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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit x Jaar 2011 x Rubriek Artikel x
Artikel

Symmetrie in homicide

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden social rank, honour, conflict, close social bonds, small communities
Auteurs Anton Blok
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An analysis of about 2,200 cases of homicides in the Netherlands committed between 1992 and 2006 shows that lethal violence typically results from conflict in symmetric relations in which social rank is ambiguous. The settings of homicides are mostly well-integrated, small communities, including families, rural villages in tribal and agrarian societies, modern urban neighbourhoods, gettos, criminal organisations, and ethnic enclaves. The mechanism that drives antagonism between people in such places is their attachment, close-knit structure, and common features. Earlier, Simmel developed this insight in lethal conflict when saying ‘the more we have in common with another as whole persons, the more easily will our totality be involved in every single relationship to that person, hence the disproportionate violence to which normally well-controlled people can be moved within their relations to those closest to them.’ Contemporary sociologists, ethnographers, and historians amply corroborated this view of lethal violence. In his comparative work Gould shows a compelling connection between ambiguity of social rank and lethal conflict. Knauft investigated the high homicide rates in a New Guinea community and found that lethal violence resulting from sorcery attributions is not the anti-thesis of the ideal of ‘good company’ but its ultimate culmination.


Anton Blok
Prof. dr. Anton Blok is emeritus hoogleraar Culturele antropologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: anton.blok@xs4all.nl.
Artikel

Etnografie en criminologie in het tropisch regenwoud

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden green criminology, ethnography, rainforests, illegal logging
Auteurs Tim Boekhout van Solinge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses tropical deforestation from a cultural criminological perspective, by using qualitative methods such as ethnography and interviews, and by emphasizing the difficulties, dangers and dilemmas of ethnographic research. Case studies include timber smuggling from Indonesia to Malaysia and deforestation for bauxite, soy and timber in Brazil’s Amazon. Also described are meetings with (Dutch) timber traders, policy makers and law enforcers. Tropical deforestation is responsible for a great deal of harm, crime and violence, mainly committed by ranchers and loggers. Victims are humans (including humanity’s oldest societies), future generations (considering the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and climate change) and non-humans (with risks of extinctions).


Tim Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge is sociaal-geograaf en universitair docent Criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtwetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: t.boekhoutvansolinge@uu.nl.
Artikel

Alles stroomt...?

Over ‘cultuur’ in de culturele criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden cultural criminology, essentialism, constructivism, structure-agency debate, globalization
Auteurs Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cultural criminology has been criticized for not taking enough notice of classical anthropological debates on the concept of ‘culture’. This article responds to that. It analyses anthropological conceptualization from an initial essentialist to a social constructivist approach of ‘culture’. The constructivist approach can prevent cultural criminologists from focusing too much on ‘exotic subcultures’ and neglecting broader socio-cultural developments. The article treats the structure-agency debate and its relevance to cultural criminology. In conclusion, cultural criminology from a dynamic constructivist concept of culture is best equipped for studying crime and reactions to crime in the current era of globalization.


Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
Dr. Brenda Carina Oude Breuil is universitair docent/onderzoeker bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: b.oudebreuil@uu.nl.
Artikel

‘Boeven vangen’ via internet

Beelden over criminaliteit in opsporingsberichtgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden crime & media, responsibilization, internet, citizen participation
Auteurs Judith van Erp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article studies community notification of suspects, as in Crimewatch and its Dutch equivalent, Opsporing Verzocht, and on police websites. It explores how these messages frame crime, and how these frames change when police messages are copied by private websites. Publication of suspects by the police is characterized as responsibilization, because it legitimizes the authority of the police and reinforces existing relations between police and the public. The new media, however, undermine the frame of authority as it is presented by the police, either because publications aiming to detect suspects are transformed into news or entertainment, or because private websites select those publications that give room to the questioning of police performance. As for the presentation of the publications, this article compares the Dutch TV program Opsporing Verzocht and the website GeenStijl. Opsporing Verzocht centers around the victim, while GeenStijl presents the subject from an enforcement point of view. GeenStijl users are not addressed as the police’s helping hands, but as autonomous agents of social control, sometimes standing in for the police. Community notification of suspects therefore not only influences detection rates, but also the relation between the police, the public, and offenders in society.


Judith van Erp
Dr. Judith van Erp is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: vanerp@law.eur.nl.
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