboration between police, public prosecution service and entrepreneurs has already been rewarded with the Regional Crime Control Platform ‘safety award’. However, the authors question the effects of this collaboration. They argue that the Collective Shop Ban creates its own public of ‘unwanted shoppers’, that can be banned from a shopping area by devising new terms of exclusion. This ‘public’ is subjected to new means of power, to be applied by private security guards and shop owners. While entrepreneurs celebrate the possibilities of this civil measure, the authors warn for the juridical and ethical consequences of this measure.


Loes Wesselink
Loes Wesselink is criminologe en werkt als junior onderzoeker-adviseur bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement in Den Haag.E-,mail: wesselink.loes@gmail.com

Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@rechten.vu.nl.

Patrick Van Calster
Patrick Van Calster is universitair hoofddocent aan het departement strafrecht en criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.E-mail: p.j.v.van.calster@law.leidenuniv.nl
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