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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit x Jaar 2012 x Rubriek Artikel x
Artikel

Een dubbelleven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden autobiography, desistance, narcotic substances, working incognito
Auteurs Rein Gerritsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In his first book Knock-out from 2009, Rein Gerritsen tells his story of how easy it is to end up on the wrong path. Conversely, in the second part of his autobiography, 13 accidents, he explains how hard it is as an ex-convict to stay on the right track. This goes to show that there is much truth in what they say: ‘The real punishment only starts after you’re out.’ This article is an excerpted pre-publication from 13 accidents.


Rein Gerritsen
Drs. Rein Gerritsen studeerde filosofie en natuurkunde en is werkzaam als schrijver en vertaler. In 2012 komt 13 ongelukken uit, het tweede deel van zijn autobiografie. E-mail: r.gerritsen@pragmatisme.nl.
Artikel

De pose

Boevenbiografie tussen structuur en interactie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden biography, structure, symbolic interactionism, presentation of self
Auteurs Frank van Gemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In biographies a structure perspective is common to place the key person in a context of time and place. Apart from opportunities and obstacles, also cultural frames for interpretation vary with context. In this article a second, interaction perspective is added. This can best be applied if the key person cooperates in the research and if an emic approach is used. A recent life history of Jan Hoolwerf demonstrates how the key person comes to various presentations of self that can be understood as poses that fit specific settings.


Frank van Gemert
Dr. Frank van Gemert is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: f.vangemert@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

Met biografieën een beter begrip van witteboordencriminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, corporate crime, biographies, case studies
Auteurs Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central question of this article is whether biographies can be a source for criminological research on white-collar crime and how they can contribute to the explanation of white-collar crime. To answer this question, 35 Dutch biographies were studied. Following the legal ambiguities of white-collar crime, not all of these biographies are about criminal offences. And following the dominant anthropomorphic approach to corporate crime, some of these are corporate biographies. Many biographies confirm current criminological explanations of the causation of white-collar crime. Yet, biographies also offer additional insights, for instance about the causal relevance of the private life of white-collar offenders.


Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@vu.nl.
Artikel

Verpest in het nest

Een casestudie van een criminele familie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden family ties, fission and fusion, stigmatization, criminal family
Auteurs Borris van der Swaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses a criminal family. It is not the individual, but the family as a social entity that is central to this approach. The Van D.’s are a family of eleven brothers with a collective history of crime. Raised with anti-authoritarian norms, violence, alcohol and a strong sense of loyalty, they were known as an ‘army of brothers’ dominating the streets of H-town. The criminal family as object of study proves valuable in understanding the influence of contextual factors, subculture, and stigmatization. In the case of the Van D.’s, blood ties create cohesion and conflict at the same time.


Borris van der Swaan
Borris van der Swaan Msc is afgestudeerd als criminoloog aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: bvanderswaan@gmail.com.
Artikel

Access_open Sytze van der Zee

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden journalist, serial killers, interview, biography
Auteurs Joke Harte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most biographies on criminals have been written by journalists. Dutch writer and former journalist Sytze van der Zee wrote portraits of two serial killers. In order to reconstruct the criminal facts and the police investigations in both cases, he collected data by gathering as much documents as possible, and by interviewing the main characters. For the second biography, he had many conversations with the serial killer. In this interview, Sytze van der Zee tells about his motivation to write these books, the research methods he used, the reliability of the collected information, and his experiences while researching.


Joke Harte
Dr. Joke Harte is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR en als universitair hoofddocent aan de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: j.harte@vu.nl.
Artikel

Geheimen van jongeren

De Antwerpse jeugd en haar nachtleven in de vroege twintigste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden youth, nightlife, urban, early twentieth century
Auteurs Margo De Koster en Herbert Reinke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Approaching the night as a particular time and space for secret transgressions, this article examines the nightlife of Antwerp youth in the early twentieth century. Although this period saw increased official attempts to legally regulate ‘immoral’ nocturnal juvenile amusements, the police allowed most young people to move around unbothered at night, intervening only in major public order disturbances and handling most juveniles informally. Parents were more ‘efficient’, filing complaints with the juvenile judge on charges of ‘misconduct’, seeking to end familial financial troubles caused by heavy spending on nightlife. Working-class youth increasingly turned to the movies and dancing, in search for a secret ‘second life’ of pleasures away from conventional social and sexual codes, where they could belong and feel special.


Margo De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en post-doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Université catholique de Louvain (België). E-mail: margo.dekoster@uclouvain.be

Herbert Reinke
Dr. Herbert Reinke is professor en senior onderzoeker aan de Bergische Universität Wuppertal en Technische Universität Berlin. E-mail: reinke@uni-wuppertal.de
Artikel

Stilzwijgen onder toezichthouders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden secrecy, denial, silence, monitoring
Auteurs Henk van de Bunt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the silence of control agents. It is often said that control agents as representatives of the risk society are obsessed with control activities and fact-finding, and that rule breakers are regularly exposed by negative publicity. The author takes the contrary position that even major cases demonstrate the persistence of silence on the part of control agents. He distinguishes between two types of silence: denial and secrecy. Denial means that control agents saw nothing while they could have discovered wrongdoing. He points to the fact that this denial in the face of knowledge is the result of sociological ambivalence: control agents are often forced to reconcile conflicting interests, which supersede the importance of supervision. The article shows that secrecy plays an important role in trust relationships between control agents and the objects of their supervision. Secrecy enables control agents to better obtain information. In effect, with regard to the supply of information and the scrutiny of the objects under supervision, control agents are dependent on the cooperativeness of the objects of supervision. These days, much emphasis is placed on breaking the walls of silence. Perpetrators, victims and witnesses, as well as control agents, are being encouraged to break the silence through the use of star witness arrangements, whistleblower arrangements, witness protection, and reporting centres. But is this effective? The author suggests that maintaining secrecy is essential and that those measures limit the space for control agents to develop trust relationships with the objects of supervision, and thereby the opportunity to engage in fact-finding.


