Zoekresultaat: 7 artikelen

x
De zoekresultaten worden gefilterd op:
Jaar 2012 x Rubriek Artikel x
Artikel

Deuren op slot

Naar een verklaring voor de internationale daling van criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2012
Trefwoorden Crime Victim Survey, Crime levels, Marxist criminology, Crime opportunity theory, Crime prevention
Auteurs J.J.M. van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the opening section the author refers to the classical book of Dutch criminologist Willem Bonger on the links between poverty/social injustice and levels of crime. He then introduces his own work on the International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) since 1989. The ICVS trend data on crime in Western countries during 1989 up to 2010 show a curvilinear movement peaking around 2000. The upward trend seems to track economic growth and to have mainly been caused by increased opportunities of crime. His analytical results concerning car theft and household burglary suggest that the international falls in crime since 2000 are largely caused by improved security. A comparative analysis shows for example that burglary rates have fallen in countries with high levels of home security such as Great Britain and the Netherlands and have continued to rise in low security countries such as Denmark and Switzerland. The author concludes that criminology has evolved both methodologically and theoretically since the publication of Bonger’s book in 1905. Some fundamental principles of the discipline, however, appear to have remained unchanged. Van Dijk’s own work is, just like that of Bonger, policy- oriented. It is driven by the motivation to assist governments in finding better ways to reduce suffering of human beings from crime, either as victims or as offenders.


J.J.M. van Dijk
Prof. dr. mr. Jan van Dijk is als hoogleraar verbonden aan Intervict, het International Victimology Institute van de Universiteit van Tilburg. De oorspronkelijke Engelse titel van deze lezing luidt Closing the doors, een verwijzing naar een boek over suïcidepreventie van Ron Clarke, getiteld Suicide: Closing the exits. In dit boek en in een daarna verschenen artikel van Ron Clarke en Pat Mayhew werd empirisch bewijs gepresenteerd van het feit dat een verandering in de samenstelling van het aardgas in huishoudens in Groot-Brittannië en Nederland halverwege de jaren tachtig leidde tot een abrupte daling van het aantal mensen dat zelfmoord pleegde met behulp van gas, zonder dat er een duidelijke verschuiving naar andere manieren van zelfdoding optrad (Clarke & Mayhew 1989). Als een zeer gemotiveerde daad zoals zelfmoord kan worden teruggedrongen door eenvoudige situationele maatregelen, waarom, vroegen de auteurs zich af, zou dat dan niet kunnen met diverse vormen van opportunistische diefstal, zoals joyriding of inbraken in de wijk? Inderdaad, waarom niet?
Artikel

Omgevingscriminologie 2.0

Criminologisch onderzoek in een virtuele omgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden virtual environments, research methods, disorder
Auteurs Dr. Gabry Vanderveen en Dr. Monique Koemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminological research on perceptions and behavior in an environmental context, scarcely uses virtual environments. Such virtual environments are available on the Internet or can be created. They can be presented to research participants either online or in a laboratory setting. This article gives a brief overview of criminological studies employing a virtual environment and describes a case study that used a virtual environment in order to investigate disorder. Despite the pitfalls, there are certainly possibilities for (criminological) research in virtual environments. The spatial context provided by a virtual environment, seems suitable for research in environmental criminology in particular.


Dr. Gabry Vanderveen
Dr. G.N.G. Vanderveen is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Monique Koemans
Dr. M. Koemans is docent en onderzoeker aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Kunst en/of criminaliteit

