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Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Multilaterale handelsfaciliteiten en dark pools

Is MiFID na drie jaar al aan herziening toe?

Tijdschrift Onderneming en Financiering, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden MiFID, MTF, multilaterale handelsfaciliteit, multilateraal handelsplatform
Auteurs Mw. Mr. S. Rosmalen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage staat de multilaterale handelsfaciliteit centraal. De bijdrage beoogt een globaal overzicht te geven van de regelgeving die van toepassing is op dit handelsplatform dat beter bekend is als MTF. Er wordt aansluiting gezocht bij de herziening van MiFID en bekeken wordt of MiFID na drie jaar de door haar beoogde concurrentieverhoging ten aanzien van handelsplatformen heeft weten te volbrengen. Besproken wordt de definitie van het begrip MTF en de belangrijkste elementen van het op een MTF van toepassing zijnde regelgevend kader. Tevens wordt stilgestaan bij de verschillen die er zijn tussen een gereglementeerde markt en een MTF. Ook wordt nader ingegaan op het begrip dark pool (het onderdeel van de handel dat buiten het orderboek van de handelsplatformen plaatsvindt) en komen de bevindingen van CESR en IOSCO aan bod voor zover die momenteel relevant zijn voor MTF’s en dark pools.


Mw. Mr. S. Rosmalen
Mw. mr. S. Rosmalen is advocaat bij Stibbe te Amsterdam.

    In recent years there is an increasing trend towards semi-public space. This article seeks to explain this trend. As the heterogeneity of society grows, it becomes more difficult to deal with different groups within one's living environment. Residents prefer a sheltering living environment that attracts similar groups and excludes those they would rather avoid. Social engineering through architecture has a long history: municipalities used to combine the design of neighbourhoods and public spaces with a social agenda of community building. Later, as society evolved, the prevention of friction between people and the creation of public meeting places became leading principles, but never exclusion. However, public housing associations and developers are increasingly accommodating preferences for sheltered living environments by the creation of collective space, appropriating public space and the temporary use of undeveloped space. Three cases illustrate this.


L. Bijlsma
Drs. Like Bijlsma is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

M. Galle
Drs. Maaike Galle is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

J. Tennekes
Drs. Joost Tennekes is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.
Artikel

‘Gij had beter toezicht op mijn overtreding moeten houden’

Het relativiteitsvereiste en toezicht op de naleving van de Woningwet

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 9 2010
Trefwoorden vermogensschade, beschermingsbereik, relativiteitsvereiste, Woningwet
Auteurs Mr. A.C. Beck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Kan de vergunninghouder die zelf in afwijking van zijn bouwvergunning bouwt, de schade op de gemeente verhalen op grond van onvoldoende toezicht? Het Hof Arnhem meent dat dit niet het geval is. Vermogensschade die is ontstaan door onvoldoende toezicht valt volgens het hof hoe dan ook niet onder het beschermingsbereik van toezicht op de Woningwet. In dit artikel wordt niet alleen het beschermingsbereik van toezicht op de Woningwet besproken, maar ook de stand van zowel de civiele als de bestuursrechtelijke rechtspraak met betrekking tot het relativiteitsvereiste en de Woningwet zelf.


Mr. A.C. Beck
Mr. A.C. Beck is advocaat bij Houthoff Buruma te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Is de vrijheid van godsdienst in de moderne multiculturele samenleving nog een hanteerbaar recht?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden freedom of religion, human rights, human dignity, traditional religion, unequal treatment
Auteurs Koo van der Wal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are two fundamental problems with regard to the freedom of religion. The first concerns the content and scope of the right; the second, a possible unequal treatment between population groups. The first problem can only be dealt with by a preliminary analysis of the religious phenomenon, which precedes a legal definition. It turns out that there is a range of different types of religion, with on the one hand traditional forms of religion which are narrowly interwoven with the culture in question (all kinds of ‘cultural’ practices possessing a religious dimension), and on the other forms of religion which loosen to a considerable extent the ties between culture and religion. Evidently, the former types of religion cause problems in modern society. An additional problem is that freedom of religion as a modern basic right rests on a view of human being – including the idea of the inherent dignity and autonomy of the human person – which is at odds with the symbolic universe of traditional religion. The conclusion of the article is that in the modern pluralist society freedom of religion is on its way to becoming, or already has become, an unmanageable right. So the problems arising around this right (including that of unequal treatment) can only be solved in a pragmatic, not really satisfactory way. In that context, modern humanitarian standards should be observed in the implementation of the right of freedom of religion because fundamental human rights are connected with a specific concept of humanity.


Koo van der Wal
Koo van der Wal is emeritus professor of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam and the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Constitutionele toetsing in een democratie zonder volk

Een kelseniaanse rechtvaardiging voor het Europees Hof van Justitie

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Kelsen, Democracy, Legitimacy, European Union, European Court of Justice
Auteurs Quoc Loc Hong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article draws on Hans Kelsen’s theory of democracy to argue that, contrary to conventional wisdom, there is nothing fundamentally wrong with the democratic legitimacy of either the European Union (EU) or the European Court of Justice (ECJ). The legitimacy problems from which the EU in general and the ECJ in particular are alleged to suffer seem to result mainly from our rigid adherence to the outdated conception of democracy as popular self-legislation. Because we tend to approach the Union’s political and judicial practice from the perspective of this democracy conception, we are not able to observe what is blindingly obvious, that is, the viability and persistence of both this mega-leviathan and the highest court thereof. It is, therefore, imperative that we modernize and adjust our conception of democracy in order to comprehend the new reality to which these bodies have given rise, rather than to call for ‘reforms’ in a futile attempt to bring this reality into accordance with our ancient preconceptions about what democratic governance ought to be. Kelsen is the democratic theorist whose work has enabled us to venture into that direction.


