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Artikel

Access_open Een vergeten episode uit de schoolstrijd: de ontdekking van ‘openbaar’ en ‘bijzonder’ onderwijs

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden openbaar onderwijs, bijzonder onderwijs, schoolstrijd, Grondwet, vrijheid van onderwijs/ onderwijsvrijheid
Auteurs Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The battle over the school system is one of the liveliest chapters in Dutch constitutional history. It resulted, in 1848, in the constitutional acknowledgement of a dual system of education: education provided by public authority (‘public education’) and private education (practically synonymous with confessional education); and, in 1917, in the constitutional guarantee of public funding for the latter on the same footing as the former.
    The battle over the school system is usually described as a battle for freedom of private, confessional education from the start. This article shows that prior to this, in the first stage of this battle, the concept of ‘private education’ itself had to be invented and that the concept of ‘public education’ had to develop a different meaning. Public education, the notion used in the Constitutions of 1814 and 1815, originally meant education in schools in contrast to house education. It was this broad concept of education that was entrusted to the care of government and, therefore, not free. This article focuses on the first half of the 19th century. On the basis of original sources it traces the fascinating process of the birth of these new categories, that determine the Dutch education system up to now.


Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is bijzonder hoogleraar Religie, rechtsstaat en samenleving aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid. s.c.vbijsterveld@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Access_open De staat als ‘neutral organiser of religions’?

Een analyse van de rechtspraak van het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens (I)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden religie, godsdienstvrijheid, EVRM, secularisme, neutraliteit, Europees Hof voor de rechten van de mens
Auteurs Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2001 the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) regularly applies the normative characterization of the state as a ‘neutral and impartial organiser of religions’ in its cases. This qualification has no explicit basis in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Where does it come from, how does the ECtHR understand this, in which type of cases does the ECtHR use it and with which result? This essay analyses the use of this qualification by the ECtHR and aims to provide an answer to these questions. It asserts that the qualification of the state as ‘neutral and impartial organiser of religions’ is an inadequate standard and examines wether it may harbor other normative dimensions that are important in the relation between state and religion. After introducing the first case in which the ECtHR used this qualification, the first part deals with cases concerning conflicts within and between churches, equal treatment of religious groups in multi-tiered church and state systems, and pupils in public schools wearing religious garb. The second part will appear in the next issue of this Journal and continues with an analysis of cases concerning the place of religion in education, and various alleged interferences of religious liberty. It concludes with a reflection on the use by the ECtHR of the qualification of the state as ‘neutral and impartial organizer of religious’.


Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is bijzonder hoogleraar Religie, rechtsstaat en samenleving aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Zij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid. s.c.vbijsterveld@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Scheiding tussen kerk en staat als bevrijding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden church and state, France, history, The Netherlands
Auteurs Ben Koolen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches the relationship between the churches and the State since the end of the reign of the Stadtholders (1795). The decision of the Batavian Republic to recognize independence and equal rights of each church (1796) appears to be effective not before the midst of the 19th century, under influence of liberal policy. It opened the way to co-operation between church and state, aimed at a democratic society. The churches should not be reluctant in implementing their freedom to act as free partners in the social debate.


Ben Koolen
Dr. G.M.J.M. Koolen heeft diverse studies over de relatie tussen religie en samenleving in historisch perspectief gepubliceerd. Hij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid. gmjmkoolen@tele2.nl
Artikel

Access_open Tijd voor een ruimere eedspraktijk

Laat ieder de eed afleggen volgens eigen godsdienstige gezindheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden Eed, andere religies, belijdenisvrijheid
Auteurs Jurn de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It fits in with the objective of the oath that everybody is given the opportunity to swear an oath in compliance with his or her own faith. In The Netherlands this has already been legally possible since 1911. It is in agreement with the articles 1 and 6 of the Constitution and with tradition. After all, those who take the oath must fully realize the obligations they enter into. There is, however, some uncertainty about the scope and purport of the law of 1911. Therefore we are making three recommendations to clarify the rules.


Jurn de Vries
Dr. J.P. de Vries is onderzoeker aan de Theologische Universiteit van de Gereformeerde Kerken (vr.) in Kampen. vries.jpde@tiscali.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Religion bites: religieuze orthodoxie op de nationale veiligheidsagenda

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden securitization, terrorism, securitization-framework, salafism
Auteurs Beatrice de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article states how in the Netherlands since the 1990s religious orthodoxy became the reference object for threat analysis within the security domain. Political Islam and Salafism are increasingly framed as security threats to the Dutch democratic order and social cohesion. The article uses the securitization-framework, developed by the Copenhagen School, to analyze how religion was put on the security agenda and how countervailing forces tried to desecuritize and countersecuritize this process. The article ends with the conclusion that orthodoxy as such is still framed predominantly in terms of violence and coercion, due to a culturalization of security politics as a whole. This narrows the perspective on religious orthodoxy and leaves little room for alternative sources of civil engagement in society.


Beatrice de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf is universitair hoofddocent aan het Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism (CTC) aan de Universiteit Leiden – Campus Den Haag.
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