De ene graffiti is de andere niet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden graffiti, perceptie, overlast, visuele methoden, verwijderingsbeleid
Auteurs Gabry Vanderveen en Funda Jelsma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Graffiti has been linked in empirical studies to disorder, fear of crime, avoidance behavior, vandalism and delinquency. In most of those studies, graffiti is treated as an abstract and uniform concept: no distinctions are made between one graffiti or another. Policies based on this assumption hold a zero tolerance approach, meaning all graffiti is deemed undesirable and is or should be removed. This has been criticized by several (theoretical) studies. On the other hand however, ethnographic studies present graffiti as a multifaceted phenomenon, serving as a means of communication, resistance and protest or as an art form. The current study investigates the assumption that graffiti is perceived as a homogeneous and undesirable environmental feature. This article examines whether graffiti is actually perceived uniformly by Dutch citizens, and if not how people distinguish between different graffiti; which types of graffiti are perceived as disorder and whether different types of people exist based on their attitudes towards graffiti. An extensive questionnaire was designed, based on a thorough analysis of the literature and empirical pilot studies. A nationally representative sample responded to general questions with respect to graffiti and judged eighteen specific examples of graffiti on a reliable scale that measured perceived disorder. Results indicate that people vary enormously in their ideas and attitudes. Also, not every graffiti is the same, meaning graffiti is not a homogeneous, uniform phenomenon. Both type of graffiti and the location on which the graffiti is situated relate to the degree of perceived disorder. For example, tags, small scribbles, were considered a public nuisance more than pieces, large colorful images. Also, graffiti on a house or car is perceived much more as disorder than graffiti in a skatepark. The diversity in views necessitates a normative


Gabry Vanderveen
Dr. G.N.G. (Gabry) Vanderveen is universitair docent criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. E-mail: g.n.g.vanderveen@law.leidenuniv.nl

Funda Jelsma
Funda Jelsma MSc is als docent-onderzoeker verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Werk, werkkenmerken en delinquentie

Een longitudinaal onderzoek naar de invloed van het hebben van een baan op delinquent gedrag onder jongvolwassenen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden delinquency, work, emerging adulthood, work commitment, future possibilities
Auteurs MSc. Maaike Wensveen, Dr. Hanneke Palmen, Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The link between being employed and delinquent behaviour is complex. This article examines to what extent having a job, the commitment to that job and the future prospects of that job are related to delinquency. We use data from the Utrecht Study of Adolescent Development (USAD), a six-year, three-wave longitudinal study, pertaining to a general population sample of 669 young adults between the ages of 18 and 28. Having a job is associated with an increase in delinquency for 18 and 19 year old males. The results for subsequent ages show a trend towards a delinquency decreasing effect at subsequent ages. The effect of work characteristics – commitment, future prospects – is less clear.


MSc. Maaike Wensveen
M. Wensveen, MSc. was ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel masterstudent bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Hanneke Palmen
Dr. H. Palmen is postdoc bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Wim Meeus
Prof. dr. W.H.J. Meeus is hoogleraar Ontwikkeling in de Adolescentie, departement Pedagogische en Onderwijskundige Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Jongvolwassen delinquenten en justitiële reacties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden crime, criminal law, adolescents, young adults
Auteurs Prof. dr. Peter van der Laan, Dr. André van der Laan, Dr. Machteld Hoeve e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the last 60 years, attention has been drawn periodically to offenders in different age categories, such as young children, adolescents and young adults, and tor services and programmes that should be available for these groups. In 2011, the State Secretary of Security and Justice proposed a penal law for adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 23. Such a proposal requires a (empirical) view of young adult offenders (aged 18 to 24) and the penal sanctions they receive in comparison with adolescent (aged 12 to 17) offenders and adults (aged 25 to 30). Crime statistics show that prevalence, type and seriousness of crime committed by young adults are different from that of adolescents and adults. Self-report studies show fewer and smaller differences, but this may be explained in part by the more serious nature of offences committed by young adults, which are usually not addressed in self-reports. Outcomes support the idea that a separate approach and specific interventions for young adults are needed. Similarities with adolescents with regard to neurobiological development justify a focus on a more pedagogical and behavioral approach, which is also a key feature of penal justice for juveniles.


Prof. dr. Peter van der Laan
Prof. dr. P.H. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar reclassering aan de Vrije Universiteit.

Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der laan is senior onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Dr. Machteld Hoeve
Dr. M. Hoeve is universitair docent bij de afdeling Forensische Orthopedagogiek van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Drs. Martine Blom
Drs. M. Blom is junior onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

MSc Willemijn Lamet
W. Lamet, MSc, is promovenda bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Agenten volgen via Twitter bevordert positieve beeldvorming, stimuleert de meldingsbereidheid en verandert de veiligheidsbeleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Twitter, community policing, transparency, perception, willingness to report
Auteurs Leon Veltman, Marianne Junger en Roy Johannink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since November 2009, the regional police of Groningen facilitated their community officers with Twitter. According to the principles of community policing, they are enabled to shorten the distance between the police and citizens by giving them a direct connection. Such a connection should stimulate interaction, while at the same time it should make people feel more safe. In addition, Twitter also creates possibilities for the police to be transparent. Sharing of information should alter citizens’ perception towards the police.
    A comparison has been made, by using an online questionnaire, between followers and two kinds of non-followers. The effects of following twittering community officers have been demonstrated by using statistical analyses, taking into account relevant control variables. On the basis of these analyses it has been demonstrated that following a twittering community officer did not positively or negatively alter the perception of safety of their followers. However, an enhanced information position has made followers much more aware of local disorder and crime. Thanks to shared information about police actions to sustain and improve local safety and livability, followers’ perception of safety has not been altered negatively.
    Followers’ perception towards the police organization has been positively altered, thanks to the twittering community officers. Especially the sharing of information and involving citizens into local policing helps the police to alter the perception of citizens towards their organization. In addition, it has been shown that followers’ willingness to report has been improved. Thanks to the ease of use of Twitter and the shortened distance between the police and citizens, followers do frequently contact the police or a community officer to share some information, or to report some crime or disorder. However, it has been shown that Twitter should just be presented as complementary to existing ways to contact the police.


Leon Veltman
L. (Leon) Veltman MSc is adviseur beleid en onderzoek bij VDMMP Focus op veiligheid. E-mail: veltman@vdmmp.nl

Marianne Junger
Prof.dr. M. (Marianne) Junger is Professor Social Safety Studies aan de Universiteit Twente. E-mail: m.junger@utwente.nl

Roy Johannink
Drs. R. (Roy) Johannink MCDm is senior adviseur beleid en onderzoek bij VDMMP Focus.
Artikel

Identificatie van Nederlandse jongeren die risico lopen op internet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Youth, internet use, online victimization, risk profile, risk factors
Auteurs Joyce Kerstens en Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the findings of a national representative survey on online victimization. The survey was conducted in the Netherlands in 2011 amongst youth aged 10 to 18. Purpose of this research is to identify various risk factors related to cyber bullying, online sexual activities and online financial crime (e.g. e-fraude and commercial deceit). More than 9 percent of the youths had negative experiences with cyber bullying, about 5 percent with e-fraude and over 11 percent with commercial deceit. Also unwanted online sexual solicitations (6%) and unwanted exposure to sexually explicit internet material (12%) occurred with some regularity.
    This research complements earlier research on youth victimization in two important respects. First, we paid explicit attention to determine whether the youngster experienced the online incident as negative, neutral or positive. Our strategy to address negative experiences ensures the identification of actual victims. Secondly, we made it possible to identify and compare risk factors on various types of online crime. Girls are more likely to be cyber bullied, to receive unwanted sexual solicitations and to be unwantedly exposed to online pornography, whilst boys are more at risk to be commercially deceived or scammed.
    Internet use and behaviour are significant risk factors to comprehend online victimization. Above average use of instant messaging and clicking on (advertising) hyperlinks without restraint, are important predictors for online victimization. Finally, online disinhibition - a loosening of social restrictions during interactions with others on the Internet - and low self-control, turn out to be significant risk factors.
    It is difficult to accept certain risks, especially when youth are involved. However, children have to learn themselves to assess risks, to deal with them and to learn from them. It is important youths built up resilience to adequately react on negative online incidents and to reduce online vulnerability.


Joyce Kerstens
Drs. J.W.M. (Joyce) Kerstens is Projectleider Jeugd & Cybersafety bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie. E-mail: j.kerstens@nhl.nl

Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.
Interface Showing Amount
U kunt door de volledige tekst zoeken naar alle artikelen door uw zoekterm in het zoekveld in te vullen. Als u op de knop 'Zoek' heeft geklikt komt u op de zoekresultatenpagina met filters, die u helpen om snel bij het door u gezochte artikel te komen. Er zijn op dit moment twee filters: rubriek en jaar.