Quoc Loc Hong
Quoc Loc Hong was a FWO Postdoctoral Fellow from 2007 to 2009 at the University of Antwerp. He is currently an independent researcher.
Artikel

De burgemeester in crisistijd

Schakelen tussen bestuurlijke moed en terughoudendheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs R. Bron en M. Zannoni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article aims to illustrate the importance of the mayor in times of disaster and crisis management. The mayor plays a crucial role, even though he is merely one link in the crisis management process. In the Netherlands, the organization and coordination of crisis management is subdivided into 25 safety regions. Recently there has been a strong development towards professionalization of these safety regions and their partners. However, in the case of a local crisis all attention goes to the mayor, whose decisions and actions are critically followed by the media and the public. In order to identify what would constitute a good mayor in times of crisis, the article lists essential points and qualities. In sum, a good mayor in times of crisis should be critical and show managerial courage.


R. Bron
Mr. drs. Roland Bron is als managing senior werkzaam bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement.

M. Zannoni
drs. Marco Zannoni is als managing senior werkzaam bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement.
Artikel

Criminele expats

Britse criminelen in Nederland en Nederlandse criminelen in Spanje

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden drugshandel, Internationale criminaliteit, Spanje, Verenigd Koninkrijk
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn en Dr. Sander Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on migration with criminal motives. Two specific groups are discussed, British migrants in the Netherlands and Dutch migrants in Spain. Little is written on criminal migration motives in combination with Western subjects. On the other hand, investigative authorities have first-hand knowledge on this matter. An analysis of 25 closed case files shows that within these two groups of migrants, some people are heavily involved in the international drugs trade. Although their numbers are small, their function is important. Through their actions it becomes possible for certain cities or areas to evolve into international criminal drug marketplaces. There are also some differences between British and Dutch criminals abroad. British criminals are often involved as brokers. They broker drugs for third parties in Great Britain. Their stay in the Netherlands seems temporarily. They do not invest in the economy or buy property. Conversely, Dutch criminals in Spain could be described as leaders of organized crime groups. They invest in Spain by buying companies and property.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M. Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de KLPD, melvin.soudijn@klpd.politie.nl.

Dr. Sander Huisman
Dr. S. Huisman is senior onderzoeker bij de KLPD, Sander.huisman@klpd.politie.nl.
Artikel

Migratie en mobiele daders

Heling bij rondtrekkende dadergroepen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Criminele bendes, Zuid-Oost Europa, Rondtrekkende daders, Heling
Auteurs Dr. Stijn Van Daele en Prof. dr. Tom Vander Beken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Starting a decade ago, police authorities in Western Europe have been dealing with (South)Eastern European gangs coming over to Western Europe. These gangs commit a large number of property crimes and are characterised by their high level of mobility. Yet, this raises questions as to how their mobility has to be interpreted: is it temporary, making them criminal tourists, or are there any migration mechanisms involved? This article is based on interviews with offenders charged with selling criminal goods (i.e. fencing). Fencing activities appear to take place either in Western Europe or in the countries of origin. Alongside these activities, their centre of social activity appears to be located in either one of them as well. This heterogeneity indicates there is little added value in combating the Eastern European crime gangs, because different offender types with a different background are involved.


Dr. Stijn Van Daele
Dr. S. Van Daele is medewerker bij het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Gent, Stijn.VanDaele@UGent.be.

Prof. dr. Tom Vander Beken
Prof. dr. T. Van der Beken is directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie, Universiteit Gent, Tom.VanderBeken@UGent.be.
Artikel

De maximalistische visie op herstelrecht onder vuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden maximalisme, rechtsorde, slachtoffers, rehabilitatie
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors latest book on Restorative Justice, Self-Interest and Responsible Citizenship has been discussed in this journal in 2009 and the author now responds to the critiques, which came from three jurists and therefore had a predominantly juristic character. Themes discussed are ‘criminal justice and punishment’, ‘restorative justice and the law’, ‘restorative justice, the victim and public interest’, ‘restorative justice and the legal order’ and finally ‘restorative justice and offender rehabilitation’. Walgrave maintains and clarifies the views he developed in the book explaining why it is correct to claim that criminal justice can be identified as fundamentally punitive (although it does not always punish, as one critic has observed) and that it should be possible to elaborate restorative justice into a completely new legal system, offering legal guarantees fitting to what restorative justice is trying to achieve. Legal guarantees as they exist today in criminal procedure cannot be taken as the benchmark for restorative procedures in view of the totally different aims and procedures. Furthermore, it is not true that the victim gets too much power in restorative justice – as one critic stated – because restorative justice is and should be conceived as a system of public law, involving the legal agencies and authorities such as courts in a proper role as guardians of every citizin’s dominion. It is because of the safeguarding of dominion that the victim should have a key-role to play in restorative justice, although not obliged to participate.One critic has mentioned that Walgraves ideas seem to imply that the legal order is only something being imposed upon the citizens ‘top down’, while in many respects one could maintain that the law and the principles of the legal order have been produced ‘bottom-up’ or at least should be the result of democracy. The response is that restorative procedures offer more opportunities for citizens for this democratic participation in producing the norms of the law.Finally some have argued that the rehabilitative interests of the offender should have a more central place in the definition of restorative justice, more or less of the same importance as restoring the harms of the victim. Walgraves experiences with the Belgian model of juvenile protection made him cautious of the risks of doing so, not only in terms of serving the victims needs, but also in terms of the legal protection of the juvenile offender against arbitrary interventions.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
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