Henk van de Bunt
Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail:vandebunt@law.eur.nl
Artikel

Vrijmetselarij en criminalisering tijdens het Vichy-regime

Een criminologische benadering van de ‘forces occultes’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden freemasonry, secrets, anti-masonry, criminalization
Auteurs Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The political far right French Vichy-regime or French State (1940-1944) criminalized freemasonry as a dangerous secret society using several state owned measures. In the tradition of the secret Jewish-Masonic conspiracy theory a legal framework was established to criminalize and ban freemasonry, to dissolve the lodges and to remove individual freemasons from command positions. Intellectuals, former freemasons, public and private police and intelligence agencies helped the regime to establish an anti-Masonic documentation, exhibition and movie (Forces occultes) in order to show the French population the danger of freemasonry. A specialized police force (Service des sociétés secrètes) identified 60.000 freemasons, the names of 18.000 were published and 3.000 lost their jobs. 989 were brought to the extermination camps and 545 were shot immediately by private militias.


Marc Cools
Prof. dr. Marc Cools is professor in de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent en in de vakgroep criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Hij is daar ook lid van de interdisciplinaire onderzoeksgroep Vrijmetselarij. E-mail: Marc.Cools@UGent.be
Artikel

Access_open Aan tafel met André Köbben

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden André J.F. Köbben, primitive law, reseach ethics, scientific fraud, ethnographic research
Auteurs Lodewijk Brunt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    André Köbben’s academic career spans sixty years and he’s still going strong – just because he likes it so much. Doing research by himself, which took him for longer periods to Ivory Coast and Surinam apart from studying conflicts in the Netherlands, but also analysing research by others. He has always been interested in questions of ‘rule’ and ‘reality’: the discrepancy between what people say they do and what they actually are doing. He probed tribal disputes among the Agni, the Bete and the Djoeka, but also conflicting interests between managers ordering research and researchers producing unwelcome results. He is preparing a book on academic fraud.


Lodewijk Brunt
Prof. dr. Lodewijk Brunt is emeritus professor Stadssociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en momenteel verbonden aan het India Instituut (Amsterdam). E-mail: lbrunt@xs4all.nl
Artikel

Angst voor criminaliteit en gated communities

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden gated communities, safety, fear of crime, United States
Auteurs Setha Low
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Desire for safety, security, community, and ‘niceness’, as well as wanting to live near people like themselves because of a fear of ‘others’ and of crime, is expressed by most residents living in gated communities. The emergence of a fortress mentality and its phenomenal success is surprising in the United States where the majority of people live in open and unguarded neighborhoods. Thus, the rapid increase in the numbers of Americans moving to secured residential enclaves invites a more complex account of their motives and values. While their reasoning is largely the same as other middle class Americans, these seemingly self-evident explanations encompass deeper meanings and concerns. This article reviews the consequences of living in a gated community based on resident interviews, behavioral mapping, and participant observation field notes. I begin with a history of gating and then use ethnographic examples to summarize what I learned. I conclude with a discussion of ‘community’ as it is being re-conceived through a discourse of fear of crime in the United States through private governance and gating, and outline what we can do to ameliorate its negative aspects.


Setha Low
Prof. dr. Setha Low is hoogleraar antropologie aan het Graduate Center van de City University of New York (CUNY).
Artikel

Onveiligheidsgevoelens bij blanke middenklassers in Kaapstad

Op zoek naar een comfortzone in een ongelijk land

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden fear of crime, inequality, in-depth interviews, South Africa
Auteurs Nick Schuermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with more than forty White South Africans in a middle class neighborhood of Cape Town, this paper looks at the motivations to secure South African houses and neighbourhoods with perimeter walls, security initiatives and neighbourhood watches. The discourses of the residents make it clear that seemingly banal actions to secure the residential environment are motivated as much by the fear of falling property prices and the fear of losing psychological comfort as they are driven by the high levels of crime and fear of crime.


Nick Schuermans
Dr. Nick Schuermans is werkzaam bij het Laboratorium voor Educatie en Samenleving van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. E-mail: Nick.Schuermans@ped.kuleuven.be.
Artikel

De stad en de grenzen van religieuze tolerantie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden urban transformation, Istanbul, religion, segregation
Auteurs Ayse Çavdar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the public spheres of the global cities, religion is getting more visible. However, this is not an independent process, but is linked to broader urban processes like segregation, security and (fear of) crime. With two different examples from Istanbul, this article explains how religious motivations become ways of expression for existing or emerging lines of urban segregation. While religious motivations appear as a tool used against urban gentrification in the area of Tophane; in the gated community of Basaksehir, religion, together with ‘fear of crime’ and ‘fear of immorality’, serves to differentiate a middle class living space from the ‘scary’ and ‘immoral’ environment of the big city.


Ayse Çavdar
Ayse Çavdar is journalist en PhD student aan de European University of Viadrina. E-mail: aysecavdar@gmail.com.
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